Some people who were elected to the United States House of Representatives died before taking their seats. In other cases, they failed to qualify; were rejected by the House; their credentials were successfully challenged; or they were somehow otherwise unable to become members.
This list only includes people who never served in the House. Re-elected incumbents are not included.
|Member-elect||Party||District||Election date||Congress||Reason for non-seating|
|James Townsend||Federalist||NY-1||April 27, 1790 to April 29, 1790||2nd||Died on May 24, 1790.|
|Thomas Tillotson||Democratic-Republican||NY-5||April 29, 1800 to May 1, 1800||7th||Resigned on August 10, 1801, to become Secretary of State of New York.|
|John Cantine||Democratic-Republican||NY-7||April 27, 1802 to April 29, 1802||8th||Elected, but declined to take office.|
|John Simpson||Democratic-Republican||KY-8||August 3, 1812||13th||Died on January 22, 1813.|
|John S. Edwards||Federalist||OH-6||October 13, 1812||13th||Died on February 22, 1813.|
|William Dowse||Federalist||NY-15||December 15, 1812 to December 17, 1812||13th||Died on February 18, 1813.|
|Henry B. Lee||Democratic-Republican||NY-4||April 23, 1816 to April 25, 1816||15th||Died on February 18, 1817.|
|Francis Gehon||Democratic||Iowa Territory||1839||26th||William W. Chapman's term was extended to October 1840, invalidating Gehon's election.|
|Washington Poe||Whig||GA-3||November 5, 1844||29th||Resigned before taking office.|
|Lyman Trumbull||Democratic||IL-8||November 7, 1854||34th||He was elected to the U.S. Senate prior to the first session.|
|Thomas Child Jr.||Whig||NY-7||November 7, 1854||34th||Elected, but never took his seat due to illness.|
|John Willis Menard||Republican||LA-02||November 3, 1868||40th||Elected, but denied his seat due to election contest.|
|Ambrose R. Wright||Democratic||GA-8||November 5, 1872||43rd||Died on December 21, 1872.|
|Samuel Peters||Republican||LA-4||November 5, 1872||43rd||Died before taking office.|
|P. B. S. Pinchback||Republican||LA-AL||November 5, 1872||43rd||Elected, but denied his seat due to election contest.|
|John W. Head||Democratic||TN-4||November 3, 1874||44th||Died on November 9, 1874.|
|Garnett McMillan||Democratic||GA-9||November 3, 1874||44th||Died on January 14, 1875.|
|Augustus F. Allen||Democratic||NY-33||November 3, 1874||44th||Died on January 22, 1875.|
|Alexander Smith||Republican||NY-12||November 5, 1878||46th||Died on November 5, 1878.|
|James Reed Hallowell||Republican||KS-AL||November 5, 1878||46th||Congress refused to seat him because Kansas was not entitled to a fourth representative.|
|Andrew S. Herron||Democratic||LA-4||November 7, 1882||48th||Died on November 27, 1882.|
|Andrew J. Campbell||Republican||NY-10||November 5, 1894||54th||Died on December 6, 1894.|
|Richard P. Giles||Democratic||MO-1||November 3, 1896||55th||Died on November 17, 1896.|
|James J. Davidson||Republican||PA-15||November 3, 1896||55th||Died on January 2, 1897.|
|B. H. Roberts||Democratic||UT-AL||November 8, 1898||56th||Congress refused to seat him because he was a bigamist.|
|William M. Brown||Republican||PA-24||November 3, 1914||64th||Died on January 31, 1915.|
|Charles F. Van de Water||Republican||CA-9||November 2, 1920||67th||Died in a car crash on November 20, 1920.|
|Samuel Marx||Democratic||NY-19||November 7, 1922||68th||Died on November 30, 1922.|
|Matthew Vincent O'Malley||Democratic||NY-7||February 17, 1931||72nd||Died on May 26, 1931, having never taken the oath of office.|
|Jack Swigert||Republican||CO-6||November 2, 1982||98th||Died on December 27, 1982.|
|Luke Letlow||Republican||LA-5||December 5, 2020||117th||Died on December 29, 2020 of a heart attack after complications from COVID-19.|
James Otis McCrery III is an American lawyer, politician and lobbyist who served as a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from 1988 to 2009. He represented the 4th District of Louisiana, based in the north-western quadrant of the state.
Ralph Straus Regula was an American politician from Ohio. A member of the Republican Party, he served in the Ohio House of Representatives, the Ohio State Senate and the United States House of Representatives. He represented Ohio's 16th congressional district for 18 terms from 1973 to 2009. In the 110th Congress (2007–2009), he was the second longest serving Republican member of the House of Representatives.
Felix Edward Hébert was an American journalist and congressman from Louisiana. He represented the New Orleans-based 1st congressional district as a Democrat for 18 consecutive terms, from 1941 until his retirement in 1977. He remains Louisiana's longest-serving U.S. representative.
Jo Ann Emerson is an American politician who was the U.S. Representative for Missouri's 8th congressional district from 1996 to 2013. The district consists of Southeast and South Central Missouri and includes the Bootheel, the Lead Belt and the Ozarks. Emerson is a member of the Republican Party. On January 22, 2013, Emerson resigned her seat in Congress to become the President and Chief Executive Officer of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. She served as CEO until August 2015.
Jeffrey Lane Fortenberry is an American politician serving as the U.S. Representative for Nebraska's 1st congressional district since 2005. A member of the Republican Party, his district is based in Lincoln and includes most of the eastern third of the state outside the immediate Omaha area. He currently is the dean of Nebraska's congressional delegation.
Robert Carlos De Large was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from South Carolina, serving 1871 to 1873. He was earlier a delegate to the 1868 state constitutional convention and elected in 1868 to the South Carolina House of Representatives for one term.
The Clerk of the United States House of Representatives is an officer of the United States House of Representatives, whose primary duty is to act as the chief record-keeper for the House.
Robert Williams Daniel, Jr. was a Virginia farmer, businessman, teacher, and politician who served five terms in the U.S. House of Representatives as a Republican. He was first elected in 1972 and served until 1983.
William Paul Dillingham was an American attorney and politician from the state of Vermont. A Republican and the son of Congressman and Governor Paul Dillingham, William P. Dillingham served as governor from 1888 to 1890 and United States Senator from 1900 until his death.
Herman Toll from 1959 to 1967 served Pennsylvania as a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives. He supported the civil rights movement, and sponsored legislation to create several federal agencies, including the U.S. Department of Urban Affairs and Housing.
The first round of the Louisiana House election of 2006 were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. The terms of all seven Representatives to the United States House of Representatives will expire on January 3, 2007, and will be put up for contest. The winning candidates will serve a two-year term from January 3, 2007 to January 3, 2009. If necessary, a runoff round will be held on December 9, 2006.
William Morgan Cassidy is an American physician and politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Louisiana, a seat he was elected to in 2014. A member of the Republican Party, he served in the Louisiana State Senate from 2006 to 2009 and in the U.S. House of Representatives from 2009 to 2015.
Jonathan Harvey Rowell was a U.S. Representative from Illinois.
William Pallister Hubbard was an American Republican politician from Wheeling, West Virginia who served as a United States Representative. The son of Congressman Chester D. Hubbard, he served as a member of the 60th and 61st United States Congresses.
The United States Senate elections of 1902 and 1903 were elections in which the Democratic Party gained three seats in the United States Senate, but the Republicans kept their strong majority.
The United States Senate elections of 1906 and 1907 were elections which had the Republican Party gain three seats in the United States Senate, expanding their majority to more twice that of the opposing Democratic Party.
William Gregory Steube is an American politician serving as the U.S. Representative for Florida's 17th congressional district since 2019. A member of the Republican Party, his district stretches across a large swath of south-central Florida, from the outer suburbs of Sarasota and Fort Myers through the Everglades to the shores of Lake Okeechobee. Prior to his election to Congress, Steube served three terms in the Florida House of Representatives, representing the Sarasota-Manatee area from 2010 to 2016, as well as two years in the Florida Senate until 2018, representing Sarasota County and the western part of Charlotte County.
Ralph Lee Abraham Jr. is an American politician, medical doctor, and former veterinarian serving as the U.S. Representative for Louisiana's 5th congressional district since 2015. A member of the Republican Party, he is a native and resident of Alto, Louisiana.
Garret Neal Graves is an American politician serving as the United States Representative from Louisiana's 6th congressional district. In a runoff election on December 6, 2014, Graves, a Republican, defeated the Democratic candidate, Edwin Edwards.