56th United States Congress

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56th United States Congress
55th  
  57th
USCapitol1906.jpg
March 4, 1899 – March 4, 1901
Senate President Garret Hobart (R)
until November 21, 1899
Vacant
from November 21, 1899
Senate President pro tem William P. Frye (R)
House Speaker David B. Henderson (R)
Members90 senators
357 members of the House
4 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Republican
House Majority Republican
Sessions
1st: December 4, 1899 – June 7, 1900
2nd: December 3, 1900 – March 3, 1901

The Fifty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1899, to March 4, 1901, during the third and fourth years of William McKinley's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority. There was one African-American member, George Henry White of North Carolina, who served his second and final term as a Representative in this Congress, and would be the last black member of Congress until 1928, and the last black member of Congress from the South until 1972.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

United States House of Representatives Lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national legislature of the United States.

William McKinley 25th president of the United States

William McKinley Jr. was the 25th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination six months into his second term. During his presidency, McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish–American War, raised protective tariffs to promote American industry and kept the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of free silver.

Contents

Major events

Philippine–American War Armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States

The Philippine–American War, also referred to as the Filipino–American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection or the Tagalog Insurgency, was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902. While Filipino nationalists viewed the conflict as a continuation of the struggle for independence that began in 1896 with the Philippine Revolution, the U.S. government regarded it as an insurrection. The conflict arose when the First Philippine Republic objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris under which the United States took possession of the Philippines from Spain, ending the short Spanish–American War.

Garret Hobart U.S. Vice President

Garret Augustus Hobart was the 24th vice president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his death in 1899. He was the sixth American vice president to die in office.

District of Alaska district of the USA between 1867-1884

The District of Alaska was the governmental designation for Alaska from May 17, 1884 to August 24, 1912, when it became Alaska Territory. Previously it had been known as the Department of Alaska. At the time, legislators in Washington, D.C., were occupied with post–Civil War reconstruction issues, and had little time to dedicate to Alaska. General Jefferson C. Davis, a U.S. Army officer, was put in charge as the first commander of the Department of Alaska, which between 1884 and 1912 was renamed the District of Alaska and was appointed a civil government by President Chester A. Arthur with the passage of the First Organic Act. During the Department era, Alaska was variously under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Army, the United States Department of the Treasury and the U.S. Navy, but now the area had its own government.

Major legislation

Gold Standard Act

The Gold Standard Act of the United States was passed in 1900 and established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, stopping bimetallism. It was signed by President William McKinley.

<i>United States Statutes at Large</i> An official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions

The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is originally published as a slip law, which is classified as either public law or private law (Pvt.L.), and designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications. The session law publication for U.S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U.S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, and codification.

Foraker Act Application of United States law in Puerto Rico

The Foraker Act, Pub.L. 56–191, 31 Stat. 77, enacted April 12, 1900, officially known as the Organic Act of 1900, is a United States federal law that established civilian government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had recently become a possession of the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War. Section VII of the Foraker Act also established Puerto Rican citizenship. President William McKinley signed the act on April 12, 1900 and it became known as the Foraker Act after its sponsor, Ohio Senator Joseph B. Foraker. Its main author has been identified as Secretary of War Elihu Root.

Territory organized

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Senate membership (final)
26 Democrats 53 Republicans
5 Populists 3 Silver Republicans
2 Silver


(1 Vacant) 56thUSSenate.svg
Senate membership (final)
     26 Democrats      53 Republicans
     5 Populists      3 Silver Republicans
     2 Silver

(1 Vacant)


Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic
(D)
Populist
(P)
Republican
(R)
Silver
Republican

(SR)
Silver
(S)
End of previous congress 34 5 44 5 2900
Begin 26 4 50 3 2 85 5
End 25 5 53 882
Final voting share28.4% 5.7% 60.2% 3.4% 2.3%
Beginning of next congress 28 3 53 2 0864

House of Representatives

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic
(D)
Populist
(P)
Republican
(R)
Silver
Republican

(SR)
Silver
(S)
End of previous congress 122 22 202 3 13507
Begin 162 6 183 2 1 354 3
End 158 186 3534
Final voting share44.8% 1.7% 52.7% 0.6% 0.3%
Non-voting members1020031
Beginning of next congress 152 5 196 1 13552

Leadership

Garret Augustus Hobart.jpg
President of the Senate
Garret Hobart
DavidBremmerHenderson.jpg
Speaker of the House
David B. Henderson

Senate

President pro tempore of the United States Senate second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate

The president pro tempore of the United States Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. Article One, Section Three of the United States Constitution provides that the vice president of the United States is the president of the Senate, and mandates that the Senate must choose a president pro tempore to act in the vice president's absence. Unlike the vice president, the president pro tempore is an elected member of the Senate, able to speak or vote on any issue. Selected by the Senate at large, the president pro tempore has enjoyed many privileges and some limited powers. During the vice president's absence, the president pro tempore is empowered to preside over Senate sessions. In practice, neither the vice president nor the president pro tempore usually presides; instead, the duty of presiding officer is rotated among junior U.S. senators of the majority party to give them experience in parliamentary procedure.

William P. Frye American politician

William Pierce Frye was an American politician from the Maine. Frye, a member of the Republican Party, spent most of his political career as a legislator, serving in the Maine House of Representatives and then U.S. House of Representatives, before being elected to the U.S. Senate, where he served for 30 years; dying in office. Frye was a member of the Frye political family, and was the grandfather of Wallace H. White, Jr. and the son of John March Frye. He was also a prominent member of the Peucinian Society tradition.

James Kimbrough Jones American politician

James Kimbrough Jones was a Confederate Army veteran, plantation owner, lawyer, US Congressional Representative, United States Senator and chairman of the Democratic National Committee from Arkansas.

House of Representatives

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Leader in the lower house of the U.S. Congress

The speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution. The speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House of Representatives, and is simultaneously the House's presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, and the institution's administrative head. Speakers also perform various other administrative and procedural functions. Given these several roles and responsibilities, the speaker usually does not personally preside over debates. That duty is instead delegated to members of the House from the majority party. Neither does the speaker regularly participate in floor debates.

David B. Henderson Union Army soldier

David Bremner Henderson, a ten-term Republican Congressman from Dubuque, Iowa, was the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1899 to 1903. He was the first Congressman from west of the Mississippi River, the last Civil War veteran, the second foreign-born person, and so far the only Iowan to serve as Speaker.

The following is a list of members of the U.S. House of Representatives who have served as chair of the House Democratic Caucus. Chairs are currently limited to two consecutive terms.

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

At this time, Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1904; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1900; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1902.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

State
(class)
VacatorReason for vacancySubsequentDate of successor's installation
Nebraska
(1)
VacantLegislature failed to elect to fill vacancy in term. Monroe Hayward (R)March 8, 1899
California
(1)
VacantLegislature failed to elect to fill vacancy in term. Thomas R. Bard (R)February 7, 1900
Florida
(1)
Samuel Pasco (D)Successor was elected April 18, 1899. James Taliaferro (D)April 20, 1899
Nebraska
(1)
Monroe Hayward (R)Died December 5, 1899. Successor was appointed. William V. Allen (Pop.)December 13, 1899
Montana
(1)
William A. Clark (D)Resigned May 15, 1900, over claim of election fraud.
Seat remained vacant until the next Congress.
Vacant
Iowa
(2)
John H. Gear (R)Died July 14, 1900. Successor was appointed and subsequently elected. Jonathan P. Dolliver (R)August 22, 1900
Vermont
(3)
Jonathan Ross (R)Successor was elected October 18, 1900. William P. Dillingham (R)October 18, 1900
Minnesota
(1)
Cushman K. Davis (R)Died November 27, 1900. Successor was appointed. Charles A. Towne (D)December 5, 1900
Pennsylvania
(1)
VacantDue to a failure to elect, Governor appointed Quay at beginning of term, but Senate refused to seat him. He then won a special election. Matthew Quay (R)January 16, 1901
Minnesota
(1)
Charles A. Towne (D)Successor was elected January 23, 1901. Moses E. Clapp (R)January 23, 1901
Utah
(1)
Vacantfailure to elect Thomas Kearns (R)January 16, 1901

House of Representatives

DistrictPreviousReason for changeSubsequentDate of successor's installation
Maine 2nd VacantRep. Nelson Dingley Jr. died during previous congress Charles E. Littlefield (R)June 19, 1899
Utah At-large Vacant B. H. Roberts was denied seat. King was elected to finish term. William H. King (D)June 19, 1899
New York 34th VacantRep. Warren B. Hooker resigned during previous congress Edward B. Vreeland (R)November 7, 1899
Nebraska 6th William L. Greene (Pop.)Died March 11, 1899. William Neville (Pop.)December 4, 1899
Louisiana 5th Samuel T. Baird (D)Died April 22, 1899. Joseph E. Ransdell (D)August 29, 1899
Missouri 8th Richard P. Bland (D)Died June 15, 1899. Dorsey W. Shackleford (D)August 29, 1899
Ohio 16th Lorenzo Danford (R)Died June 19, 1899 Joseph J. Gill (R)December 4, 1899
Maine 1st Thomas B. Reed (R)Resigned September 4, 1899. Amos L. Allen (R)November 6, 1899
Pennsylvania 9th Daniel Ermentrout (D)Died September 17, 1899. Henry D. Green (D)November 7, 1899
Kentucky 7th Evan E. Settle (D)Died November 16, 1899. June Ward Gayle (D)January 15, 1900
Maryland 1st John W. Smith (D)Resigned January 12, 1900, after being elected Governor of Maryland Josiah Kerr (R)November 6, 1900
New York 24th Charles A. Chickering (R)Died February 13, 1900 Albert D. Shaw (R)November 6, 1900
Virginia 4th Sidney P. Epes (D)Died March 3, 1900. Francis R. Lassiter (D)April 9, 1900
Pennsylvania 5th Alfred C. Harmer (R)Died March 6, 1900 Edward Morrell (R)November 6, 1900
Alabama 4th Gaston A. Robbins (D)Lost contested election March 8, 1900 William F. Aldrich (R)March 8, 1900
Virginia 2nd William A. Young (D)Lost contested election March 12, 1900 Richard A. Wise (R)March 12, 1900
Alabama 8th Joseph Wheeler (D)Resigned April 20, 1900. William N. Richardson (D)December 3, 1900
North Carolina 9th William T. Crawford (D)Lost contested election May 10, 1900 Richmond Pearson (R)May 10, 1900
Iowa 9th Smith McPherson (R)Resigned June 6, 1900, after being appointed judge for the United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa Walter I. Smith (R)December 3, 1900
Delaware At-large John H. Hoffecker (R)Died June 16, 1900 Walter O. Hoffecker (R)November 6, 1900
New Jersey 7th William D. Daly (D)Died July 31, 1900. Allan L. McDermott (D)December 3, 1900
California 2nd Marion De Vries (D)Resigned August 20, 1900, after being appointed to the Board of General Appraisers Samuel D. Woods (R)December 3, 1900
Iowa 10th Jonathan P. Dolliver (R)Resigned August 22, 1900, after being appointed to the U.S. Senate James P. Conner (R)December 4, 1900
Hawaii Territory New seatSeat established by the Hawaiian Organic Act April 30, 1900 Robert W. Wilcox (Home Rule)November 6, 1900
Virginia 2nd Richard A. Wise (R)Died December 21, 1900Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New Hampshire 2nd Frank G. Clarke (R)Died January 9, 1901Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New York 24th Albert D. Shaw (R)Died February 10, 1901Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Maine 4th Charles A. Boutelle (R)Resigned March 3, 1901Seat remained vacant until next Congress

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (4 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Caucuses

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

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References