List of appointed United States senators

Last updated

This page lists all appointed United States senators since the 1913 ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which established the direct election of senators, as well as means of filling vacant Senate seats. [1]

Contents

Text of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. [1]

Gubernatorial appointment governing Senate vacancies

Laws per state for filling vacancies in the U.S. Senate
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Filled by gubernatorial appointment until next statewide election
Filled by gubernatorial appointment until next statewide election, requires appointee from same party as the previous incumbent
Filled by gubernatorial appointment, followed by proximate special election
No gubernatorial appointments, filled by proximate special election Map of laws per state for filling vacancies in the U.S. Senate.svg
Laws per state for filling vacancies in the U.S. Senate
  Filled by gubernatorial appointment until next statewide election
  Filled by gubernatorial appointment until next statewide election, requires appointee from same party as the previous incumbent
  Filled by gubernatorial appointment, followed by proximate special election
  No gubernatorial appointments, filled by proximate special election

Filling vacancies by special election

The following 5 states require Senate vacancies to be filled only by elections and do not allow state governors to fill them through appointments. [2]

Filling vacancies by gubernatorial appointment followed by a proximate special election

The following 9 states allow state governors to fill Senate vacancies through appointments. However, a special election must be held within a few months of the vacancy. [2]

Filling vacancies by gubernatorial appointment through the next election

The following 36 states allow state governors to fill Senate vacancies through appointments. An appointed senator may serve out the balance of the term or until the next statewide general election. [2]

  1. 1 2 3 4 Requires the governor to appoint a replacement senator from the same party as the previous incumbent.
  2. 1 2 Requires the governor to select a candidate from a list of three prospective appointees submitted by the political party of the previous incumbent.

Appointments of senators-elect to the Senate

In the past, retiring or defeated senators often resigned after the general election but before the expiration of their term due to various reasons.

One of the common reason was to allow state governors to appoint their successors to the vacated seat. This enabled their successors to gain extra seniority over other freshmen senators for the purposes of obtaining choice committee assignments. This practice ended in 1980 after both parties established new party rules that no longer gave seniority to senators who entered Congress early by being appointed to fill the vacancy just before the end of a Congress. Seniority still counted in obtaining choice of office and parking space assignments. [3] [4]

In the election years of 1966, 1974 and 1978, changes to pension laws made it advantageous for senators to resign before December 31, rather than wait until their term expired in early January, contributing to the increase in the number of appointed senators. [5]

In addition, 3 senators died after the election of their successors, allowing their successors to be appointed and take office early. [6]

Number of appointed senators since the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment

There have been a total of 240 senators appointed to the United States Senate since the 1913 ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, including 198 appointments made before the next scheduled or special election and 42 appointments made of senators-elect who have already been elected to the seat.

Number of appointed senators by state
StateAppointment madeTotal
Before electionAfter election
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama 617
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska 202
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona 202
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas 303
Flag of California.svg California 6410
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado 404
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut 303
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware 314
Flag of Florida.svg Florida 426
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia 606
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii 202
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho 617
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois 303
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana 404
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa 202
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas 415
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky 8210
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana 415
Flag of Maine.svg Maine 101
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland 000
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts 516
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan 404
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota 718
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi 314
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri 538
Flag of Montana.svg Montana 314
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska 527
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada 516
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire 527
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey 819
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico 505
Flag of New York.svg New York 303
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina 707
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota 415
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio 538
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma 101
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon 415
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania 505
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island 213
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina 819
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota 314
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee 505
Flag of Texas.svg Texas 415
Flag of Utah.svg Utah 011
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont 505
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia 426
Flag of Washington.svg Washington 336
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia 404
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin 000
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming 516
Total19942241

List of individuals appointed to the Senate

The following is a list of individuals appointed to the Senate preceding an election. Only appointments made after the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, which established the direct election of senators, are included. The Senate Historical Office does not maintain records of senators who were appointed before the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment. [7]

For a list of senators-elect appointed to the Senate after being elected, see List of senators-elect appointed to the Senate.

Key

Democratic Party Republican Party North Dakota Nonpartisan League Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party Independence Party of Minnesota
Current serving
State (Class)Appointee [7] Tenure of appointee serving within the unexpired term [note 1] Electoral history of appointeeAppointed byOriginal senatorRef.
Term start [note 2] Term endTenureImmediate election following appointmentElections won
Georgia
(Class 2)
William Stanley West (D)March 2, 1914November 3, 1914246 daysDid not seek election. John M. Slaton (D) Augustus Octavius Bacon (D) [8]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
Johnson N. Camden Jr. (D)June 16, 1914March 3, 1915260 daysElected in the 1914 special election. 1914 (Special) James B. McCreary (D) William O'Connell Bradley (R) [9]
Indiana
(Class 3)
Thomas Taggart (D)March 20, 1916November 7, 1916232 daysDefeated in the 1916 special election. Samuel M. Ralston (D) Benjamin F. Shively (D) [10]
Oregon
(Class 2)
Charles L. McNary (R)May 29, 1917November 5, 19181 year, 160 daysDid not run in the 1918 special election
but was elected in the 1918 election held on the same day.
1918
1924
1930
1936
1942
James Withycombe (R) Harry Lane (D) [11]
Nevada
(Class 3)
Charles Henderson (D)January 12, 1918March 3, 19213 years, 50 daysElected in the 1918 special election. 1918 (Special) Emmet D. Boyle (D) Francis G. Newlands (D) [12]
Idaho
(Class 3)
John F. Nugent (D)January 22, 1918January 14, 19212 years, 358 daysElected in the 1918 special election. 1918 (Special) Moses Alexander (D) James H. Brady (R) [13]
New Jersey
(Class 2)
David Baird Sr. (R)February 23, 1918March 3, 19191 year, 8 daysElected in the 1918 special election. 1918 (Special) Walter Evans Edge (R) William Hughes (D) [14]
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Walter Guion (D)April 22, 1918November 5, 1918197 daysDid not seek election. Ruffin Pleasant (D) Robert F. Broussard (D) [15]
Missouri
(Class 3)
Xenophon P. Wilfley (D)April 30, 1918November 5, 1918189 daysLost nomination to run in the 1918 special election. Frederick D. Gardner (D) William J. Stone (D) [16]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Christie Benet (D)July 6, 1918November 5, 1918122 daysLost nomination to run in the 1918 special election. Richard Irvine Manning III (D) Benjamin Tillman (D) [17]
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Irving W. Drew (R)September 2, 1918November 5, 191864 daysDid not seek election. Henry W. Keyes (R) Jacob Harold Gallinger (R) [18]
Kentucky
(Class 2)
George B. Martin (D)September 7, 1918March 3, 1919177 daysDid not seek election. Augustus Owsley Stanley (D) Ollie Murray James (D) [19]
Virginia
(Class 2)
Carter Glass (D)February 2, 1920March 3, 19255 years, 29 daysElected in the 1920 special election. 1920 (Special)
1924
1930
1936
1942
Westmoreland Davis (D) Thomas S. Martin (D) [20]
Alabama
(Class 2)
B. B. Comer (D)March 5, 1920November 2, 1920242 daysDid not seek election. Thomas Kilby (D) John H. Bankhead (D) [21]
New Mexico
(Class 2)
Holm O. Bursum (R)March 11, 1921March 3, 19253 years, 357 daysElected in the 1921 special election. 1921 (Special) Merritt C. Mechem (R) Albert B. Fall (R) [22]
Delaware
(Class 1)
T. Coleman du Pont (R)July 7, 1921November 7, 19221 year, 123 daysDefeated in the 1922 special election. 1924 William D. Denney (R) Josiah O. Wolcott (D) [23]
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
William E. Crow (R)October 24, 1921August 2, 1922282 daysDied in office. William Cameron Sproul (R) Philander C. Knox (R) [24]
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
George W. Pepper (R)January 9, 1922March 3, 19275 years, 53 daysElected in the 1922 special election. 1922 (Special) William Cameron Sproul (R) Boies Penrose (R) [25]
Iowa
(Class 2)
Charles A. Rawson (R)February 24, 1922November 7, 1922256 daysDid not seek election. Nathan E. Kendall (R) William S. Kenyon (R) [26]
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
David A. Reed (R)August 8, 1922March 3, 1923207 daysElected in the 1922 special election. 1922 (Special)
1922
1928
William Cameron Sproul (R) William E. Crow (R) [note 3] [27]
Georgia
(Class 3)
Rebecca Latimer Felton (D)October 3, 1922November 22, 192250 daysDid not seek election. Thomas W. Hardwick (D) Thomas E. Watson (D) [28]
Michigan
(Class 2)
James J. Couzens (R)November 29, 1922March 3, 19252 years, 94 daysElected in the 1924 election. 1924
1930
Alex J. Groesbeck (R) Truman Handy Newberry (R) [29]
Colorado
(Class 3)
Alva B. Adams (D)May 17, 1923November 30, 19241 year, 197 daysDid not run in the 1924 special election
and was defeated in the 1924 election.
1932
1938
William Ellery Sweet (D) Samuel D. Nicholson (R) [30]
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
William M. Butler (R)November 13, 1924December 6, 19262 years, 23 daysDefeated in the 1926 special election. Channing H. Cox (R) Henry Cabot Lodge (R) [31]
Missouri
(Class 3)
George Howard Williams (R)May 25, 1925December 5, 19261 year, 194 daysDefeated in the 1926 special election. Sam Aaron Baker (R) Selden P. Spencer (R) [32]
Indiana
(Class 1)
Arthur Raymond Robinson (R)October 20, 1925March 3, 19293 years, 134 daysElected in the 1926 special election. 1926 (Special)
1928
Edward L. Jackson (R) Samuel M. Ralston (D) [33]
North Dakota
(Class 3)
Gerald Nye (R)November 14, 1925March 3, 19271 year, 109 daysElected in the 1926 special election. 1926 (Special)
1926
1932
1938
Arthur G. Sorlie (NPL) Edwin F. Ladd (R) [34]
Iowa
(Class 3)
David W. Stewart (R)August 7, 1926March 3, 1927208 daysElected in the 1926 special election. 1926 (Special) John Hammill (R) Albert B. Cummins (R) [35]
New Mexico
(Class 1)
Bronson M. Cutting (R)December 29, 1927December 6, 1928343 daysDid not run in the 1928 special election
but was elected in the 1928 election held on the same day.
1928
1934
Richard C. Dillon (R) Andrieus A. Jones (D) [36]
Michigan
(Class 1)
Arthur Vandenberg (R)March 31, 1928March 3, 1929337 daysElected in the 1928 special election. 1928 (Special)
1928
1934
1940
1946
Fred W. Green (R) Woodbridge Nathan Ferris (D) [37]
Ohio
(Class 3)
Cyrus Locher (D)April 4, 1928December 14, 1928254 daysLost nomination to run in the 1928 special election. A. Victor Donahey (D) Frank B. Willis (R) [38]
Idaho
(Class 3)
John W. Thomas (R)June 30, 1928March 3, 19334 years, 246 daysElected in the 1928 special election. 1928 (Special)
1940 (Special)
1942
H. C. Baldridge (R) Frank R. Gooding (R) [39]
Delaware
(Class 2)
Daniel O. Hastings (R)December 10, 1928March 3, 19312 years, 83 daysElected in the 1930 special election. 1930 (Special)
1930
Robert P. Robinson (R) T. Coleman du Pont (R) [40]
Kansas
(Class 3)
Henry Justin Allen (R)April 1, 1929November 30, 19301 year, 243 daysDefeated in the 1930 special election. Clyde M. Reed (R) Charles Curtis (R) [41]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
William Emerson Brock (D)September 2, 1929March 3, 19311 year, 182 daysDid not seek election. Henry Hollis Horton (D) Lawrence Tyson (D) [42]
Ohio
(Class 3)
Roscoe C. McCulloch (R)November 5, 1929November 30, 19301 year, 25 daysDefeated in the 1930 special election. Myers Y. Cooper (R) Theodore E. Burton (R) [43]
New Jersey
(Class 2)
David Baird Jr. (R)November 30, 1929December 2, 19301 year, 2 daysDid not seek election. Morgan Foster Larson (R) Walter Evans Edge (R) [44]
Wyoming
(Class 2)
Patrick Joseph Sullivan (R)December 5, 1929November 20, 1930350 daysDid not seek election. Frank Emerson (R) Francis E. Warren (R) [45]
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Joseph R. Grundy (R)December 11, 1929December 1, 1930355 daysLost nomination to run in the 1930 special election. John Stuchell Fisher (R) William Scott Vare (R) [note 4] [46]
Kentucky
(Class 2)
John M. Robsion (R)January 11, 1930November 30, 1930323 daysDefeated in the 1930 special election. Flem D. Sampson (R) Frederic M. Sackett (R) [47]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Cameron A. Morrison (D)December 13, 1930December 4, 19321 year, 357 daysLost nomination to run in the 1932 special election. Oliver Max Gardner (D) Lee Slater Overman (D) [48]
Vermont
(Class 1)
Frank C. Partridge (R)December 23, 1930March 31, 193198 daysLost nomination to run in the 1931 special election. John E. Weeks (R) Frank L. Greene (R) [49]
Arkansas
(Class 3)
Hattie Wyatt Caraway (D)November 13, 1931March 3, 19331 year, 110 daysElected in the 1932 special election. 1932 (Special)
1932
1938
Harvey Parnell (D) Thaddeus H. Caraway (D) [50]
New Jersey
(Class 2)
William Warren Barbour (R)December 1, 1931March 3, 19331 year, 92 daysElected in the 1932 special election. 1932 (Special)
1938 (Special)
1940
Morgan Foster Larson (R) Dwight Morrow (R) [51]
Georgia
(Class 2)
John S. Cohen (D)April 25, 1932January 11, 1933261 daysDid not seek election. Richard Russell Jr. (D) William J. Harris (D) [52]
Colorado
(Class 3)
Walter Walker (D)September 26, 1932December 6, 193271 daysDefeated in the 1932 special election. Billy Adams (D) Charles W. Waterman (R) [53]
Washington
(Class 3)
Elijah S. Grammer (R)November 22, 1932March 3, 1933101 daysDid not seek election. Roland H. Hartley (R) Wesley Livsey Jones (R) [54]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Nathan L. Bachman (D)February 28, 1933January 3, 19373 years, 310 daysElected in the 1934 special election. 1934 (Special)
1936
Hill McAlister (D) Cordell Hull (D) [55]
Virginia
(Class 1)
Harry F. Byrd (D)March 4, 1933January 3, 19351 year, 305 daysElected in the 1933 special election. 1933 (Special)
1934
1940
1946
1952
1958
1964
John Garland Pollard (D) Claude A. Swanson (D) [56]
Montana
(Class 2)
John E. Erickson (D)March 13, 1933November 6, 19341 year, 238 daysLost nomination to run in the 1934 special election. Frank Henry Cooney (D) Thomas J. Walsh (D) [57]
Nebraska
(Class 1)
William Henry Thompson (D)May 24, 1933November 6, 19341 year, 166 daysDid not seek election. Charles W. Bryan (D) Robert B. Howell (R) [58]
New Mexico
(Class 2)
Carl Hatch (D)October 10, 1933January 3, 19373 years, 85 daysElected in the 1934 special election. 1934 (Special)
1936
1942
Andrew W. Hockenhull (D) Sam G. Bratton (D) [59]
Vermont
(Class 3)
Ernest Willard Gibson (R)November 21, 1933January 3, 19395 years, 43 daysElected in the 1934 special election. 1934 (Special)
1938
Stanley C. Wilson (R) Porter H. Dale (R) [60]
Wyoming
(Class 1)
Joseph C. O'Mahoney (D)January 1, 1934January 3, 19351 year, 2 daysElected in the 1934 special election. 1934 (Special)
1934
1940
1946
1954 (Special)
1954
Leslie A. Miller (D) John B. Kendrick (D) [61]
New Mexico
(Class 1)
Dennis Chávez (D)May 11, 1935January 3, 19415 years, 237 daysElected in the 1936 special election. 1936 (Special)
1940
1946
1952
1958
Clyde Tingley (D) Bronson M. Cutting (R) [62]
Minnesota
(Class 2)
Elmer Austin Benson (FL)December 27, 1935November 3, 1936312 daysDid not seek election. Floyd B. Olson (FL) Thomas D. Schall (R) [63]
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Rose McConnell Long (D)January 31, 1936January 3, 1937338 daysElected in the 1936 special election. 1936 (Special) James A. Noe (D) Huey Long (D) [64]
Florida
(Class 1)
Scott Loftin (D)May 26, 1936November 3, 1936161 daysDid not seek election. David Sholtz (D) Park Trammell (D) [65]
Florida
(Class 3)
William Luther Hill (D)July 1, 1936November 3, 1936125 daysDid not seek election. David Sholtz (D) Duncan U. Fletcher (D) [66]
South Dakota
(Class 3)
Herbert E. Hitchcock (D)December 29, 1936November 8, 19381 year, 314 daysLost nomination to run in the 1938 special election. Tom Berry (D) Peter Norbeck (R) [67]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
George L. Berry (D)May 6, 1937November 8, 19381 year, 186 daysLost nomination to run in the 1938 special election. Gordon Browning (D) Nathan L. Bachman (D) [68]
Alabama
(Class 3)
Dixie Bibb Graves (D)August 20, 1937January 10, 1938143 daysDid not seek election. Bibb Graves (D) Hugo Black (D) [69]
Alabama
(Class 3)
J. Lister Hill (D)January 11, 1938January 3, 1939357 daysElected in the 1938 special election. 1938 (Special)
1938
1944
1950
1956
1962
Bibb Graves (D) Dixie Bibb Graves (D) [note 5] [70]
New Jersey
(Class 1)
John Gerald Milton (D)January 18, 1938November 8, 1938294 daysDid not seek election. A. Harry Moore (D)A. Harry Moore (D) [71]
Oregon
(Class 3)
Alfred E. Reames (D)February 1, 1938November 8, 1938280 daysDid not seek election. Charles Martin (D) Frederick Steiwer (R) [72]
California
(Class 3)
Thomas M. Storke (D)November 9, 1938January 3, 193955 daysDid not seek election. Frank Merriam (R) William Gibbs McAdoo (D) [73]
Illinois
(Class 2)
James M. Slattery (D)April 14, 1939November 21, 19401 year, 221 daysDefeated in the 1940 special election. Henry Horner (D) J. Hamilton Lewis (D) [74]
Kentucky
(Class 2)
Happy Chandler (D)October 10, 1939January 3, 19433 years, 85 daysElected in the 1940 special election. 1940 (Special)
1942
Keen Johnson (D) M. M. Logan (D) [75]
Idaho
(Class 2)
John W. Thomas (R)January 27, 1940January 3, 19432 years, 341 daysElected in the 1940 special election. 1940 (Special)
1942
C. A. Bottolfsen (R) William Borah (R) [39]
Vermont
(Class 3)
Ernest W. Gibson Jr. (R)June 24, 1940January 3, 1941342 daysDid not seek election. George Aiken (R) Ernest Willard Gibson (R) [76]
Minnesota
(Class 2)
Joseph H. Ball (R)October 14, 1940November 17, 19422 years, 34 daysDid not run in the 1942 special election
but was elected in the 1942 election held on the same day.
1942 Harold Stassen (R) Ernest Lundeen (FL) [77]
Nevada
(Class 1)
Berkeley L. Bunker (D)November 27, 1940December 6, 19422 years, 9 daysLost nomination to run in the 1942 special election. Edward P. Carville (D) Key Pittman (D) [78]
West Virginia
(Class 2)
Joseph Rosier (D)January 13, 1941November 17, 19421 year, 308 daysDefeated in the 1942 special election. Matthew M. Neely (D)Matthew M. Neely (D) [79]
Arkansas
(Class 2)
G. Lloyd Spencer (D)April 1, 1941January 3, 19431 year, 277 daysDid not seek election. Homer Martin Adkins (D) John E. Miller (D) [80]
Texas
(Class 2)
Andrew Jackson Houston (D)April 21, 1941June 26, 194166 daysDied in office. W. Lee O'Daniel (D) Morris Sheppard (D) [81]
Mississippi
(Class 2)
James Eastland (D)June 30, 1941September 28, 194190 daysDid not run in the 1941 special election
but was elected in the 1942 election held in the following year.
1942
1948
1954
1960
1966
1972
Paul B. Johnson Sr. (D) Pat Harrison (D) [82]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Alva M. Lumpkin (D)July 22, 1941August 1, 194110 daysDied in office. Burnet R. Maybank (D) James F. Byrnes (D) [83]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Roger C. Peace (D)August 5, 1941November 4, 194191 daysDid not seek election. Burnet R. Maybank (D) Alva M. Lumpkin (D) [note 6] [84]
Colorado
(Class 3)
Eugene Millikin (R)December 20, 1941January 3, 19453 years, 14 daysElected in the 1942 special election. 1942 (Special)
1944
1950
Ralph Lawrence Carr (R) Alva B. Adams (D) [85]
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Arthur Walsh (D)November 26, 1943December 7, 19441 year, 11 daysDid not seek election. Charles Edison (D) William Warren Barbour (R) [86]
Indiana
(Class 3)
Samuel D. Jackson (D)January 28, 1944November 13, 1944290 daysDid not seek election. Henry F. Schricker (D) Frederick Van Nuys (D) [87]
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Sinclair Weeks (R)February 8, 1944December 19, 1944315 daysDid not seek election. Leverett Saltonstall (R) Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R) [88]
Oregon
(Class 2)
Guy Cordon (R)March 4, 1944January 3, 19494 years, 305 daysElected in the 1944 special election. 1944 (Special)
1948
Earl Snell (R) Charles L. McNary (R) [89]
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Wilton E. Hall (D)November 20, 1944January 3, 194544 daysDid not seek election. Olin D. Johnston (D) Ellison D. Smith (D) [90]
Washington
(Class 1)
Hugh Mitchell (D)January 10, 1945December 25, 19461 year, 349 daysDefeated in the 1946 election. Monrad Wallgren (D)Monrad Wallgren (D) [91]
Missouri
(Class 1)
Frank P. Briggs (D)January 18, 1945January 3, 19471 year, 350 daysDefeated in the 1946 election. Phil M. Donnelly (D) Harry S. Truman (D) [92]
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Thomas C. Hart (R)February 15, 1945November 5, 19461 year, 263 daysDid not seek election. Raymond E. Baldwin (R) Francis T. Maloney (D) [93]
North Dakota
(Class 3)
Milton Young (R)March 12, 1945January 3, 19515 years, 297 daysElected in the 1946 special election. 1946 (Special)
1950
1956
1962
1968
1974
Fred G. Aandahl (R) John Moses (D) [94]
Nevada
(Class 1)
Edward P. Carville (D)July 25, 1945January 3, 19471 year, 162 daysLost nomination to run in the 1946 election. Vail M. Pittman (D) James G. Scrugham (D) [95]
California
(Class 1)
William Knowland (R)August 26, 1945January 3, 19471 year, 130 daysElected in the 1946 special election. 1946 (Special)
1946
1952
Earl Warren (R) Hiram Johnson (R) [96]
Ohio
(Class 1)
James W. Huffman (D)October 8, 1945November 5, 19461 year, 28 daysDid not run in the 1946 special election
and was defeated in the 1946 election.
Frank Lausche (D) Harold Hitz Burton (R) [97]
Idaho
(Class 2)
Charles C. Gossett (D)November 17, 1945November 6, 1946354 daysLost nomination to run in the 1946 special election. Arnold Williams (D) John W. Thomas (R) [98]
Kentucky
(Class 2)
William A. Stanfill (R)November 19, 1945November 5, 1946351 daysDid not seek election. Simeon Willis (R) Happy Chandler (D) [99]
Virginia
(Class 2)
Thomas G. Burch (D)May 31, 1946November 5, 1946158 daysDid not seek election. William M. Tuck (D) Carter Glass (D) [100]
Alabama
(Class 2)
George R. Swift (D)June 15, 1946November 5, 1946143 daysDid not seek election. Chauncey Sparks (D) John H. Bankhead II (D) [101]
Florida
(Class 1)
Spessard Holland (D)September 25, 1946January 3, 1947100 daysElected in the 1946 election. 1946
1952
1958
1964
Millard Caldwell (D) Charles O. Andrews (D) [102]
Vermont
(Class 1)
Ralph Flanders (R)November 1, 1946January 3, 194763 daysElected in the 1946 election. 1946
1952
Mortimer R. Proctor (R) Warren Austin (R) [103]
North Carolina
(Class 2)
William B. Umstead (D)December 18, 1946December 30, 19482 years, 12 daysLost nomination to run in the 1948 special election. R. Gregg Cherry (D) Josiah Bailey (D) [104]
Louisiana
(Class 3)
William C. Feazel (D)May 18, 1948December 30, 1948226 daysDid not seek election. Earl Long (D) John H. Overton (D) [105]
South Dakota
(Class 2)
Vera C. Bushfield (R)October 6, 1948December 26, 194881 daysDid not seek election. George Theodore Mickelson (R) Harlan J. Bushfield (R) [106]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
Garrett Withers (D)January 20, 1949November 26, 19501 year, 310 daysDid not seek election. Earle Clements (D) Alben W. Barkley (D) [107]
North Carolina
(Class 2)
Frank Porter Graham (D)March 29, 1949November 26, 19501 year, 242 daysLost nomination to run in the 1950 special election. W. Kerr Scott (D) J. Melville Broughton (D) [108]
New York
(Class 3)
John Foster Dulles (R)July 7, 1949November 8, 1949124 daysDefeated in the 1949 special election. Thomas E. Dewey (R) Robert F. Wagner (D) [109]
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
Edward L. Leahy (D)August 24, 1949December 18, 19501 year, 116 daysDid not seek election. John Pastore (D) J. Howard McGrath (D) [110]
Idaho
(Class 2)
Henry Dworshak (R)October 14, 1949January 3, 19555 years, 81 daysElected in the 1950 special election. 1946 (Special)
1950 (Special)
1954
1960
C. A. Robins (R) Bert H. Miller (D) [111]
Kansas
(Class 3)
Harry Darby (R)December 2, 1949November 28, 1950361 daysDid not seek election. Frank Carlson (R) Clyde M. Reed (R) [112]
Connecticut
(Class 1)
William Benton (D)December 17, 1949January 3, 19533 years, 17 daysElected in the 1950 special election. 1950 (Special) Chester Bowles (D) Raymond E. Baldwin (R) [113]
Kentucky
(Class 2)
Thomas R. Underwood (D)March 19, 1951November 4, 19521 year, 230 daysDefeated in the 1952 special election. Lawrence Wetherby (D) Virgil Chapman (D) [114]
Michigan
(Class 1)
Blair Moody (D)April 23, 1951November 4, 19521 year, 195 daysDefeated in the 1952 special election. G. Mennen Williams (D) Arthur Vandenberg (R) [115]
Nebraska
(Class 2)
Fred A. Seaton (R)December 10, 1951November 4, 1952330 daysDid not seek election. Val Peterson (R) Kenneth S. Wherry (R) [116]
Connecticut
(Class 3)
William A. Purtell (R)August 29, 1952November 4, 195267 daysDid not seek election. 1952. John Davis Lodge (R) Brien McMahon (D) [117]
California
(Class 3)
Thomas Kuchel (R)January 2, 1953January 3, 19574 years, 1 dayElected in the 1954 special election. 1954 (Special)
1956
1962
Earl Warren (R) Richard Nixon (R) [118]
North Carolina
(Class 2)
Alton Lennon (D)July 10, 1953November 28, 19541 year, 141 daysLost nomination to run in the 1954 special election. William B. Umstead (D) Willis Smith (D) [119]
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Robert W. Upton (R)August 14, 1953November 7, 19541 year, 85 daysLost nomination to run in the 1954 special election. Hugh Gregg (R) Charles W. Tobey (R) [120]
Ohio
(Class 3)
Thomas A. Burke (D)November 10, 1953December 2, 19541 year, 22 daysDefeated in the 1954 special election. Frank Lausche (D) Robert A. Taft (R) [121]
Nebraska
(Class 2)
Eva Bowring (R)April 16, 1954November 7, 1954205 daysDid not seek election. Robert B. Crosby (R) Dwight Griswold (R) [122]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Sam Ervin (D)June 5, 1954January 3, 19572 years, 212 daysElected in the 1954 special election. 1954 (Special)
1956
1962
1968
William B. Umstead (D) Clyde R. Hoey (D) [123]
Wyoming
(Class 2)
Edward D. Crippa (R)June 24, 1954November 28, 1954157 daysDid not seek election. Clifford Joy Rogers (R) Lester C. Hunt (D) [124]
Nebraska
(Class 1)
Samuel W. Reynolds (R)July 3, 1954November 7, 1954127 daysDid not seek election. Robert B. Crosby (R) Hugh A. Butler (R) [125]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Charles E. Daniel (D)September 6, 1954December 23, 1954108 daysDid not seek election. William B. Umstead (D) Burnet R. Maybank (D) [126]
Nevada
(Class 3)
Ernest S. Brown (R)October 1, 1954December 1, 195461 daysDefeated in the 1954 special election. Charles H. Russell (R) Pat McCarran (D) [127]
West Virginia
(Class 1)
William Laird III (D)March 13, 1956November 6, 1956238 daysDid not seek election. William C. Marland (D) Harley M. Kilgore (D) [128]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Thomas A. Wofford (D)April 5, 1956November 6, 1956215 daysDid not seek election. George Bell Timmerman Jr. (D) Strom Thurmond (D) [129]
Kentucky
(Class 2)
Robert Humphreys (D)June 21, 1956November 6, 1956138 daysDid not seek election. Happy Chandler (D) Alben W. Barkley (D) [130]
Texas
(Class 1)
William A. Blakley (D)January 15, 1957April 28, 1957103 daysDid not seek election. Price Daniel (D)Price Daniel (D) [131]
West Virginia
(Class 2)
John D. Hoblitzell Jr. (R)January 25, 1958November 4, 1958283 daysDefeated in the 1958 special election. Cecil H. Underwood (R) Matthew M. Neely (D) [132]
North Carolina
(Class 2)
B. Everett Jordan (D)April 19, 1958January 3, 19612 years, 259 daysElected in the 1958 special election. 1958 (Special)
1960
1966
Luther H. Hodges (D) W. Kerr Scott (D) [133]
North Dakota
(Class 1)
Norman Brunsdale (R)November 19, 1959August 7, 1960262 daysDid not seek election. John E. Davis (R) William Langer (R) [134]
Oregon
(Class 2)
Hall S. Lusk (D)March 16, 1960November 8, 1960237 daysDid not seek election. Mark Hatfield (R) Richard L. Neuberger (D) [135]
Missouri
(Class 3)
Edward V. Long (D)September 23, 1960January 3, 19632 years, 102 daysElected in the 1960 special election. 1960 (Special)
1962
James T. Blair Jr. (D) Thomas C. Hennings Jr. (D) [136]
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Benjamin A. Smith II (D)December 27, 1960November 6, 19621 year, 314 daysDid not seek election. Foster Furcolo (D) John F. Kennedy (D) [137]
Texas
(Class 2)
William A. Blakley (D)January 3, 1961June 14, 1961162 daysDefeated in the 1961 special election. Price Daniel (D) Lyndon B. Johnson (D) [131]
Wyoming
(Class 2)
John J. Hickey (D)January 3, 1961November 6, 19621 year, 307 daysDefeated in the 1962 special election. Jack R. Gage (D) Edwin Keith Thomson (R) [note 4] [138]
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Maurice J. Murphy Jr. (R)December 7, 1961November 6, 1962334 daysLost nomination to run in the 1962 special election. Wesley Powell (R) Styles Bridges (R) [139]
Kansas
(Class 2)
James B. Pearson (R)January 31, 1962January 3, 19674 years, 337 daysElected in the 1962 special election. 1962 (Special)
1966
1972
John Anderson Jr. (R) Andrew Frank Schoeppel (R) [140]
South Dakota
(Class 3)
Joseph H. Bottum (R)July 9, 1962January 3, 1963178 daysLost election to the next term. Archie M. Gubbrud (R) Francis H. Case (R) [141]
Idaho
(Class 2)
Leonard B. Jordan (R)August 6, 1962January 3, 19674 years, 150 daysElected in the 1962 special election. 1962 (Special)
1966
Robert E. Smylie (R) Henry Dworshak (R) [142]
New Mexico
(Class 1)
Edwin L. Mechem (R)November 30, 1962November 3, 19641 year, 339 daysDefeated in the 1964 special election. Tom Bolack (R) Dennis Chávez (D) [143]
Oklahoma
(Class 2)
J. Howard Edmondson (D)January 7, 1963November 3, 19641 year, 301 daysLost nomination to run in the 1964 special election. George Nigh (D) Robert S. Kerr (D) [144]
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Herbert S. Walters (D)August 20, 1963November 3, 19641 year, 75 daysDid not seek election. Frank G. Clement (D) Estes Kefauver (D) [145]
California
(Class 1)
Pierre Salinger (D)August 4, 1964December 31, 1964149 daysDefeated in the 1964 election. Pat Brown (D) Clair Engle (D) [146]
Minnesota
(Class 2)
Walter Mondale (D)December 30, 1964January 3, 19672 years, 4 daysElected in the 1966 election. 1966
1972
Karl Rolvaag (D) Hubert Humphrey (D) [147]
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Donald S. Russell (D)April 22, 1965November 8, 19661 year, 200 daysLost nomination to run in the 1966 special election. Robert Evander McNair (D) Olin D. Johnston (D) [148]
Virginia
(Class 1)
Harry F. Byrd Jr. (D)November 12, 1965January 3, 19715 years, 52 daysElected in the 1966 special election. 1966 (Special)
1970
1976
Albertis Harrison (D) Harry F. Byrd (D) [149]
Michigan
(Class 2)
Robert P. Griffin (R)May 11, 1966January 3, 1967237 daysElected in the 1966 election. 1966
1972
George W. Romney (R) Patrick V. McNamara (D) [150]
New York
(Class 1)
Charles Goodell (R)September 10, 1968January 3, 19712 years, 115 days Lost election to the next term. Nelson Rockefeller (R) Robert F. Kennedy (D) [151]
Alaska
(Class 2)
Ted Stevens (R)December 24, 1968January 3, 19734 years, 10 daysElected in the 1970 special election. 1970 (Special)
1972
1978
1984
1990
1996
2002
Wally Hickel (R) Bob Bartlett (D) [152]
Illinois
(Class 3)
Ralph Tyler Smith (R)September 17, 1969November 16, 19701 year, 60 daysDefeated in the 1970 special election. Richard B. Ogilvie (R) Everett Dirksen (R) [153]
Georgia
(Class 2)
David H. Gambrell (D)February 1, 1971November 7, 19721 year, 280 daysLost nomination to run in the 1972 special election. Jimmy Carter (D) Richard Russell Jr. (D) [154]
Vermont
(Class 1)
Robert Stafford (R)September 16, 1971January 3, 19775 years, 109 daysElected in the 1972 special election. 1972 (Special)
1976
1982
Deane C. Davis (R) Winston L. Prouty (R) [155]
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Elaine Edwards (D)August 1, 1972November 13, 1972104 daysDid not seek election. Edwin Edwards (D) Allen J. Ellender (D) [156]
Ohio
(Class 3)
Howard Metzenbaum (D)January 4, 1974December 23, 1974353 daysLost nomination to run in the 1974 special election. 1976
1982
1988
John J. Gilligan (D) William B. Saxbe (R) [157]
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Louis C. Wyman (R)December 31, 1974January 3, 19753 daysDefeated in the 1975 special election. Meldrim Thomson Jr. (R) Norris Cotton (R) [158]
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Norris Cotton (R)August 8, 1975September 18, 197541 daysDid not seek election. 1954 (Special)
1956
1962
1968
Meldrim Thomson Jr. (R) Louis C. Wyman (R) [159]
Minnesota
(Class 2)
Wendell R. Anderson (D)December 30, 1976December 29, 19781 year, 364 daysDefeated in the 1978 election. Rudy Perpich (D) Walter Mondale (D) [160]
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Kaneaster Hodges Jr. (D)December 10, 1977January 3, 19791 year, 24 daysDid not seek election. David Pryor (D) John Little McClellan (D) [161]
Montana
(Class 2)
Paul G. Hatfield (D)January 22, 1978December 14, 1978326 daysLost nomination to run in the 1978 election. Thomas Lee Judge (D) Lee Metcalf (D) [162]
Minnesota
(Class 1)
Muriel Humphrey Brown (D)January 25, 1978November 7, 1978286 daysDid not seek election. Rudy Perpich (D) Hubert Humphrey (D) [163]
Alabama
(Class 3)
Maryon Pittman Allen (D)June 8, 1978November 7, 1978152 daysLost nomination to run in the 1978 special election. George Wallace (D) James Allen (D) [164]
Maine
(Class 1)
George J. Mitchell (D)May 17, 1980January 3, 19832 years, 231 daysElected in the 1982 election. 1982
1988
Joseph E. Brennan (D) Edmund Muskie (D) [165]
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Nicholas F. Brady (R)April 12, 1982December 27, 1982259 daysDid not seek election. Thomas Kean (R) Harrison A. Williams (D) [166]
Washington
(Class 1)
Daniel J. Evans (R)September 8, 1983January 3, 19895 years, 117 daysElected in the 1983 special election. 1983 (Special) John Spellman (R) Henry M. Jackson (D) [167]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Jim Broyhill (R)July 14, 1986November 4, 1986113 daysDefeated in the 1986 special election. James G. Martin (R) John Porter East (R) [168]
Nebraska
(Class 1)
David Karnes (R)March 11, 1987January 3, 1989