5th United States Congress

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5th United States Congress
4th  
  6th
Congress Hall exterior.jpg
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1799
Senate President Thomas Jefferson (DR)
Senate President pro tem William Bradford (F)
Jacob Read (F)
Theodore Sedgwick (F)
John Laurance (F)
James Ross (F)
House Speaker Jonathan Dayton (F)
Members32 senators
106 members of the House
Senate Majority Federalist
House Majority Federalist
Sessions
Special: March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1797
1st: May 15, 1797 – July 10, 1797
2nd: November 13, 1797 – July 16, 1798
Special: July 17, 1798 – July 19, 1798
3rd: December 3, 1798 – March 3, 1799

The Fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from March 4, 1797, to March 4, 1799, during the first two years of John Adams' presidency.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

United States House of Representatives Lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national legislature of the United States.

Congress Hall museum

Congress Hall, located in Philadelphia at the intersection of Chestnut and 6th Streets, served as the seat of the United States Congress from December 6, 1790 to May 14, 1800. During Congress Hall's duration as the capitol of the United States, the country admitted three new states, Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee; ratified the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution; and oversaw the 2nd Presidential inaugurations of both George Washington and John Adams.

Contents

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. Both chambers had a Federalist majority.

Federalist Party First political party in the United States

The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party, was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to the 1820s, with their last presidential candidate being fielded in 1816. They appealed to business and to conservatives who favored banks, national over state government, manufacturing, and preferred Britain and opposed the French Revolution.

One of the Alien and Sedition Acts Alien and Sedition Acts (1798).jpg
One of the Alien and Sedition Acts

Major events

John Adams 2nd president of the United States

John Adams Jr. was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. Before his presidency, he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain and served as the first vice president of the United States. Adams was a dedicated diarist and regularly corresponded with many important figures in early American history, including his wife and adviser, Abigail. His letters and other papers serve as an important source of historical information about the era.

Thomas Jefferson Third President of the United States

Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he had served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights, motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level.

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Major legislation

<i>United States Statutes at Large</i> An official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions

The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is originally published as a slip law, which is classified as either public law or private law (Pvt.L.), and designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications. The session law publication for U.S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U.S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, and codification.

Alien and Sedition Acts series of Acts of Congress

The Alien and Sedition Acts were four laws passed by the Federalist-dominated 5th United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798. They made it harder for an immigrant to become a citizen, allowed the president to imprison and deport non-citizens who were deemed dangerous or who were from a hostile nation, and criminalized making false statements that were critical of the federal government. The Alien Friends Act expired two years after its passage, and the Sedition Act expired on 3 March 1801, while the Naturalization Act and Alien Enemies Act had no expiration clause.

Naturalization Act of 1798

The Naturalization Act, passed by the United States Congress on June 18, 1798, increased the period necessary for immigrants to become naturalized citizens in the United States from 5 to 14 years.

Territories organized

Mississippi Territory territory of the USA between 1798-1817

The Territory of Mississippi was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from April 7, 1798, until December 10, 1817, when the western half of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Mississippi and the eastern half became the Alabama Territory until its admittance to the Union as the State of Alabama on December 14, 1819.

Georgia (U.S. state) U.S. state in the United States

Georgia is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Georgia is the 24th largest in area and 8th-most populous of the 50 United States. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, and to the west by Alabama. Atlanta, a "beta(+)" global city, is both the state's capital and largest city. The Atlanta metropolitan area, with an estimated population of 5,949,951 in 2018, is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in the United States and contains about 60% of the entire state population.

South Carolina U.S. state in the United States

South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River.

Treaties ratified

Treaty of Tripoli treaty between the USA and Tripolitania, ratified in 1797, and remembered for its position on church-state separation

The Treaty of Tripoli, signed in 1796, was the first treaty between the United States of America and Tripoli to secure commercial shipping rights and protect American ships in the Mediterranean Sea from local Barbary pirates.

Tripoli Capital city in Greater Tripoli, Libya

Tripoli is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.158 million people in 2018. It is located in the northwest of Libya on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land projecting into the Mediterranean Sea and forming a bay. It includes the port of Tripoli and the country's largest commercial and manufacturing centre. It is also the site of the University of Tripoli. The vast Bab al-Azizia barracks, which includes the former family estate of Muammar Gaddafi, is also located in the city. Colonel Gaddafi largely ruled the country from his residence in this barracks.

Party summary

Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of previous congress 11 21320
Begin 9 22 31 1
End
Final voting share29.0% 71.0%
Beginning of next congress 9 22311

House of Representatives

5thHouse.svg
Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of previous congress 59 471060
Begin 49 56 105 1
End 50 1060
Final voting share47.2% 52.8%
Beginning of next congress 46 601060
President of the Senate Thomas Jefferson BustThomasJefferson.jpg
President of the Senate Thomas Jefferson

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1802; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1798; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1800.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress

Senate

There were 9 resignations, 2 deaths, 1 expulsion, 1 late selection, and 2 elections to replace appointees. Neither party had a net gain of seats.

State
(class)
VacatorReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 1]
Tennessee
(1)
VacantTennessee failed to elect a Senator on time William Cocke (DR)Appointed May 15, 1797
Tennessee
(2)
William Blount (DR)Expelled July 8, 1797 Joseph Anderson (DR)Elected September 26, 1797
Tennessee
(1)
William Cocke (DR)Interim appointment until September 26, 1797 Andrew Jackson (DR)Elected September 26, 1797
Rhode Island
(2)
William Bradford (F)Resigned sometime in October, 1797 Ray Greene (F)Elected November 13, 1797
Vermont
(1)
Isaac Tichenor (F)Resigned October 17, 1797 Nathaniel Chipman (F)Elected October 17, 1797
Maryland
(3)
John Henry (F)Resigned December 10, 1797 James Lloyd (F)Elected December 11, 1797
New York
(1)
Philip John Schuyler (F)Resigned January 3, 1798 John Sloss Hobart (F)Elected January 11, 1798
Delaware
(2)
John Vining (F)Resigned January 19, 1798 Joshua Clayton (F)Elected January 19, 1798
Tennessee
(1)
Andrew Jackson (DR)Resigned sometime in April, 1798 Daniel Smith (DR)Appointed October 6, 1798
New York
(1)
John Sloss Hobart (F)Resigned April 16, 1798 William North (F)Appointed May 5, 1798
Delaware
(2)
Joshua Clayton (F)Died August 11, 1798 William H. Wells (F)Elected January 17, 1799
New York
(1)
William North (F)Interim appointment until August 17, 1798 James Watson (F)Elected August 17, 1798
New Jersey
(1)
John Rutherfurd (F)Resigned November 26, 1798 Franklin Davenport (F)Appointed December 5, 1798
South Carolina
(2)
John Hunter (DR)Resigned November 26, 1798 Charles Pinckney (DR)Elected December 6, 1798
Virginia
(2)
Henry Tazewell (DR)Died January 24, 1799VacantNot filled in this Congress

House of Representatives

There were 9 resignations and 3 deaths. The Federalists had a 1-seat net loss and the Democratic-Republicans had a 1-seat net gain.

DistrictVacatorReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 1]
Vermont 2 Vacant Daniel Buck (F) had been re-elected, but declined to serve.
Successor elected May 23, 1797. [2]
Lewis R. Morris (F)May 24, 1797
Rhode Island at-large Elisha Potter (F)Resigned sometime in 1797.
Successor elected August 29, 1797. [2]
Thomas Tillinghast (F)Seated November 13, 1797
South Carolina 1 William L. Smith (F)Resigned July 10, 1797.
Successor elected September 4–5, 1797. [2]
Thomas Pinckney (F)Seated November 23, 1797
Massachusetts 11 Theophilus Bradbury (F)Resigned July 24, 1797.
Successor elected August 4, 1797. [2]
Bailey Bartlett (F)Seated November 27, 1797
New Hampshire at-large Jeremiah Smith (F)Resigned July 26, 1797.
Successor elected August 28, 1797. [2]
Peleg Sprague (F)Seated December 15, 1797
Connecticut at-large James Davenport (F)Died August 3, 1797.
Successor elected September 18, 1797. [2]
William Edmond (F)Seated November 13, 1797
Tennessee at-large Andrew Jackson (DR)Resigned sometime in September 1797 to become U.S. Senator.
Successor elected September 26, 1797. [3]
William C.C. Claiborne (DR)Seated November 23, 1797
Pennsylvania 5 George Ege (F)Resigned sometime in October 1797.
Successor elected October 10, 1797. [2]
Joseph Hiester (DR)Seated December 1, 1797
Pennsylvania 4 Samuel Sitgreaves (F)Resigned sometime in 1798.
Successor elected October 9, 1798. [2]
Robert Brown (DR)Seated December 4, 1798
North Carolina 10 Nathan Bryan (DR)Died June 4, 1798.
Successor elected August 2, 1798. [2]
Richard Dobbs Spaight (DR)Seated December 10, 1798
Pennsylvania 1 John Swanwick (DR)Died July 31, 1798.
Successor elected October 9, 1798. [2]
Robert Waln (F)Seated December 3, 1798
Connecticut at-large Joshua Coit (F)Died September 5, 1798.
Successor elected October 22, 1798. [2]
Jonathan Brace (F)Seated December 3, 1798
Virginia 9 William Giles (DR)Resigned October 2, 1798.
Successor elected November 1, 1798. [2]
Joseph Eggleston (DR)Seated December 3, 1798

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.

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References

  1. "Executive Journal (Fourteenth session)". Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States of America. Library of Congress. June 7, 1797. p. 244.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Date cited is the election date, but the winner in some cases "took" his seat on a later date. See Dubin, Michael J. (1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN   0786402830.
  3. Election date, but winner was seated later. See https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:tn.ushouserepresentatives.1797