Currently, since January 20, 2021, there are 24 women serving in the United States Senate, 16 Democrats and 8 Republicans. There have been 58 total women who have served in the United States Senate since its establishment in 1789.The first woman who served as a U.S. senator, Rebecca Latimer Felton, represented Georgia for a single day in 1922. The first woman elected to the Senate was Hattie Caraway from Arkansas in 1932. Seventeen of the women who have served were appointed; seven of those were appointed to succeed their deceased husbands. The 116th Congress had 26 female senators, meaning for the first time in history, over one-quarter of the members of the U.S. Senate was female. Of the 58 women in the U.S. Senate, 36 have been Democrats and 22 have been Republicans.
For its first 130 years in existence, the Senate's membership was entirely male. Until 1920, few women ran for the Senate. Until the 1990s, very few were elected. This paucity of women was due to many factors, including the lack of women's suffrage in many states until ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, women's limited access to higher education until the mid-1900s, public perceptions of gender roles, and barriers to women's advancement such as sex discrimination.
The first woman in the U.S. Senate was Rebecca Latimer Felton, who served representing Georgia for only one day in 1922. Hattie Caraway became the first woman to win election to the Senate representing Arkansas, in 1932. Margaret Chase Smith was the first woman to serve in both the House and Senate; she first served in the House, and began serving in the Senate in 1949. Margaret Chase Smith won her 1960 race for Senate in the nation's first ever race pitting two women (her and Lucia Cormier) against each other for a Senate seat. Muriel Humphrey Brown was the first and only Second Lady to serve in the United States Senate. After her husband, Hubert Humphrey, was defeated in the 1968 presidential election, he won back his old Senate seat representing Minnesota. Following his unexpected death in office, Brown was appointed by the Governor of Minnesota in 1978 to fill her late husband's Senate seat. She served for less than one year, and did not seek reelection.
In 1978, Nancy Kassebaum became the first woman ever elected to a full term in the Senate representing Kansas without her husband having previously served in Congress.Since 1978, there has always been at least one woman in the Senate. The first woman to be elected to the Senate without any family connections was Paula Hawkins (R-FL), elected in 1980. She was also the first and to date only female member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints elected to the United States senate. There were still few women in the Senate near the end of the 20th century, long after women began to make up a significant portion of the membership of the House. The trend of few women in the Senate began to change in the wake of the Clarence Thomas Supreme Court nomination hearings, and the subsequent election of the 103rd United States Congress in 1992, which was dubbed the "Year of the Woman". In addition to Barbara Mikulski, who was reelected that year (1992), four women were elected to the Senate, all Democrats. They were Patty Murray of Washington, Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois, and Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer, both of California. Carol Moseley Braun, who was African-American, was the first woman of color in the Senate. She was also the first woman to defeat an incumbent senator, winning the 1992 Democratic primary election over Alan Dixon. Later in 1992, Dianne Feinstein was the first woman to defeat an incumbent senator from a different party when she defeated John Seymour in a special election. Feinstein entered the Senate the same year as the first female Jewish senator.
Bathroom facilities for women in the Senate on the Senate Chamber level were first provided in 1992.Women were not allowed to wear pants on the Senate floor until 1993. In 1993, Senators Barbara Mikulski and Carol Moseley Braun wore pants onto the floor in defiance of the rule, and female support staff followed soon after, with the rule being amended later that year by Senate Sergeant-at-Arms Martha Pope to allow women to wear pants on the floor so long as they also wore a jacket.
The first time two female senators from the same state served concurrently was beginning in 1993; Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer (both D-CA) were both elected in 1992, with Feinstein taking office that same year (as the result of a special election) and Boxer taking office in 1993 until 2016 when Boxer retired and Feinstein was joined by Kamala Harris. In June 1993, Kay Bailey Hutchison won a special election in Texas, and joined Kassebaum as a fellow female Republican senator. These additions significantly diminished the popular perception of the Senate as an exclusive "boys' club". Since 1992, there has been at least one new woman elected to the Senate every two years with the exception of the 2004 cycle (Lisa Murkowski was elected for the first time in 2004, but had been appointed to the seat since 2002). Since 2004, at least two new women have been elected to the Senate every two years, with the exceptions of 2010, when Kelly Ayotte of New Hampshire was the only new woman elected to the Senate, and 2020, when Cynthia Lummis of Wyoming was the lone newly-elected female senator.
Olympia Snowe of Maine arrived in the Senate in 1995, having previously served in the US House of Representatives and both houses of the Maine state legislature. She and later Debbie Stabenow of Michigan and Kyrsten Sinema of Arizona are the only women to have served in both houses of a state legislature and both houses of the federal legislature. In 2000, Stabenow and Maria Cantwell became the first women to defeat incumbent elected senators in a general election, unseating Senators Spencer Abraham and Slade Gorton respectively.Hillary Clinton is the first and only First Lady to run for and/or to win a Senate seat. Clinton joined the Senate in 2001 becoming the first female senator of New York, and served until 2009 when she resigned to become the 67th United States Secretary of State under President Barack Obama. She was replaced by Kirsten Gillibrand, who has been reelected three times and was herself a candidate for president in the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries.
In 2008, Kay Hagan became the first woman to unseat a female incumbent, Elizabeth Dole. Upon the opening of the 112th United States Congress in 2011, New Hampshire Democrat Jeanne Shaheen was joined by newly elected Republican Kelly Ayotte, making up the first Senate delegation of two women belonging to different parties. Barbara Mikulski became the longest-serving woman senator (and Congresswoman) in 2012; she retired in 2017 as still the longest-serving after serving for forty years.
In 2012, there was a second "Year of the Woman" with the election of five women and the reelection of six women. This beat the record of four new female senators from 1992 and set the record of five new women and eleven female senators in one Senate class. The five new women were Democrats Tammy Baldwin of Wisconsin, Heidi Heitkamp of North Dakota, Mazie Hirono of Hawaii, Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts, and Republican Deb Fischer of Nebraska. Hirono was the first Asian-American woman and first Buddhist person in the Senate, and Baldwin was the first openly gay person in the Senate.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first former Female Senator and First Lady to win a major-party's nomination for President of the United States. Despite winning a plurality of the popular vote, she ultimately lost her bid to President Donald Trump.
Joni Ernst became the first female combat veteran to serve in the Senate when she joined in 2015. Catherine Cortez Masto, elected in 2016 was the first Latina senator.In a June 2016 primary election, as a result of California's recent establishment of the top-two primary, Attorney General of California Kamala Harris and U.S. Representative Loretta Sanchez became the first women of the same party to advance to a Senate general election. In November 2016, Harris became the first woman to defeat a woman of the same party in a Senate general election. Jeanne Shaheen and Maggie Hassan, both of New Hampshire hold the distinction of being the first and second women elected both governor and senator of a state; both served as Governor of New Hampshire and served together in the Senate starting in 2017.
In 2017 Tammy Duckworth became the first female double amputee in the U.S. Senate. On April 9, 2018, Duckworth gave birth to her daughter Maile Pearl, becoming the first incumbent senator to give birth.Shortly afterward, rules were changed so that a senator has the right to bring a child under one year old on the Senate floor and breastfeed them during votes. The day after those rules were changed, Maile became the first baby on the Senate floor when Duckworth brought her.
In 2018 Kyrsten Sinema defeated Martha McSally to become Arizona's first female senator, and the first openly bisexual senator from any state. Two weeks later, Arizona Governor Doug Ducey announced that he would appoint McSally to Arizona's other Senate seat, which was becoming vacant with the resignation of Jon Kyl. Sinema and McSally have been the only concurrently serving female senators to have previously faced off against each other in a Senate election. McSally exited the Senate in late 2020 after losing that year's special election to Mark Kelly, a Democrat.
Cumulatively, 36 female U.S. senators have been Democrats, while 22 have been Republicans. As of 2019, no female U.S. senator has ever died in office, won election to the House after her Senate term, resigned from a state governorship for the purpose of a Senate appointment by her successor, also won election as an independent or to represent more than one state in non-consecutive elections, served both seats of a state at different times, switched parties, or represented a third party in her career.
Some female U.S. senators have later run for U.S. president or vice president—see list of female United States presidential and vice-presidential candidates. In 2020, Kamala Harris became the first female senator, current or past, to win her vice-presidential election bid.
At the start of the 117th Congress on January 3, 2021, there were 26 women serving in the United States Senate, 17 Democrats and 9 Republicans, the highest proportion of women serving as U.S. senators in history. Since January 20, 2021, there have been 24 women serving in the United States Senate, 16 Democrats and 8 Republicans.
In January 2017, the number of serving women senators reached a record of 21, 16 of whom were Democrats, and the other 5 being Republicans. Democratic Senators Barbara Mikulski and Barbara Boxer did not seek reelection in 2016, while four new Democratic senators were elected: Catherine Cortez Masto (Nevada), Tammy Duckworth (Illinois), Kamala Harris (California), and Maggie Hassan (New Hampshire). Incumbent Republican senator Kelly Ayotte (New Hampshire) lost to Hassan. Both of the seats that changed hands from Republican to Democrat were won by women (Duckworth and Hassan); this was also the case in the 2018 Senate election (Rosen and Sinema).
In January 2018, after the appointment of Democrat Tina Smith of Minnesota to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Al Franken, and in April 2018 after the appointment of Republican Cindy Hyde-Smith of Mississippi to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Thad Cochran, the number reached 23. In January 2019, four new women senators (Blackburn, McSally, Rosen, and Sinema) were seated although two women senators (Heitkamp and McCaskill) lost reelection bids, so the number of female senators increased to 25, with 17 being Democrats and 8 being Republicans. In January 2020, Kelly Loeffler was appointed to the Senate from Georgia, increasing the number of women in the Senate to 26, the highest proportion of women serving as U.S. senators in history.
Martha McSally lost an election to finish John McCain's unexpired term on November 3, 2020, and left the Congress on December 2, which reduced the number of female senators to 25. On January 3, 2021, Cynthia Lummis, the first woman senator from Wyoming, began her term, so the number of female senators reached 26 once again. Meanwhile, Kamala Harris was elected Vice President of the United States; she resigned her Senate seat on January 18, 2021 in anticipation of the scheduled commencement of her term as Vice President (and thus President of the Senate) on January 20, which reduced the number of female senators to 25. In addition, Loeffler lost the January 5, 2021 special election runoff for the remainder of the term to which she had been appointed, and she left office on January 20, which further reduced the number of women serving in the Senate to 24.
Currently, four states (Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, and Washington) are represented by two women in the U.S. Senate. Eleven current female senators had previously served in the U.S. House of Representatives, a distinction long held only by Margaret Chase Smith: Senators Stabenow, Cantwell, Gillibrand, Baldwin, Hirono, Capito, Duckworth, Blackburn, Rosen, Sinema, and Lummis.
|Class||State||Name||Party||Prior experience||First took|
|Born||Age when elected|
|3||Alaska||Lisa Murkowski||Republican||Alaska House of Representatives||2002||1957||45|
|1||Arizona||Kyrsten Sinema||Democratic||Arizona House of Representatives, Arizona Senate, U.S. House of Representatives||2019||1976||42|
|1||California||Dianne Feinstein||Democratic||President of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, Mayor of San Francisco, gubernatorial nominee||1992||1933||59|
|1||Hawaii||Mazie Hirono||Democratic||Hawaii House of Representatives, Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii, gubernatorial nominee, U.S. House of Representatives||2013||1947||66|
|3||Illinois||Tammy Duckworth||Democratic||U.S. House of Representatives||2017||1968||49|
|2||Iowa||Joni Ernst||Republican||Montgomery County Auditor, Iowa Senate||2015||1970||45|
|2||Maine||Susan Collins||Republican||Massachusetts Deputy Treasurer, gubernatorial nominee||1997||1952||45|
|1||Massachusetts||Elizabeth Warren||Democratic||Special Advisor to the President for the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau||2013||1949||64|
|1||Michigan||Debbie Stabenow||Democratic||Michigan House of Representatives, Michigan Senate, U.S. House of Representatives||2001||1950||51|
|1||Minnesota||Amy Klobuchar||Democratic-Farmer-Labor||Hennepin County Attorney||2007||1960||47|
|2||Minnesota||Tina Smith||Democratic-Farmer-Labor||Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota||2018||1958||60|
|2||Mississippi||Cindy Hyde-Smith||Republican||Mississippi Senate, Mississippi Commissioner of Agriculture and Commerce||2018||1959||59|
|1||Nebraska||Deb Fischer||Republican||Nebraska Legislature||2013||1951||62|
|3||Nevada||Catherine Cortez Masto||Democratic||Nevada Attorney General||2017||1964||53|
|1||Nevada||Jacky Rosen||Democratic||U.S. House of Representatives||2019||1957||61|
|2||New Hampshire||Jeanne Shaheen||Democratic||New Hampshire Senate, Governor of New Hampshire||2009||1947||62|
|3||New Hampshire||Maggie Hassan||Democratic||New Hampshire Senate, Governor of New Hampshire||2017||1958||59|
|1||New York||Kirsten Gillibrand||Democratic||U.S. House of Representatives||2009||1966||43|
|1||Tennessee||Marsha Blackburn||Republican||Tennessee Senate, U.S. House of Representatives||2019||1952||66|
|3||Washington||Patty Murray||Democratic||Washington Senate||1993||1950||43|
|1||Washington||Maria Cantwell||Democratic||Washington House of Representatives, U.S. House of Representatives||2001||1958||43|
|2||West Virginia||Shelley Moore Capito||Republican||West Virginia House of Delegates, U.S. House of Representatives||2015||1953||62|
|1||Wisconsin||Tammy Baldwin||Democratic||Wisconsin State Assembly, U.S. House of Representatives||2013||1962||51|
|2||Wyoming||Cynthia Lummis||Republican||Wyoming House of Representatives, Wyoming Senate, Wyoming Treasurer, U.S. House of Representatives||2021||1954||66|
|This article is part of a series on the|
|United States Senate|
|History of the United States Senate|
|Politics and procedure|
Before 2001, a plurality of women joined the U.S. Senate through appointment following the death or resignation of a husband or father who previously held the seat. An example is Muriel Humphrey (D-MN), the widow of former senator and Vice President Hubert Humphrey; she was appointed to fill his seat until a special election was held (in which she did not run). However, with the election of three women in 2000, the balance shifted; more women have now entered service as a senator by winning elections than by being appointed.[ citation needed ]
Recent examples of selection include Jean Carnahan and Lisa Murkowski. In 2000, Jean Carnahan (D-MO) was appointed to fill the Senate seat won by her recently deceased husband, Mel Carnahan. Carnahan—even though dead—defeated the incumbent senator, John Ashcroft. Carnahan's widow was named to fill his seat by Missouri Governor Roger Wilson until a special election was held. However, she lost the subsequent 2002 election to fill out the rest of the six-year term. In 2002, Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) was appointed by her father Alaska Governor Frank Murkowski, who had resigned from the Senate to become governor, to serve the remaining two years of his term. Lisa Murkowski defeated former governor Tony Knowles in her retention bid in 2004.
Two recent members of the Senate brought with them a combination of name recognition resulting from the political careers of their famous husbands and their own substantial experience in public affairs. The first, former senator Elizabeth Dole (R-NC), is married to former Senate Majority Leader and 1996 Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole and served as Secretary of Transportation under President Ronald Reagan and Secretary of Labor under President George H. W. Bush; she later ran a losing bid for the Republican presidential nomination in 2000. The other, former senator Hillary Clinton (D-NY), wife of former President Bill Clinton, was First Lady of the United States and First Lady of Arkansas before taking her seat in 2000. She too ran an unsuccessful campaign for her party's presidential nomination in 2008; she resigned in 2009 to become the secretary of state for the eventual victor of that election, Barack Obama. In 2016, she ran a successful campaign for her party's presidential nomination, eventually losing in the general election to Republican nominee Donald Trump.
Another famous name is Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R-KS), the daughter of former Kansas governor and one-time presidential candidate Alf Landon. After retiring from the Senate, she married former senator Howard Baker (R-TN). Kassebaum has the distinction of being the first female elected senator who did not succeed her husband in Congress (Margaret Chase Smith was only elected to the Senate after succeeding her husband to his House seat). At the time of her retirement in 1997, Kassebaum was the second longest serving female senator, after Smith; since that year five women have had Senate careers longer than Kassebaum's.
Among the women elected or selected in Senate history, by stature, Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) is the shortest at 5 feet (1.52 m), whereas Kelly Loeffler (R-GA) is the tallest at 5 feet 11 inches (1.80 m). Mikulski and Loeffler have also been the shortest and one of the tallest respectively among all female members of Congress.
33 states have been represented by female senators, and 20 are currently represented. In 2009, North Carolina became the first state to have been represented by female senators of both parties, and the first to have a female senator succeeded by a female senator from the other party. In 2011, New Hampshire became the second state to be represented by female senators from both parties, and the first to have female senators of both parties serving concurrently. In 2021, Wyoming became the latest state to have a female senator.
|State||Current||Previous||Total||First woman senator||Years with women senators|
|Alabama||0||2||2||Dixie Graves||1937–1938, 1978|
|Arizona||1||1||2|| Kyrsten Sinema &|
|Arkansas||0||2||2||Hattie Caraway||1931–1945, 1999–2011|
|Georgia||0||2||2||Rebecca Felton||1922, 2020–2021|
|Illinois||1||1||2||Carol Moseley-Braun||1993–1999, 2017–present|
|Louisiana||0||3||3||Rose Long||1936–1937, 1972, 1997–2015|
|Maine||1||2||3||Margaret Chase Smith||1949–1973, 1995–present|
|Minnesota||2||1||3||Muriel Humphrey||1978, 2007–present|
|Missouri||0||2||2||Jean Carnahan||2001–2002, 2007–2019|
|Nebraska||1||2||3||Eva Bowring||1954, 2013–present|
|Nevada||2||0||2||Catherine Cortez Masto||2017–present|
|New Hampshire||2||1||3||Jeanne Shaheen||2009–present|
|New York||1||1||2||Hillary Clinton||2001–present|
|North Carolina||0||2||2||Elizabeth Dole||2003–2015|
|North Dakota||0||2||2||Jocelyn Burdick||1992, 2013–2019|
|South Dakota||0||2||2||Gladys Pyle||1938–1939, 1948|
|West Virginia||1||0||1||Shelley Moore Capito||2015–present|
|State||Term start||Term end||Length of|
|Entered by||Left for||Party|
| Rebecca Felton |
|Georgia||November 21, 1922||November 22, 1922||1|
|Appointment by Thomas W. Hardwick||Appointment ended||Democratic|
| Hattie Caraway |
|Arkansas||December 9, 1931||January 3, 1945||4,774|
(13 years, 25 days)
|Appointment by Harvey Parnell||Lost renomination||Democratic|
| Rose Long |
|Louisiana||January 31, 1936||January 3, 1937||338|
|Appointment by James Noe||Appointment ended||Democratic|
| Dixie Graves |
|Alabama||August 20, 1937||January 10, 1938||143|
|Appointment by Bibb Graves||Appointment ended||Democratic|
| Gladys Pyle |
|South Dakota||November 9, 1938||January 3, 1939||55|
| Vera C. Bushfield |
|South Dakota||October 6, 1948||December 26, 1948||81|
|Appointment by George Mickelson||Appointment ended||Republican|
| Margaret Chase Smith |
|Maine||January 3, 1949||January 3, 1973||8,766|
(24 years, 0 days)
| Eva Bowring |
|Nebraska||April 16, 1954||November 7, 1954||205|
|Appointment by Robert B. Crosby||Appointment ended||Republican|
| Hazel Abel |
|Nebraska||November 8, 1954||December 31, 1954||53|
|Special election||Retired and resigned early||Republican|
| Maurine Neuberger |
|Oregon||November 9, 1960||January 3, 1967||2,246|
(6 years, 55 days)
| Elaine Edwards |
|Louisiana||August 1, 1972||November 13, 1972||104|
|Appointment by Edwin Edwards||Appointment ended||Democratic|
| Muriel Humphrey |
|Minnesota||January 25, 1978||November 7, 1978||286|
|Appointment by Rudy Perpich||Appointment ended||Democratic (DFL)|
| Maryon Allen |
|Alabama||June 8, 1978||November 7, 1978||152|
|Appointment by George Wallace||Lost nomination to finish term||Democratic|
| Nancy Kassebaum |
|Kansas||December 23, 1978||January 3, 1997||6,586|
(18 years, 11 days)
| Paula Hawkins |
|Florida||January 1, 1981||January 3, 1987||2,193|
(6 years, 2 days)
| Barbara Mikulski |
|Maryland||January 3, 1987||January 3, 2017||10,959|
(30 years, 0 days)
| Jocelyn Burdick |
|North Dakota||September 16, 1992||December 14, 1992||89|
|Appointment by George Sinner||Appointment ended||Democratic-NPL|
| Dianne Feinstein |
|California||November 10, 1992||present||10,300|
(28 years, 73 days)
| Barbara Boxer |
|California||January 3, 1993||January 3, 2017||8,767|
(24 years, 0 days)
| Carol Moseley-Braun |
|Illinois||January 3, 1993||January 3, 1999||2,191|
(6 years, 0 days)
| Patty Murray |
|Washington||January 3, 1993||present||10,246|
(28 years, 19 days)
| Kay Hutchison |
|Texas||June 14, 1993||January 3, 2013||7,143|
(19 years, 203 days)
| Olympia Snowe |
|Maine||January 3, 1995||January 3, 2013||6,576|
(18 years, 0 days)
| Sheila Frahm |
|Kansas||June 11, 1996||November 6, 1996||148|
|Appointment by Bill Graves||Lost nomination to finish term||Republican|
| Susan Collins |
|Maine||January 3, 1997||present||8,785|
(24 years, 19 days)
| Mary Landrieu |
|Louisiana||January 3, 1997||January 3, 2015||6,575|
(18 years, 0 days)
| Blanche Lincoln |
|Arkansas||January 3, 1999||January 3, 2011||4,383|
(12 years, 0 days)
| Maria Cantwell |
|Washington||January 3, 2001||present||7,324|
(20 years, 19 days)
| Jean Carnahan |
|Missouri||January 3, 2001||November 25, 2002||691|
(1 year, 326 days)
|Appointment by Roger B. Wilson||Lost election to finish term||Democratic|
| Hillary Clinton |
|New York||January 3, 2001||January 21, 2009||2,940|
(8 years, 18 days)
|Election||Resigned to become United States Secretary of State||Democratic|
| Debbie Stabenow |
|Michigan||January 3, 2001||present||7,324|
(20 years, 19 days)
| Lisa Murkowski |
|Alaska||December 20, 2002||present||6,608|
(18 years, 33 days)
|Appointment by Frank Murkowski||Incumbent||Republican|
| Elizabeth Dole |
|North Carolina||January 3, 2003||January 3, 2009||2,192|
(6 years, 0 days)
| Amy Klobuchar |
|Minnesota||January 3, 2007||present||5,133|
(14 years, 19 days)
| Claire McCaskill |
|Missouri||January 3, 2007||January 3, 2019||4,383|
(12 years, 0 days)
| Jeanne Shaheen |
|New Hampshire||January 3, 2009||present||4,402|
(12 years, 19 days)
| Kay Hagan |
|North Carolina||January 3, 2009||January 3, 2015||2,191|
(6 years, 0 days)
| Kirsten Gillibrand |
|New York||January 26, 2009||present||4,379|
(11 years, 362 days)
|Appointment by David Paterson||Incumbent||Democratic|
| Kelly Ayotte |
|New Hampshire||January 3, 2011||January 3, 2017||2,192|
(6 years, 0 days)
| Tammy Baldwin |
|Wisconsin||January 3, 2013||present||2,941|
(8 years, 19 days)
| Deb Fischer |
|Nebraska||January 3, 2013||present||2,941|
(8 years, 19 days)
| Heidi Heitkamp |
|North Dakota||January 3, 2013||January 3, 2019||2,191|
(6 years, 0 days)
| Mazie Hirono |
|Hawaii||January 3, 2013||present||2,941|
(8 years, 19 days)
| Elizabeth Warren |
|Massachusetts||January 3, 2013||present||2,941|
(8 years, 19 days)
| Joni Ernst |
|Iowa||January 3, 2015||present||2,211|
(6 years, 19 days)
| Shelley Moore Capito |
|West Virginia||January 3, 2015||present||2,211|
(6 years, 19 days)
| Catherine Cortez Masto |
|Nevada||January 3, 2017||present||1,480|
(4 years, 19 days)
| Tammy Duckworth |
|Illinois||January 3, 2017||present||1,480|
(4 years, 19 days)
| Kamala Harris |
|California||January 3, 2017||January 18, 2021||1,476|
(4 years, 15 days)
|Election||Resigned to become Vice President of the United States||Democratic|
| Maggie Hassan |
|New Hampshire||January 3, 2017||present||1,480|
(4 years, 19 days)
| Tina Smith |
|Minnesota||January 3, 2018||present||1,115|
(3 years, 19 days)
|Appointment by Mark Dayton||Incumbent||Democratic (DFL)|
| Cindy Hyde-Smith |
|Mississippi||April 9, 2018||present||1,019|
(2 years, 288 days)
|Appointment by Phil Bryant||Incumbent||Republican|
| Marsha Blackburn |
|Tennessee||January 3, 2019||present||750|
(2 years, 19 days)
| Kyrsten Sinema |
|Arizona||January 3, 2019||present||750|
(2 years, 19 days)
| Martha McSally |
|Arizona||January 3, 2019||December 2, 2020||699|
(1 year, 334 days)
|Appointment by Doug Ducey||Lost election to finish term||Republican|
| Jacky Rosen |
|Nevada||January 3, 2019||present||750|
(2 years, 19 days)
| Kelly Loeffler |
|Georgia||January 6, 2020||January 20, 2021||380|
(1 year, 14 days)
|Appointment by Brian Kemp||Lost election to finish term||Republican|
| Cynthia Lummis |
|Wyoming||January 3, 2021||present||19|
|March 4, 1789||0|
|November 21, 1922||1|
|November 23, 1922||0|
|December 9, 1931||1|
|January 31, 1936||2|
|January 3, 1937||1|
|August 20, 1937||2|
|January 11, 1938||1|
|November 9, 1938||2|
|January 3, 1939||1|
|January 3, 1945||0|
|October 6, 1948||1|
|December 27, 1948||0|
|January 3, 1949||1|
|April 16, 1954||2|
|January 1, 1955||1|
|November 9, 1960||2|
|January 3, 1967||1|
|August 1, 1972||2|
|November 14, 1972||1|
|January 3, 1973||0|
|January 25, 1978||1|
|June 8, 1978||2|
|November 8, 1978||0|
|December 23, 1978||1|
|January 1, 1981||2|
|September 16, 1992||3|
|November 10, 1992||4|
|December 15, 1992||3|
|January 3, 1993||6|
|June 14, 1993||7|
|January 3, 1995||8|
|June 11, 1996||9|
|November 7, 1996||8|
|January 3, 1997||9|
|January 3, 2001||13|
|November 26, 2002||12|
|December 20, 2002||13|
|January 3, 2003||14|
|January 3, 2007||16|
|January 3, 2009||17|
|January 22, 2009||16|
|January 26, 2009||17|
|January 3, 2013||20|
|January 3, 2017||21|
|January 3, 2018||22|
|April 9, 2018||23|
|January 3, 2019||25|
|January 6, 2020||26|
|December 2, 2020||25|
|January 3, 2021||26|
|January 18, 2021||25|
|January 20, 2021||24|
On January 3, 2019, Arizona's Kyrsten Sinema and Martha McSally became the first women from the same state to start their first Senate terms on the same date.
|State||Start date||End date||Duration||Senior senator||Junior senator|
|California||January 3, 1993||January 18, 2021||10,242 days|
(28 years, 15 days)
|Dianne Feinstein (D)|| Barbara Boxer (D)|
(January 3, 1993–January 3, 2017),
8,766 days (24 years, 0 days)
| Kamala Harris (D)|
(January 3, 2017–January 18, 2021),
1,476 days (4 years, 15 days)
|Kansas||June 11, 1996||November 6, 1996||148 days||Nancy Kassebaum (R)||Sheila Frahm (R)|
|Maine||January 3, 1997||January 3, 2013||5,844 days|
(16 years, 0 days)
|Olympia Snowe (R)||Susan Collins (R)|
|Washington||January 3, 2001||present||7,324 days|
(20 years, 19 days)
|Patty Murray (D)||Maria Cantwell (D)|
|New Hampshire||January 3, 2011||present||3,672 days|
(10 years, 19 days)
|Jeanne Shaheen (D)|| Kelly Ayotte (R)|
(January 3, 2011–January 3, 2017),
2,192 days (6 years, 0 days)
| Maggie Hassan (D)|
(January 3, 2017–present),
1,480 days (4 years, 19 days)
|Minnesota||January 3, 2018||present||1,115 days|
(3 years, 19 days)
|Amy Klobuchar (D)||Tina Smith (D)|
|Nevada||January 3, 2019||present||750 days|
(2 years, 19 days)
|Catherine Cortez Masto (D)||Jacky Rosen (D)|
|Arizona||January 3, 2019||December 2, 2020||699 days|
(1 year, 334 days)
|Kyrsten Sinema (D)||Martha McSally (R)|
Only one female member of the Senate has been pregnant during her tenure: senator Tammy Duckworth, who gave birth on April 9, 2018.
Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein is an American politician who has served as the United States Senator from California since 1992, and the Senior Senator since Alan Cranston's retirement. A member of the Democratic Party, she was mayor of San Francisco from 1978 to 1988.
Margaret Madeline Chase Smith was an American politician. A member of the Republican Party, she served as a U.S Representative (1940–49) and a U.S. Senator (1949–73) from Maine. She was the first woman to serve in both houses of the United States Congress, and the first woman to represent Maine in either. A moderate Republican, she was among the first to criticize the tactics of McCarthyism in her 1950 speech, "Declaration of Conscience".
Madeleine Mary Zeien Bordallo is a Guamanian politician, who served as the Delegate from the United States territory of Guam to the United States House of Representatives.
Barbara Ann Mikulski is an American politician and social worker who served as a United States Senator from Maryland from 1987 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, she also served in the United States House of Representatives from 1977 to 1987. Mikulski is the longest-serving woman in the history of the United States Congress and the longest-serving U.S. Senator in Maryland history.
Nancy Landon Kassebaum Baker is an American politician who represented the State of Kansas in the United States Senate from 1978 to 1997. She is the daughter of Alf Landon, who was Governor of Kansas from 1933 to 1937 and the 1936 Republican nominee for president, and the widow of former Senator and diplomat Howard Baker. She was the first woman ever elected to a full term in the Senate without her husband having previously served in Congress. She is also the first woman to have represented Kansas in the Senate.
The Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee (DSCC) is the Democratic Hill committee for the United States Senate. It is the only organization solely dedicated to electing Democrats to the United States Senate. The DSCC's current Chair is Senator Catherine Cortez Masto of Nevada, who succeeded Maryland‘s Chris Van Hollen after the 2018 Senate elections. DSCC's current Executive Director is Scott Fairchild.
The 1986 United States Senate elections was an election for the United States Senate in the middle of Ronald Reagan's second presidential term. The Republicans had to defend an unusually large number of freshman Senate incumbents who had been elected on President Ronald Reagan's coattails in 1980. Democrats won a net of eight seats, defeating seven freshman incumbents, picking up two Republican-held open seats and regaining control of the Senate for the first time since January 1981. The party not controlling the presidency gained seats, as usually occurs in mid-term elections.
The 1974 United States Senate elections were held in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Richard M. Nixon's resignation from the presidency, and Gerald Ford's subsequent pardon of Nixon. Economic issues, specifically inflation and stagnation, were also a factor that contributed to Republican losses. As an immediate result of the November 1974 elections, Democrats made a net gain of three seats from the Republicans, as they defeated Republican incumbents in Colorado and Kentucky and picked up open seats in Florida and Vermont, while Republicans won the open seat in Nevada. Following the elections, at the beginning of the 94th U.S. Congress, the Democratic caucus controlled 61 seats and the Republican caucus controlled 38 seats.
The United States Senate elections of 1932 coincided with Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt's crushing victory over incumbent Herbert Hoover in the presidential election.
The Year of the Woman was a popular label attached to 1992 after the election of a number of female Senators in the United States. The term has also been used with respect to the 2018 House elections, in which a record 103 women were elected, 90 of whom were Democrats.
Ladda Tammy Duckworth is an American politician and retired Army National Guard lieutenant colonel serving as the junior United States Senator from Illinois since 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, she represented Illinois's 8th district in the United States House of Representatives from 2013 to 2017.
Women have served in the United States House of Representatives since the 1917 entrance of Jeannette Rankin from Montana, a member of the Republican Party. 345 women have served as U.S. Representatives and seven more women have sat as non-voting delegates. As of January 3, 2021, there are 122 women in the U.S. House of Representatives, making women 27.2% of the total of U.S. Representatives. Of the 352 women who have served in the House, 231 have been Democrats and 121 have been Republicans. One woman has served in the highest office of the House, Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi from California, a member of the Democratic Party.
Kyrsten Lea Sinema is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona since January 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, she served three terms as a state representative for Arizona's 15th legislative district from 2005 to 2011, one term as the state senator for Arizona's 15th legislative district from 2011 to 2012, and three terms as the United States Representative for Arizona's 9th congressional district from 2013 to 2019.
The 1992 United States Senate special election in California took place on November 3, 1992, at the same time as the regular election to the United States Senate in California. Both of California's Senators were elected for the first time. This is not a unique occurrence; it would happen again multiple times including in Tennessee in 1994, in Kansas in 1996, and in Georgia in 2020-21.
The 1986 United States Senate election in Maryland was held on November 3, 1986. Incumbent Republican U.S. Senator Charles Mathias Jr. decided to retire, instead of seeking a fourth term. Democratic nominee Congresswoman Barbara Mikulski defeated Reagan Administration official Linda Chavez for the open seat.
The 2018 United States Senate election in Arizona took place on November 6, 2018, to elect a member of the United States Senate to represent the State of Arizona and replace incumbent Republican Senator Jeff Flake, who did not run for reelection to a second term. It was held concurrently with a gubernatorial election, other elections to the United States Senate, elections to the United States House of Representatives, as well as various other state and local elections.
The 1930 United States Senate election in Illinois took place on November 4, 1930.
The 2024 United States Senate elections will be held on November 5, 2024, with 33 of the 100 seats in the Senate being contested in regular elections, the winners of which will serve six-year terms in the United States Congress from January 3, 2025, to January 3, 2031. Senators are divided into three groups, or classes, whose terms are staggered so that a different class is elected every two years. Class 1 senators were last elected in 2018, and will be up for election again in 2024.
A skinny 5-foot-11, her nickname on the court was NBC — 'Newborn Calf.'