5th United States Congress

Last updated

5th United States Congress
4th  
  6th
Congress Hall exterior.jpg

March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1799
Members32 senators
106 representatives
Senate Majority Federalist
Senate President Thomas Jefferson (DR)
House Majority Federalist
House Speaker Jonathan Dayton (F)
Sessions
Special: March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1797
1st: May 15, 1797 – July 10, 1797
2nd: November 13, 1797 – July 16, 1798
Special: July 17, 1798 – July 19, 1798
3rd: December 3, 1798 – March 3, 1799

The 5th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from March 4, 1797, to March 4, 1799, during the first two years of John Adams' presidency. In the context of the Quasi-War with France, the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed by congress. The Acts were overwhelmingly supported by the Federalists and mostly opposed by the Democratic-Republicans. Some Democratic-Republicans, such as Timothy Bloodworth, said they would support formally going to war against France but they opposed the Alien and Sedition Acts which Bloodworth and others believed were unconstitutional. [1]

Contents

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. Both chambers had a Federalist majority.

One of the Alien and Sedition Acts Alien and Sedition Acts (1798).png
One of the Alien and Sedition Acts

Major events

Major legislation

Territories organized

Treaties ratified

Party summary

Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of previous congress 11 21320
Begin 9 22 31 1
End
Final voting share29.0% 71.0%
Beginning of next congress 9 22311

House of Representatives

Fifth Congress with House Districts.svg
Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of previous congress 59 471060
Begin 49 56 105 1
End 50 1060
Final voting share47.2% 52.8%
Beginning of next congress 46 601060
President of the Senate Thomas Jefferson BustThomasJefferson.jpg
President of the Senate Thomas Jefferson

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1802; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1798; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1800.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress

Senate

There were 9 resignations, 2 deaths, 1 expulsion, 1 late selection, and 2 elections to replace appointees. Neither party had a net gain of seats.

State
(class)
Vacated byReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 1]
Tennessee
(1)
VacantTennessee failed to elect a Senator on time William Cocke (DR)Appointed May 15, 1797
Tennessee
(2)
William Blount (DR)Expelled July 8, 1797 Joseph Anderson (DR)Elected September 26, 1797
Tennessee
(1)
William Cocke (DR)Interim appointment until September 26, 1797 Andrew Jackson (DR)Elected September 26, 1797
Rhode Island
(2)
William Bradford (F)Resigned sometime in October, 1797 Ray Greene (F)Elected November 13, 1797
Vermont
(1)
Isaac Tichenor (F)Resigned October 17, 1797 Nathaniel Chipman (F)Elected October 17, 1797
Maryland
(3)
John Henry (F)Resigned December 10, 1797 James Lloyd (F)Elected December 11, 1797
New York
(1)
Philip John Schuyler (F)Resigned January 3, 1798 John Sloss Hobart (F)Elected January 11, 1798
Delaware
(2)
John Vining (F)Resigned January 19, 1798 Joshua Clayton (F)Elected January 19, 1798
Tennessee
(1)
Andrew Jackson (DR)Resigned sometime in April, 1798 Daniel Smith (DR)Appointed October 6, 1798
New York
(1)
John Sloss Hobart (F)Resigned April 16, 1798 William North (F)Appointed May 5, 1798
Delaware
(2)
Joshua Clayton (F)Died August 11, 1798 William H. Wells (F)Elected January 17, 1799
New York
(1)
William North (F)Interim appointment until August 17, 1798 James Watson (F)Elected August 17, 1798
New Jersey
(1)
John Rutherfurd (F)Resigned November 26, 1798 Franklin Davenport (F)Appointed December 5, 1798
South Carolina
(2)
John Hunter (DR)Resigned November 26, 1798 Charles Pinckney (DR)Elected December 6, 1798
Virginia
(2)
Henry Tazewell (DR)Died January 24, 1799VacantNot filled in this Congress

House of Representatives

There were 9 resignations and 3 deaths. The Federalists had a 1-seat net loss and the Democratic-Republicans had a 1-seat net gain.

DistrictVacated byReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 1]
Vermont 2 Vacant Daniel Buck (F) had been re-elected, but declined to serve.
Successor elected May 23, 1797. [4]
Lewis R. Morris (F)May 24, 1797
Rhode Island at-large Elisha Potter (F)Resigned sometime in 1797.
Successor elected August 29, 1797. [4]
Thomas Tillinghast (F)Seated November 13, 1797
South Carolina 1 William L. Smith (F)Resigned July 10, 1797.
Successor elected September 4–5, 1797. [4]
Thomas Pinckney (F)Seated November 23, 1797
Massachusetts 11 Theophilus Bradbury (F)Resigned July 24, 1797.
Successor elected August 4, 1797. [4]
Bailey Bartlett (F)Seated November 27, 1797
New Hampshire at-large Jeremiah Smith (F)Resigned July 26, 1797.
Successor elected August 28, 1797. [4]
Peleg Sprague (F)Seated December 15, 1797
Connecticut at-large James Davenport (F)Died August 3, 1797.
Successor elected September 18, 1797. [4]
William Edmond (F)Seated November 13, 1797
Tennessee at-large Andrew Jackson (DR)Resigned sometime in September 1797 to become U.S. Senator.
Successor elected September 26, 1797. [5]
William C.C. Claiborne (DR)Seated November 23, 1797
Pennsylvania 5 George Ege (F)Resigned sometime in October 1797.
Successor elected October 10, 1797. [4]
Joseph Hiester (DR)Seated December 1, 1797
Pennsylvania 4 Samuel Sitgreaves (F)Resigned sometime in 1798.
Successor elected October 9, 1798. [4]
Robert Brown (DR)Seated December 4, 1798
North Carolina 10 Nathan Bryan (DR)Died June 4, 1798.
Successor elected August 2, 1798. [4]
Richard Dobbs Spaight (DR)Seated December 10, 1798
Pennsylvania 1 John Swanwick (DR)Died July 31, 1798.
Successor elected October 9, 1798. [4]
Robert Waln (F)Seated December 3, 1798
Connecticut at-large Joshua Coit (F)Died September 5, 1798.
Successor elected October 22, 1798. [4]
Jonathan Brace (F)Seated December 3, 1798
Virginia 9 William Giles (DR)Resigned October 2, 1798.
Successor elected November 1, 1798. [4]
Joseph Eggleston (DR)Seated December 3, 1798

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.

Related Research Articles

In 1798, President John Adams signed the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were passed by the Federalist-dominated 5th United States Congress. They made it harder for an immigrant to become a citizen, allowed the president to imprison and deport non-citizens who were known as dangerous or who were from a hostile nation, and criminalized making 'false statements' critical of the federal government. The "Alien Friends Act" expired two years after its passage, and the "Sedition Act" expired on 3 March 1801, while the "Naturalization Act" and "Alien Enemies Act" had no expiration clause.

2nd United States Congress Legislative term from 1791–1793

The 2nd United States Congress, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from March 4, 1791, to March 4, 1793, during the third and fourth years of George Washington's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the provisions of Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution. Additional House seats were assigned to the two new states of Vermont and Kentucky. Both chambers had a Pro-Administration majority.

3rd United States Congress Legislative term from 1793-1795

The 3rd United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from March 4, 1793, to March 4, 1795, during the fifth and sixth years of George Washington's presidency.

6th United States Congress Meeting of the U.S. federal legislature from 1799 to 1801

The 6th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1799, to March 4, 1801, during the last two years of John Adams's presidency. It was the last Congress of the 18th century and the first to convene in the 19th. The apportionment of seats in House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. Both chambers had a Federalist majority. This was the last Congress in which the Federalist Party controlled the presidency or either chamber of Congress.

7th United States Congress 1801–1803 U.S. Congress

The 7th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1801, to March 4, 1803, during the first two years of Thomas Jefferson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority, except during the Special session of the Senate, when there was a Federalist majority in the Senate.

10th United States Congress Meeting of the United States federal governments legislative branch (1807-09)

The 10th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1807, to March 4, 1809, during the seventh and eighth years of Thomas Jefferson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1800 census; both chambers had an overwhelming Democratic-Republican majority.

Matthew Lyon American politician (1749–1822)

Matthew Lyon was an Irish-born American printer, farmer, soldier and politician, who served as a United States representative from both Vermont and Kentucky.

72nd United States Congress 1931–1933 U.S. Congress

The 72nd United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1931, to March 4, 1933, during the last two years of Herbert Hoover's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Decennial Census of the United States in 1910. The Senate had a Republican majority. The House started with a very slim Republican majority, but by the time it first met in December 1931, the Democrats had gained a majority through special elections.

80th United States Congress 1947–1949 U.S. Congress

The 80th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1947, to January 3, 1949, during the third and fourth years of Harry S. Truman's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Sixteenth Census of the United States in 1940.

74th United States Congress 1935–1937 U.S. Congress

The 74th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1935, to January 3, 1937, during the third and fourth years of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifteenth Census of the United States in 1930.

65th United States Congress 1917-1919 U.S. Congress

The 65th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1917, to March 4, 1919, during the fifth and sixth years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in 1910.

77th United States Congress 1941–1943 U.S. Congress

The 77th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1941, to January 3, 1943, during the ninth and tenth years of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Sixteenth Census of the United States in 1930.

38th United States Congress 1863-1865 U.S. Congress

The 38th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1863, to March 4, 1865, during the last two years of the first administration of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. The Senate had a Republican majority, and the House of Representatives had a Republican plurality.

39th United States Congress Legislative branch of the U.S. federal government from March 4, 1865 to March 4, 1867

The 39th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1865, to March 4, 1867, during Abraham Lincoln's final month as president, and the first two years of the administration of his successor, U.S. President Andrew Johnson.

37th United States Congress 1861-1863 U.S. Congress

The 37th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1861, to March 4, 1863, during the first two years of Abraham Lincoln's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventh Census of the United States in 1850.

41st United States Congress 1869-1871 U.S. Congress

The 41st United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1871, during the first two years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

1798 and 1799 United States House of Representatives elections House elections for the 6th U.S. Congress

The 1798 and 1799 United States House of Representatives elections were held during President John Adams term. The earliest in New York in April 1798, and the latest in Tennessee in August 1799, after the official start of the 6th Congress on March 4, 1799, but before the start of the first session of this Congress in Philadelphia on December 2, 1799. It was the last congressional session before the move to the new capital at Washington, D.C.

Presidency of John Adams U.S. presidential administration from 1797 to 1801

The presidency of John Adams, began on March 4, 1797, when John Adams was inaugurated as the second president of the United States, and ended on March 4, 1801. Adams, who had served as vice president under George Washington, took office as president after winning the 1796 presidential election. The only member of the Federalist Party to ever serve as president, his presidency ended after a single term following his defeat in the 1800 presidential election. He was succeeded by Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party.

Report of 1800 US 1800 government report

The Report of 1800 was a resolution drafted by James Madison arguing for the sovereignty of the individual states under the United States Constitution and against the Alien and Sedition Acts. Adopted by the Virginia General Assembly in January 1800, the Report amends arguments from the 1798 Virginia Resolutions and attempts to resolve contemporary criticisms against the Resolutions. The Report was the last important explication of the Constitution produced before the 1817 Bonus Bill veto message by Madison, who has come to be regarded as the "Father of the Constitution."

4th United States Congress 1795–1797 meeting of U.S. legislature

The 4th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from March 4, 1795, to March 4, 1797, during the last two years of George Washington's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. The Senate had a Federalist majority, and the House had a Democratic-Republican majority.

References

  1. The Presidency of John Adams by Ralph A. Brown, University Press of Kansas, 1975
  2. The Reign of Witches: The Struggle Against the Alien and Sedition Laws, 1789-1800 by Elizabeth Lawson
  3. "Executive Journal (Fourteenth session)". Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States of America. Library of Congress. June 7, 1797. p. 244.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Date cited is the election date, but the winner in some cases "took" his seat on a later date. See Dubin, Michael J. (1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN   0786402830.
  5. Election date, but winner was seated later. See https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:tn.ushouserepresentatives.1797 Archived March 11, 2020, at the Wayback Machine