99th United States Congress

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99th United States Congress
98th  
  100th
USCapitol.jpg
January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1987
Senate President George H. W. Bush (R)
Senate President pro tem Strom Thurmond (R)
House Speaker Tip O'Neill (D)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Republican
House Majority Democratic
Sessions
1st: January 3, 1985 – December 20, 1985
2nd: January 21, 1986 – October 18, 1986

The 99th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1985, to January 3, 1987, during the fifth and sixth years of Ronald Reagan's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twentieth Census of the United States in 1980. The Republicans maintained control of the Senate, while the Democrats maintained control of the House of Representatives. This was the most recent session of Congress prior to the 116th which featured a Republican Senate/Democrat House split.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D.C.

United States House of Representatives lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States.

Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is also one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

Contents

Major events

Ronald Reagan 40th president of the United States

Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975.

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Space Shuttle <i>Challenger</i> disaster In-flight breakup of spacecraft on January 28, 1986

On January 28, 1986, the NASA shuttle orbiter undertaking mission STS-51-L and the tenth flight of Space ShuttleChallenger (OV-99) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members, which consisted of five NASA astronauts, one payload specialist and a civilian school teacher. The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 11:39 a.m. EST. The disintegration of the vehicle began after a joint in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed at liftoff. The failure was caused by the failure of O-ring seals used in the joint that were not designed to handle the unusually cold conditions that existed at this launch. The seals' failure caused a breach in the SRB joint, allowing pressurized burning gas from within the solid rocket motor to reach the outside and impinge upon the adjacent SRB aft field joint attachment hardware and external fuel tank. This led to the separation of the right-hand SRB's aft field joint attachment and the structural failure of the external tank. Aerodynamic forces broke up the orbiter.

Major legislation

An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals.

Gold Bullion Coin Act of 1985 U.S. Congressional Act to authorize minting of gold bullion coins

The Gold Bullion Coin Act of 1985, Pub. L. No. 99-185, 99 Stat. 1177, codified at 31 U.S.C. § 5112(a)(7) through (a)(10), 31 U.S.C. § 5112(i), 31 U.S.C. § 5116(a)(3), and amending 31 U.S.C. § 5118(d) and 31 U.S.C. § 5132(a)(1), has helped the American Gold Eagle to quickly become one of the world's leaders in gold bullion coin. Produced from gold mined in the United States, American Eagles are imprinted with their gold content and legal tender face value.

The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 is a law passed by the U.S. Congress on a reconciliation basis and signed by President Ronald Reagan that, among other things, mandates an insurance program which gives some employees the ability to continue health insurance coverage after leaving employment. COBRA includes amendments to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). The law deals with a great variety of subjects, such as tobacco price supports, railroads, private pension plans, emergency department treatment, disability insurance, and the postal service, but it is perhaps best known for Title X, which amends the Internal Revenue Code and the Public Health Service Act to deny income tax deductions to employers for contributions to a group health plan unless such plan meets certain continuing coverage requirements. The violation for failing to meet those criteria was subsequently changed to an excise tax.

Party summary

Senate

Party standings on the opening day of the 99th Congress
47 Democratic Senators
53 Republican Senators 099senate.svg
Party standings on the opening day of the 99th Congress
  47 Democratic Senators
  53 Republican Senators
AffiliationMembers
Democratic Party 47
Republican Party 53
Total100

House of Representatives

House seats by party holding majority in state
80-100% Republican
80-100% Democratic
60-80% Republican
60-80% Democratic
50-60% Republican
50-60% Democratic
striped: evenly split 99 us house membership.png
House seats by party holding majority in state
  80–100% Republican
  80–100% Democratic
  60–80% Republican
  60–80% Democratic
  50–60% Republican
  50–60% Democratic
  striped: evenly split
AffiliationMembersVoting
share
Democratic Party 25358.2%
Republican Party 18241.8%
Total435

Leadership

Senate

George H. W. Bush 41st president of the United States

George Herbert Walker Bush was an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he held posts that included those of congressman, ambassador, and CIA director. Until his son George W. Bush became the 43rd president in 2001, he was usually known simply as George Bush.

President pro tempore of the United States Senate second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate

The President pro tempore of the United States Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. Article One, Section Three of the United States Constitution provides that the Vice President of the United States is the President of the Senate, and mandates that the Senate must choose a President pro tempore to act in the Vice President's absence. Unlike the Vice President, the President pro tempore is an elected member of the Senate, able to speak or vote on any issue. Selected by the Senate at large, the President pro tempore has enjoyed many privileges and some limited powers. During the Vice President's absence, the President pro tempore is empowered to preside over Senate sessions. In practice, neither the Vice President nor the President pro tempore usually presides; instead, the duty of presiding officer is rotated among junior U.S. Senators of the majority party to give them experience in parliamentary procedure.

Strom Thurmond Governor of South Carolina, United States Senator

James Strom Thurmond Sr. was an American politician who served for 48 years as a United States Senator from South Carolina. He ran for president in 1948 as the States Rights Democratic Party candidate, receiving 2.4% of the popular vote and 39 electoral votes. Thurmond represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 until 2003, at first as a Southern Democrat and, after 1964, as a Republican.

Majority (Republican) leadership

Party leaders of the United States Senate Wikimedia list article

The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders are two United States Senators and members of the party leadership of the United States Senate. These leaders serve as the chief Senate spokespeople for the political parties respectively holding the majority and the minority in the United States Senate, and manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. They are elected to their positions in the Senate by the party caucuses: the Senate Democratic Caucus and the Senate Republican Conference.

Bob Dole American politician

Robert Joseph Dole is a retired American politician, statesman, and attorney who represented Kansas in the U.S House of Representatives from 1961 to 1969 and in the U.S. Senate from 1969 to 1996, serving as the Republican Leader of the United States Senate from 1985 until 1996. He was the Republican presidential nominee in the 1996 presidential election and the party's vice presidential nominee in the 1976 presidential election.

John Chafee United States Marine

John Lester Hubbard Chafee was an American politician. He served as an officer in the United States Marine Corps, as the 66th Governor of Rhode Island, as the Secretary of the Navy, and as a United States Senator.

Minority (Democratic) leadership

Robert Byrd U.S. Senator from West Virginia (1959–2010)

Robert Carlyle Byrd was an American politician who served as a United States Senator from West Virginia for over 51 years, from 1959 until his death in 2010. A member of the Democratic Party, Byrd previously served as a U.S. Representative from 1953 until 1959. He is the longest-serving U.S. Senator in history. In addition, he was, at the time of his death, the longest-serving member in the history of the United States Congress, a record later surpassed by Representative John Dingell of Michigan. Byrd was the last remaining member of the U.S. Senate to have served during the presidency of Dwight Eisenhower, and the last remaining member of Congress to have served during the presidency of Harry S. Truman. Byrd is also the only West Virginian to have served in both chambers of the state legislature and both chambers of Congress.

Alan Cranston American politician

Alan MacGregor Cranston was an American politician and journalist who served as a United States Senator from California, from 1969 to 1993, and as President of the World Federalist Association from 1949 to 1952.

The United States Senate Democratic Conference Secretary, also called the Caucus Secretary, is a ranking leadership position within the Democratic Party in the United States Senate. It was previously considered the number-three position, behind the party's floor leader and the party's whip, until in 2006, when Democratic leader Harry Reid created the new position of Vice-Chairman of the caucus. Now, the secretary is the fourth-highest ranking position. The conference secretary is responsible for taking notes and aiding the party leadership when senators of the party meet or caucus together.

House of Representatives

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

Caucuses

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators are popularly elected statewide every six years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress, In this Congress, Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1986; Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1988; and Class 2 meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1990.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership

Senate


State
(class)
VacatorReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 1]
West Virginia
(2)
VacantSenator-elect chose to wait until finishing term as Governor of West Virginia. Jay Rockefeller (D)January 15, 1985
North Carolina
(3)
John Porter East (R)Died June 29, 1986.
Successor appointed to continue the term.
Jim Broyhill (R)July 14, 1986
North Carolina
(3)
Jim Broyhill (R)Interim appointee lost special election.
Successor elected to finish the term.
Terry Sanford (D)November 5, 1986

House of Representatives


DistrictVacatorReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 1]
Indiana's 8th DisputedHouse declared McCloskey the winner after auditors from the US General Accounting Office conducted a recount and Republican floor votes were rejected. Frank McCloskey (D)May 1, 1985
Louisiana's 8th Gillis W. Long (D)Died January 20, 1985. Catherine S. Long (D)March 30, 1985
Texas's 1st Sam B. Hall (D)Resigned May 27, 1985 to become judge for the US District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. Jim Chapman (D)August 3, 1985
New York's 6th Joseph P. Addabbo (D)Died April 10, 1986. Alton R. Waldon Jr. (D)June 10, 1986
Hawaii's 1st Cecil Heftel (D)Resigned July 11, 1986. Neil Abercrombie (D)September 20, 1986
North Carolina's 10th Jim Broyhill (R)Resigned July 14, 1986 to become U.S. Senator. Cass Ballenger (R)November 4, 1986
Illinois's 4th George M. O'Brien (R)Died July 17, 1986.VacantNot filled this term
Illinois's 14th John E. Grotberg (R)Died November 15, 1986.
North Carolina's 3rd Charles O. Whitley (D)Resigned December 31, 1986.

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Employees and legislative agency directors

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.

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References