List of members of the United States Congress by brevity of service

Last updated

This is a list of United States congresspersons by brevity of service. It includes Representatives and Senators who have served less than two years in the House or six years in the Senate, not counting currently serving members. This list excludes members whose term ended with 73rd United States Congress that served the entirety of that term, which due to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, only lasted from March 4, 1933 to January 3, 1935, and inaugural holders of Class 1 and Class 2 Senate seats that served the entirety of the first term, due to the initial terms being only 2 and 4 years long respectively, as the Senate classes were staggered so that a third of the seats would be up every two years.

Contents

Key

In greenAppointed to Senate or won special election
DDied
RResigned
AEAppointed or elected to a different office
OOther reason for loss of office

Senate time

TenureNameParty affiliationStateReason for leavingDates of serviceLifespan
11 day [lower-alpha 1] Rebecca Latimer Felton [1] Democratic Georgia Appointed and did not seek reelection.November 21, 1922 – November 22, 1922 [lower-alpha 2] 1835-1930
2 [lower-alpha 3] 3 days Louis C. Wyman [1] (O)Republican New Hampshire Initially won election to the Senate, but was appointed shortly before it convened to give him seniority over the rest of the incoming cohort. His seat was ruled to be vacant and a new election was held.December 31, 1974 – January 3, 19751917-2002
38 days Homer V. M. Miller (O)Democratic Georgia Won election to the Senate, but was not seated until February 24, 1871 and served the remainder of his term.February 24, 1871 – March 3, 18711814-1896
410 days Alva M. Lumpkin (D)Democratic South Carolina Appointed following the vacancy created by James F. Byrnes's appointment to the Supreme Court and later died.July 22, 1941 – August 1, 19411886-1941
544 days Wilton E. Hall Democratic South Carolina Appointed following the vacancy created by Ellison D. Smith's death and chose not to seek reelection.November 20, 1944 – January 3, 19451901-1980
655 days Thomas M. Storke Democratic California Appointed as interim Senator following the vacancy created by William Gibbs McAdoo's resignation and the inauguration of Sheridan Downey.November 9, 1938 – January 3, 19391876-1971
759 days Dean Barkley [1] Independence Party of Minnesota Minnesota Appointed following the death of Paul Wellstone.November 4, 2002 – January 3, 20031950-
59 days John Moses (D)Democratic North Dakota Won in the general election, died in office.January 3, 1945 – March 3, 19451885-1945
873 days George Jones Democratic-Republican Georgia Appointed to fill out the remainder of Abraham Baldwin's term.August 27, 1807 – November 7, 18071766-1838
993 days Jocelyn Burdick [1] Democratic North Dakota Appointed following the death of her husband Quentin Burdick.September 12, 1992 – December 14, 19921922-2019
1097 days George Walton [1] (R) Federalist Party GeorgiaApointed following the vacancy created by James Jackson (Georgia politician)'s resignation.November 16, 1795 – February 20, 17961749 – 1804
11104 days Elaine Edwards [1] (R)Democratic Louisiana Appointed following the death of Allen J. Ellender and later resigned.August 1, 1972 – November 13, 19721929-2018
12110 days Middleton P. Barrow Democratic Georgia Appointed to fill out the remainder of Benjamin Harvey Hill's term and did not seek election to a term in his own right.November 15, 1882 – March 3, 18831839-1903
13117 days Oliver H. Prince Democratic Georgia Selected by the state legislature to fill the vacancy caused by Thomas W. Cobb's resignation.November 7, 1828 – March 4, 18291782-1837
14121 days Carte Goodwin Democratic West Virginia Appointed by Governor Joe Manchin on July 16, 2010, as a placeholder to fill the vacancy created by the death of Robert Byrd.July 16, 2010 – November 15, 20101974-
15129 days Charles B. Mitchel (O)Democratic Arkansas Elected in the general election and later expelled from the Senate.March 4, 1861 – July 11, 18611815-1864
16133 days Paul G. Kirk Democratic Massachusetts Appointed following the death of Ted Kennedy and chose not to run in the special election.September 24, 2009 – February 4, 20101938-
17143 days Jeffrey Chiesa [2] Republican New Jersey Appointed following the death of Frank Lautenberg and chose not to run in the special election.June 10, 2013 – October 31, 20131965
18144 days Bob Krueger [1] Democratic Texas Appointed following the appointment of Lloyd Bentsen as Secretary of the Treasury and was defeated in the special election.January 21, 1993 – June 14, 19931935-
19144 days Dixie Bibb Graves [3] (R)Democratic Alabama Appointed following the appointment of Hugo Black as a Supreme Court Justice and later resigned.August 20, 1937 – January 10, 19381882-1965
20144 days George R. Swift [3] Democratic Alabama Appointed following the death of John H. Bankhead II.June 15, 1946 – November 5, 19461887-1972
21149 days Sheila Frahm [1] Republican Kansas Appointed following the resignation of Bob Dole and was defeated in the Republican primary.June 11, 1996 – November 7, 19961945-
22152 days Maryon Pittman Allen [3] Democratic Alabama Appointed following the death of her husband James Allen and later lost the Democratic primary for the special election.June 8, 1978 – November 7, 19781925-2018
23165 days Mo Cowan [2] Democratic Massachusetts Appointed following the appointment of John Kerry as Secretary of State and chose not to run in the special election.February 1, 2013 – July 16, 20131969-
24213 days William Bellinger Bulloch
25215 days Thomas A. Wofford Democratic South Carolina Appointed following the resignation of Strom Thurmond and chose not to run in the special election.April 5, 1956 – November 6, 19561908-1978
26240 days Joseph M. Terrell
27242 days B. B. Comer [3] Democratic Alabama Appointed following the death of John H. Bankhead.March 5, 1920 – November 2, 19201848-1927
28247 days William Stanley West
29259 days Nicholas F. Brady [1] Republican New Jersey Appointed following the resignation of Harrison A. Williams and chose not to run in the special election.April 12, 1982 – December 27, 19821930-
30262 days John S. Cohen
31274 days Israel Pickens
32275 days John C. Breckinridge (O)Democratic Kentucky Elected in the general election and later expelled from the Senate.March 4, 1861 – December 4, 18611821-1875
33277 days Robert M. Charlton
34297 days Francis S. White
35299 days Waldo P. Johnson (O)Democratic Missouri Elected in the general election and later expelled from the Senate.March 17, 1861 – January 10, 18621817-1885
36303 days George S. Houston
37307 days Luther Strange
38322 days Luke Pryor
39327 days Henry H. Chambers
40337 days Patrick Walsh Democratic Georgia Appointed to fill out the remainder of the term of Alfred H. Colquitt.April 2, 1894 – March 3, 18951840-1899
41340 days William Blount (O)Democratic-Republican Tennessee Appointed as Tennessee's first senator and was later expelled from the Senate.August 2, 1796 – July 8, 17971749-1800
42366+ days Kelly Loeffler Republican Georgia Appointed to fill the vacancy created by Johnny Isakson, lost subsequent special runoff election.January 6, 2020 – earlier than January 23, 20211970-
43373 days Hiram Rhodes Revels Republican Mississippi Elected in a special election following Mississippi's readmission into the United States and later chose not to seek reelection.February 23, 1870 – March 3, 18711827-1901
44474 days Louis Wigfall (O)Democratic Texas Appointed to fill the vacancy created by James Pinckney Henderson's death and later expelled from the Senate.December 5, 1859 – March 23, 18611816-1874
45698 days Harlan Mathews Democratic Tennessee Appointed to fill the vacancy created by Al Gore's resignation and later chose not to seek reelection.January 2, 1993 – December 1, 19941927-2014
46699 days Martha McSally Republican Arizona Appointed to fill the vacancy created by Jon Kyl, lost subsequent special election.January 3, 2019 – December 2, 20201966-
47762 days Richard Nixon (AE)Republican California Appointed following the resignation of Sheridan Downey to the seat he recently won the election for to gain seniority and later elected to the vice presidency.December 1, 1950 – January 1, 19531913-1994
48787 days Donald Stewart
49813 days William Kelly
501,095 days John Williams Walker
511,100 days William Wyatt Bibb
521,108 days Josiah Tattnall
531,190 days Jeremiah Clemens
541,245 days John Milledge
551,413 days Barack Obama (R)Democratic Illinois Elected in the general election and later resigned after winning the 2008 presidential election.January 3, 2005 – November 16, 20081961-
561,476 days Kamala Harris (R)Democratic California Elected in the general election and later resigned after winning the election to the vice presidency.January 3, 2017 – January 18, 20211964-
571,779 days John Forsyth
581,964 days William H. Crawford

House time

TenureNameParty affiliationStateReason for leavingDates of serviceLifespan
11 day Effingham Lawrence (O)Democratic Louisiana See Effingham Lawrence March 3, 1875 – March 4, 18751820-1878
22 days Turner M. Marquett (O)Republican Nebraska See Turner M. Marquett March 2, 1867 – March 4, 18671831-1894
331 days Kwanza Hall Democratic Georgia Won special runoff election one month after general election day to fill John Lewis's seat after his death and was not a candidate in the regular election.December 3, 2020 – January 3, 20211971-
435 days Brenda Jones Democratic Michigan Won special election and was defeated in Democratic primary.November 29, 2018 – January 3, 20191959-
539 days James Mann [4] (D)Democratic Louisiana Won in the general election and died in office.July 18, 1868 – August 26, 18681822-1868
651 days David Curson [5] Democratic Michigan Won special election and did not seek reelection.November 13, 2012 – January 3, 20131948-
651 days Shelley Sekula-Gibbs Republican Texas Won special election and later lost in the Republican primary.November 13, 2006 – January 3, 20071953-
784 days Nathaniel D. Wallace [4] Democratic Louisiana Won special election and did not seek reelection.December 9, 1886 – March 3, 18871845-1894
889 days John W. Hunter Democratic New York Won special election to fill James Humphrey's seat following his death and did not seek reelection.December 4, 1866 to March 3, 18671807-1900
990 days Alexander Boarman [4] Liberal Republican Louisiana Won special election and lost reelection.December 3, 1872 – March 3, 18731839-1916
990 days Benjamin Flanders [4] Unionist Louisiana Won special election and did not seek reelection.December 3, 1862 – March 3, 18631816-1896
1095 days William Francis Strudwick Federalist North Carolina Won a special election to follow Absalom Tatom and did not seek reelection.November 28, 1796 – March 3, 17971765-1812
11107 days Robert L. Coffey (D)Democratic Pennsylvania Won in the general election and died in office.January 3, 1949 – April 20, 19491918-1949
12118 days J. Smith Young Democratic Louisiana Won special election to fill John E. Leonard's seat following his death and did not seek reelection.November 5, 1878 – March 3, 18791834-1916
13121 days Richard Alvin Tonry [4] (R)Democratic Louisiana Won in the general election and later resigned.January 3, 1977 – May 4, 19771935-2012
14152 days John William Reid (O)Democratic Missouri Won in the general election and later expelled from the House.March 4, 1861 – August 3, 18611821-1881
15188 days Jean Spencer Ashbrook Republican Ohio Won in a special election to follow her husband John M. Ashbrook and later chose not to run for reelection.June 29, 1982 – January 3, 19831934-
16207 days James C. Alvord (D)Whig Massachusetts Won in the general election and later died.March 4, 1839 – September 27, 18391808-1839
17207 days Alton Waldon Democratic New York Won in a special election to follow Joseph P. Addabbo and later lost in the Democratic primary.June 10, 1986 – January 3, 19871936-
214 days William B. Spencer
18222 days Larkin I. Smith (D)Republican Mississippi Won in a special election to replace Trent Lott and died.January 3, 1989 – August 13, 19891944-1989
19226 days Charles Djou Republican Hawaii Won in a special election to replace Neil Abercrombie and later lost reelection.May 22, 2010 – January 3, 20111970-
228 days W. Jasper Blackburn
228 days Michel Vidal
20241 days James Davenport (D)Federalist Connecticut Won in a special election to replace James Hillhouse and later died.December 5, 1796 – August 3, 17971758-1797
21245 days Don Cazayoux Democratic Louisiana Won in a special election to replace Richard Baker and later lost reelection.May 3, 2008 – January 3, 20091964-
246 days James McCleery
22298 days Walter Capps (D)Democratic California Won in the general election and later died in office.January 3, 1997 – October 28, 19971934-1997
23304 days Katie Hill (R)Democratic California Won in the general election and later resigned.January 3, 2019 – November 3, 20191987-
24358 days Henry Latimer (AE)Federalist Delaware Lost in the general election, but contested the results and was ruled as the victor causing a delayed inauguration and later elected to Senate.February 14, 1794 – February 7, 17951752-1819
376 days John E. Leonard
25382 days Bill Janklow (R)Democratic South Dakota Won in the general election and later resigned due to causing a fatal car crash. [6] January 3, 2003 – January 20, 20041939-2012
26383 days Anthony Wayne (O)Democratic Georgia Won in the general election, but seat was later ruled as vacant due to dispute over his residency.March 4, 1791 – March 21, 17921745-1796
27389 days Trey Radel [7] (R)Republican Florida Won in the general election and later resigned.January 3, 2013 – January 27, 20141976-
28413 day Vance McAllister (R) [7] Republican Louisiana Won a special election to replace Rodney Alexander and later did not seek reelection.November 16, 2013 – January 3, 20151974-
417 days Pierre Bossier
29425 days George Allen Republican Virginia Won a special election to replace D. French Slaughter Jr. and later chose not to seek reelection.November 5, 1991 – January 3, 19931952-
30455 days Absalom Tatom (R)Democratic-Republican North Carolina Won in the general election and later resigned.March 4, 1795 – June 1, 17961742-1802
464 days George Luke Smith
466 days Michael Hahn
475 days Samuel Louis Gilmore
31478 days Bob Turner Republican New York Won a special election to replace Anthony Weiner and later did not seek reelection.September 13, 2011 – January 3, 20131941-
32492 days Eric Massa (R)Democratic New York Won in the general election and later resigned.January 3, 2009 – March 8, 20101969-
512 days Joseph P. Newsham
33522 days Frank Ballance (R)Democratic North Carolina Won in the general election and later resigned.January 3, 2003 – June 8, 20041942-2019
34528 days George Partridge (R)Pro-Administration Massachusetts Won in the general election and later resigned.March 4, 1789 – August 14, 17901740-1828
35531 days Joseph F. Smith Democratic Pennsylvania Won in a special election to follow Raymond Lederer and later lost in the Democratic primary.July 21, 1981 – January 3, 19831920-1999
531 days Charles Magill Conrad
36556 days Karen Handel Republican Georgia Won a special election to replace Tom Price and later lost reelection.June 26, 2017 – January 3, 20191962-
37564 days Mark Takai Democratic Hawaii Won in the general election and later died in office.January 3, 2015 – July 20, 20161967-2016
38582 days Kathy Hochul Democratic New York Won a special election to replace Chris Lee and later lost reelection.June 1, 2011 – January 3, 20131962-
39582 days Benjamin Franklin Whittemore (R)Republican South Carolina Won a special election following South Carolina's readmission into the Union and later resigned.July 18, 1868 – February 24, 18701824-1894
40594 days Lovell Rousseau (R)Unconditional Unionist Kentucky Elected in the general election, but resigned after being censured only to run in the special election and won to follow himself and later did not seek reelection.March 4, 1865 – July 21, 1866; December 3, 1866 – March 3, 18671818-1869
41600 days William T. Redmond Republican New Mexico Won a special election to replace Bill Richardson and later lost reelection.May 13, 1997 – January 3, 19991955-
42602 days John T. Deweese (R)Republican North Carolina Won a special election following North Carolina's readmission into the Union and later resigned.July 6, 1868 – February 28, 18701835-1906
43609 days Peter W. Barca Democratic Wisconsin Won a special election to replace Les Aspin and later lost reelection.May 4, 1993 – January 3, 19951955-
44614 days Scott Murphy Democratic New York Won a special election to replace Kirsten Gillibrand and later lost reelection.April 29, 2009 – January 3, 20111970-
44614 days Uriah Forrest (R)Federalist Maryland Won in the general election and later resigned.March 4, 1793 – November 8, 17941756-1805
45644 days Catherine Small Long Democratic Louisiana Won a special election to follow her husband Gillis William Long and later chose not to run for reelection.March 30, 1985 – January 3, 19871924-2019
661 days John H. Overton
46674 days Sam Brownback (AE)Republican Kansas Won in the general election and later the special Senate election to follow Bob Dole.January 3, 1995 – November 7, 19961956-
47730 days Tim Scott (AE)(R)Republican South Carolina Won in the general election, later won election to the Senate, and resigned a day before his House term ended to accept appointment to the Senate.January 3, 2011 – January 2, 20131965-

See also

Notes

  1. If one were to only count following her inauguration then she would only have served one day, but if tenure were counted she would have served 50 days
  2. Tenure: October 3, 1922 - November 22, 1922
  3. 1 if one were to count Felton's tenure rather than days served.

Related Research Articles

President pro tempore of the United States Senate Second-highest-ranking official of the US Senate

The president pro tempore of the United States Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. Article One, Section Three of the United States Constitution provides that the vice president of the United States is the president of the Senate, and mandates that the Senate must choose a president pro tempore to act in the vice president's absence. Unlike the vice president, the president pro tempore is an elected member of the Senate, able to speak or vote on any issue. Selected by the Senate at large, usually by a resolution which is adopted by unanimous consent without a formal vote, the president pro tempore has enjoyed many privileges and some limited powers. During the vice president's absence, the president pro tempore is empowered to preside over Senate sessions. Except when necessary or to highlight important votes, the vice president and the president pro tempore rarely preside; instead, the duty of presiding officer is rotated among junior U.S. senators of the majority party to give them experience in parliamentary procedure.

A Member of Congress (MOC) is a person who has been appointed or elected and inducted into an official body called a congress, typically to represent a particular constituency in a legislature. Member of Parliament (MP) is an equivalent term in other, unaffiliated jurisdictions.

Jim Jeffords American politician

James Merrill Jeffords was an American politician who served as a U.S. Senator from Vermont. Sworn into the Senate in 1989, he served as a Republican until 2001, when he left the party to become an independent and began caucusing with the Democrats. Jeffords retired from the Senate in 2007. Prior to serving in the Senate, he served as the U.S. Representative for Vermont's at-large congressional district from 1975 to 1989.

Jeff Bingaman Former United States Senator from New Mexico

Jesse Francis "Jeff" Bingaman Jr. is an American politician who served as a United States Senator from New Mexico from 1983 to 2013. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as Chairman of Committee Outreach for the Senate Democratic Caucus. Previously, Bingaman was Attorney General of New Mexico from 1979 to 1983. On February 18, 2011, he announced that he would not seek reelection in 2012. He was succeeded by Democratic US Representative Martin Heinrich. After he left the Senate, he returned to his alma mater, Stanford Law School, as a fellow of their Steyer–Taylor Center for Energy Policy and Finance.

A congressional subcommittee in the United States Congress is a subdivision of a United States congressional committee that considers specified matters and reports back to the full committee.

United States congressional delegations from Utah Wikipedia list article

Since Utah became a U.S. state in 1896, it has sent congressional delegations to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. Each state elects two senators to serve for six years. Before the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the Utah State Legislature. Members of the House of Representatives are elected to two-year terms, one from each of Utah's four congressional districts. Before becoming a state, the Territory of Utah elected a non-voting delegate at-large to Congress from 1850 to 1896.

United States congressional delegations from Montana Wikipedia list article

Since Montana became a U.S. state in 1889, it has sent congressional delegations to the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. Each state elects two senators to serve for six years. Before the Seventeenth Amendment took effect in 1913, senators were elected by the Montana State Legislature. Members of the House of Representatives are elected to two-year terms, one from Montana's at-large congressional district. Before becoming a state, the Territory of Montana elected a non-voting delegate at-large to Congress from 1864 to 1889.

United States congressional delegations from Indiana Wikipedia list article

These are tables of congressional delegations from Indiana to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate.

Kenneth S. Wherry

Kenneth Spicer Wherry was an American businessman, attorney, and politician. A member of the Republican Party, he served as a U.S. Senator from Nebraska from 1943 until his death in 1951; he was the minority leader for the last two years.

Women in the United States Senate History of female representation in the US Senate

There have been 58 total women who have served in the United States Senate since its establishment in 1789. The first woman who served as a U.S. senator, Rebecca Latimer Felton, represented Georgia for a single day in 1922. The first woman elected to the Senate was Hattie Caraway from Arkansas in 1932. Seventeen of the women who have served were appointed; seven of those were appointed to succeed their deceased husbands. The 116th Congress had 26 female senators, meaning for the first time in history, one-quarter of the members of the U.S. Senate were female. Of the 58 women in the U.S. Senate, 36 have been Democrats and 22 have been Republicans.

1922 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1922 were elections that occurred in the middle of Republican President Warren G. Harding's term. With the Republicans divided between conservative and progressive factions, the Democrats gained six net seats from the Republicans while the Farmer–Labor party gained one. The Republicans retained their Senate majority.

Homer V. M. Miller

Homer Virgil Milton Miller was an American physician and politician from the U.S. state of Georgia, who practiced medicine for the Confederacy in the American Civil War and served as a U.S. Senator from Georgia for seven days in 1871.

United States senators are conventionally ranked by the length of their tenure in the Senate. The senator in each U.S. state with the longer time in office is known as the senior senator; the other is the junior senator. This convention has no official standing, though seniority confers several benefits, including preference in the choice of committee assignments and physical offices. When senators have been in office for the same length of time, a number of tiebreakers, including previous offices held, are used to determine seniority.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—constitutes the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C.

Jeffrey Chiesa American politician

Jeffrey Scott Chiesa is an American lawyer and politician who served as a United States Senator from New Jersey from June 10, 2013 to October 31, 2013. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as the 59th Attorney General of New Jersey from January 10, 2012 until June 6, 2013.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Who's On The Senate 'Short List'?". Archived from the original on 15 October 2017.
  2. 1 2 "Mo Cowan, Jeff Chiesa join a long line of short-term senators".
  3. 1 2 3 4 "The Shortest-Serving U.S. Senators in Alabama History".
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 "The Shortest Tenures of Louisiana US Reps in History".
  5. "Jeff Chiesa Appointment: The Long History Of The Shortest Congressional Tenures".
  6. Goldstein, Richard (January 12, 2012). "Bill Janklow, a Four-Term Governor of South Dakota, Dies at 72". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved March 19, 2020.
  7. 1 2 "Vance McAllister is nowhere near the shortest-serving lawmaker in congressional history".