Congressional Black Caucus

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Congressional Black Caucus
Chairperson Joyce Beatty (D-OH-3)
Founder
FoundedMarch 30, 1971;49 years ago (1971-03-30) [1]
Headquarters Washington, D.C., US
Political position Multi-partisan Congressional Caucus (Motto: "Black people have no permanent friends, no permanent enemies, just permanent interests." [2] )
International affiliation Congressional Black Caucus Foundation
Colors Red  Black  Blue 
Seats in the House
51 / 435
(plus 2 non-voting)
Seats in the Senate
2 / 100
Members of the Democratic Party [3]
55 / 280
Members of the Republican Party [3]
0 / 250
MembersDuring the 116th Congress
PredecessorDemocratic Select Committee (DSC)
Website
cbc.house.gov
www.cbcfinc.org

The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) is a caucus made up of most African-American members of the United States Congress. Representative Karen Bass from California chaired the caucus from 2019 to 2021, when Representative Joyce Beatty from Ohio became its chair. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] As of 2020, all members of the caucus are part of the Democratic Party.

Contents

History

Founding

The predecessor to the caucus was founded in January 1969 as the Democratic Select Committee by a group of black members of the House of Representatives, including Shirley Chisholm of New York, Louis Stokes of Ohio and William L. Clay of Missouri. Black representatives had begun to enter the House in increasing numbers during the 1960s, and they had a desire for a formal organization. [2] Further, Congressional redistricting in the wake of the Civil Rights Movement resulted in the number of black Congressmembers from nine to thirteen. [2] The first chairman, Charles Diggs, served from 1969 to 1971.

This organization was renamed the Congressional Black Caucus in February 1971 on the motion of Charles B. Rangel of New York. The thirteen founding members of the caucus were Shirley Chisholm, William L. Clay Sr., George W. Collins, John Conyers, Ronald Dellums, Charles Diggs, Augustus F. Hawkins, Ralph Metcalfe, Parren Mitchell, Robert Nix, Charles Rangel, Louis Stokes, and Washington, D.C,. delegate Walter Fauntroy. [9] Chisholm referred to the group as "unbought and unbossed". [10]

President Richard Nixon refused to meet with the newly-formed group, and so the CBC chose to boycott the 1971 State of the Union address, leading to their first joint press coverage. [2] On March 25, 1971, Nixon finally met with the CBC, who presented him with a 32-page document including "recommendations to eradicate racism, provide quality housing for black families, and promote the full engagement of blacks in government". [2] All the members of the caucus were included on the master list of Nixon political opponents.[ citation needed ]

On June 5, 1972, shortly before the 1972 Democratic National Convention would nominate George McGovern for president, the CBC wrote and released two documents: the Black Declaration of Independence and the Black Bill of Rights. [10] Louis Stokes read a preamble and both documents into the record of the House of Representatives. [2] The Black Bill of Rights includes sections on jobs and the economy, foreign policy, education, housing, public health, minority enterprise, drugs, prison reform, black representation in government, civil rights, voting rights in the District of Columbia, and the military. [11] These documents were inspired by the National Black Political Convention and its own manifesto, The Gary Declaration: Black Politics at the Crossroads [12] (also called the Black Agenda).

TransAfrica and Free South Africa Movement

South African president Nelson Mandela with members of the Congressional Black Caucus, including Representative Kweisi Mfume, at an event at the Library of Congress Nelson Mandela and the Congressional Black Caucus.jpg
South African president Nelson Mandela with members of the Congressional Black Caucus, including Representative Kweisi Mfume, at an event at the Library of Congress

In 1977, the organization was involved in the founding of TransAfrica, an education and advocacy affiliate that was formed to act as a resource on information on the African continent and its Diaspora. [13] They worked closely with this organization to start the national anti-apartheid movement in the US, Free South Africa Movement (characterized by sit-ins, student protests, it became the longest lasting civil disobedience movement in U.S history) and to devise the legislative strategy for the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 that was subsequently passed over Ronald Reagan's veto. The organization continues to be active today and works on other campaigns. [13] [14]

Funding

In late 1994, after Republicans attained a majority in the House, the House passed House Resolution 6 on January 4, 1995, which prohibited “the establishment or continuation of any legislative service organization..." [15] This decision was aimed at 28 organizations, which received taxpayer funding and occupied offices at the Capitol, including the CBC. Then-chairman Kweisi Mfume protested the decision. The CBC reconstituted as a Congressional Member Organization. [16]

Events

The caucus is sometimes invited to the White House to meet with the president. [17] It requests such a meeting at the beginning of each Congress. [17]

During the 2020 George Floyd protests, the CBC provided House members with stoles made from kente to be worn for an 8:46-long moment of silence before introducing the Justice in Policing Act of 2020. [18]

Goals

The caucus describes its goals as "positively influencing the course of events pertinent to African Americans and others of similar experience and situation", and "achieving greater equity for persons of African descent in the design and content of domestic and international programs and services."

The CBC encapsulates these goals in the following priorities: closing the achievement and opportunity gaps in education, assuring quality health care for every American, focusing on employment and economic security, ensuring justice for all, retirement security for all Americans, increasing welfare funds, and increasing equity in foreign policy. [19]

Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson (D–TX), has said:

The Congressional Black Caucus is one of the world's most esteemed bodies, with a history of positive activism unparalleled in our nation's history. Whether the issue is popular or unpopular, simple or complex, the CBC has fought for thirty years to protect the fundamentals of democracy. Its impact is recognized throughout the world. The Congressional Black Caucus is probably the closest group of legislators on the Hill. We work together almost incessantly, we are friends and, more importantly, a family of freedom fighters. Our diversity makes us stronger, and the expertise of all of our members has helped us be effective beyond our numbers.

Mark Anthony Neal, a professor of African-American studies and popular culture at Duke University, wrote a column in late 2008 that the Congressional Black Caucus and other African-American-centered organizations are still needed, and should take advantage of "the political will that Obama's campaign has generated." [20]

Membership

The
13 founding members of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC)
Shirley Chisholm
(from New York's 12th district)
Bill Clay
(from Missouri's 1st district)
George W. Collins
(from Illinois's 6th district)
John Conyers
(from Michigan's 1st district)
Ron Dellums
(from California's 7th district)
Charles Diggs
(from Michigan's 13th district)
Walter Fauntroy
(from District of Columbia's at-large district)
Augustus F. Hawkins
(from California's 21st district)
Ralph Metcalfe
(from Illinois's 1st district)
Parren Mitchell
(from Maryland's 7th district)
Robert N.C. Nix Sr.
(from Pennsylvania's 2nd district)
Charles Rangel
(from New York's 18th district)
Louis Stokes
(from Ohio's 21st district) CBCfoundingmembers.jpg
The

The caucus has grown steadily as more black members have been elected. At its formal founding in 1971, the caucus had thirteen members. [2] As of 2019, it had 55 members, including two who are non-voting members of the House, representing the District of Columbia and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Senate members

As of 2019, there have been eight black senators since the caucus's founding. The six black U.S. senators, all Democrats, who are or have been members of the Congressional Black Caucus are Senator Cory Booker of New Jersey, elected in 2013, and Senator Kamala Harris of California, elected in 2016, both currently serving; former senators Carol Moseley Braun (1993–1999), Barack Obama (2005–2008), and Roland Burris (2008–2010), all of Illinois; and former senator Mo Cowan (2013) of Massachusetts. Burris was appointed by Illinois governor Rod Blagojevich in December 2008 to fill Obama's seat for the remaining two years of his Senate term after Obama was elected president of the United States. Cowan was appointed to temporarily serve until a special election after John Kerry vacated his Senate seat to become U.S. secretary of state.

Senator Edward Brooke, a Republican who represented Massachusetts in the 1960s and 1970s, was not a member of the CBC. In 2013, Senator Tim Scott, Republican of South Carolina, also chose not to join the CBC after being appointed to fill Jim DeMint's Senate seat.

Black Republicans in the CBC

The caucus is officially non-partisan; but, in practice, the vast majority of blacks elected to Congress since the CBC's founding have been Democrats. Ten black Republicans have been elected to Congress since the caucus was founded in 1971: Senator Edward Brooke of Massachusetts (1967–1979), Delegate Melvin H. Evans of the Virgin Islands (1979–1981), Representative Gary Franks of Connecticut (1991–1997), Representative J. C. Watts of Oklahoma (1995–2003), Representative Allen West of Florida (2011–2013), Senator Tim Scott of South Carolina (2013–present), Representative Will Hurd of Texas (2015–2021), Representative Mia Love of Utah (2015–2019), Representative Byron Donalds of Florida, and Representative Burgess Owens of Utah (2021-present). Of these ten, only Evans, Franks, West, and Love joined the CBC; currently, the caucus includes no Republicans.

Edward Brooke was the only serving black U.S. senator when the CBC was founded in 1971, but he never joined the group and often clashed with its leaders. [21] In 1979 Melvin H. Evans, a non-voting delegate from the Virgin Islands, became the first Republican member in the group's history. Gary Franks was the first Republican voting congressman to join in 1991, though he was at times excluded from CBC strategy sessions, skipped meetings, and threatened to quit the caucus. [22] J. C. Watts did not join the CBC when he entered Congress in 1995, and after Franks left Congress in 1997, no Republicans joined the CBC for fourteen years until Allen West joined the caucus in 2011, though fellow freshman congressman Tim Scott declined to join. [23] After West was defeated for re-election, the CBC became a Democrat-only caucus once again in 2013. [24]

In 2014, two black Republicans were elected to the House. Upon taking office, Will Hurd from Texas declined to join the caucus, while Mia Love from Utah, the first black Republican congresswoman, joined. [25]

Map of congressional districts represented by blacks in the 117th Congress African Americans in US House.svg
Map of congressional districts represented by blacks in the 117th Congress
Congressional Black Caucus Foundation Congressional Black Caucus Foundation Entrance.jpg
Congressional Black Caucus Foundation

Non-black membership

All past and present members of the caucus have been African-American. In 2006, while running for Congress in a Tennessee district which is 60% black, Steve Cohen, who is white and Jewish, pledged to apply for membership in order to represent his constituents. However, after his election, his application was refused. [26] Although the bylaws of the caucus do not make race a prerequisite for membership, former and current members of the caucus agreed that the group should remain "exclusively black". In response to the decision, Cohen referred to his campaign promise as "a social faux pas" because "It's their caucus and they do things their way. You don't force your way in. You need to be invited." [26]

Representative Lacy Clay, a Democrat from Missouri and the son of Representative Bill Clay, a co-founder of the caucus, said: "Mr. Cohen asked for admission, and he got his answer. He is white and the caucus is black. It is time to move on. We have racial policies to pursue and we are pursuing them, as Mr. Cohen has learned. It is an unwritten rule. It is understood." Clay also issued the following statement:

Quite simply, Representative Cohen will have to accept what the rest of the country will have to accept—there has been an unofficial Congressional White Caucus for over 200 years, and now it is our turn to say who can join 'the club.' He does not, and cannot, meet the membership criteria unless he can change his skin color. Primarily, we are concerned with the needs and concerns of the black population, and we will not allow white America to infringe on those objectives. [27]

Later the same week, Representative Tom Tancredo, a Republican from Colorado, objected to the continued existence of the CBC as well as the Democratic Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the Republican Congressional Hispanic Conference arguing that "It is utterly hypocritical for Congress to extol the virtues of a color-blind society while officially sanctioning caucuses that are based solely on race. If we are serious about achieving the goal of a colorblind society, Congress should lead by example and end these divisive, race-based caucuses." [28]

Chairs

The following U.S. representatives have chaired the Congressional Black Caucus: [29]

Composition during the 116th Congress

Leadership

Congressional Black Caucus women 2019 Congressional Black Caucus women 2019.jpg
Congressional Black Caucus women 2019

Members

During the 116th Congress (2019–2021), the CBC has 2 U.S. senators, 50 voting U.S. representatives and 2 non-voting delegates as members: [30]

Senate
SenatorPartyState
Cory Booker Democratic New Jersey
Raphael Warnock Democratic Georgia
House
RepresentativePartyCongressional district
Alma Adams Democratic North Carolina12th
Colin Allred Democratic Texas32nd
Karen Bass Democratic California37th
Joyce Beatty Democratic Ohio3rd
Sanford Bishop Democratic Georgia2nd
Lisa Blunt Rochester Democratic DelawareAt-large
Anthony Brown Democratic Maryland4th
G. K. Butterfield Democratic North Carolina1st
Andre Carson Democratic Indiana7th
Yvette Clarke Democratic New York9th
William Lacy Clay Jr. Democratic Missouri1st
Emanuel Cleaver Democratic Missouri5th
Jim Clyburn Democratic South Carolina6th
Danny Davis Democratic Illinois7th
Antonio Delgado Democratic New York19th
Val Demings Democratic Florida10th
Dwight Evans Democratic Pennsylvania2nd
Marcia Fudge Democratic Ohio11th
Al Green Democratic Texas9th
Alcee Hastings Democratic Florida20th
Jahana Hayes Democratic Connecticut5th
Steven Horsford Democratic Nevada4th
Hakeem Jeffries Democratic New York8th
Eddie Bernice Johnson Democratic Texas30th
Hank Johnson Democratic Georgia4th
Robin Kelly Democratic Illinois2nd
Brenda Lawrence Democratic Michigan14th
Al Lawson Democratic Florida5th
Barbara Lee Democratic California13th
Sheila Jackson Lee Democratic Texas18th
John Lewis Democratic Georgia5th
Lucy McBath Democratic Georgia6th
Donald McEachin Democratic Virginia4th
Gregory Meeks Democratic New York5th
Gwen Moore Democratic Wisconsin4th
Joe Neguse Democratic Colorado2nd
Eleanor Holmes Norton Democratic District of ColumbiaAt-large
(non-voting congressional delegate)
Ilhan Omar Democratic Minnesota5th
Donald Payne Democratic New Jersey10th
Stacey Plaskett Democratic U.S. Virgin IslandsAt-large
(non-voting congressional delegate)
Ayanna Pressley Democratic Massachusetts7th
Cedric Richmond Democratic Louisiana2nd
Bobby Rush Democratic Illinois1st
Bobby Scott Democratic Virginia3rd
David Scott Democratic Georgia13th
Terri Sewell Democratic Alabama7th
Bennie Thompson Democratic Mississippi2nd
Lauren Underwood Democratic Illinois14th
Marc Veasey Democratic Texas33rd
Maxine Waters Democratic California43rd
Bonnie Watson Coleman Democratic New Jersey12th
Frederica Wilson Democratic Florida24th

See also

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References

  1. "The History of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC)". United States House of Representatives. Archived from the original on April 27, 2016. Retrieved April 18, 2016.
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  6. "Congressional Black Caucus Chair Cedric Richmond Says Goodbye to Seat as he Prepares to Pass "Chair" to Rep. Karen Bass". January 2, 2019.
  7. "The Blue Wave Of Black Politicians Gets Sworn In". January 3, 2019.
  8. "Joyce Beatty elected next chair of Congressional Black Caucus". beatty.house.gov. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
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  10. 1 2 Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta (June 13, 2020). "Opinion: The End of Black Politics". The New York Times. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  11. 1972  Congressional Record, Vol. 118, Page  E19754 (June 5, 1972)
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  18. Friedman, Vanessa (June 16, 2020). "The Dress Codes of the Uprising". The New York Times. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
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  20. Jackson, Camille (December 19, 2008). "Hitting the Ground Running". Duke University This Month at Duke. Retrieved February 7, 2009.
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  22. Barnes, Fred (March 17, 2011). "Rep. Allen West – and the Congressional Black Caucus". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
  23. Southall, Ashley (January 5, 2011). "Republican Allen West Joins Congressional Black Caucus". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  24. Alvarez, Lizette (November 20, 2012). "Republican Concedes House Race in Florida". The New York Times.
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  26. 1 2 Hearn, Josephine (January 23, 2007). "Black Caucus: Whites Not Allowed". Politico.com. Retrieved January 23, 2007.
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Bibliography