This article needs additional citations for verification . (August 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
William C. C. Claiborne
William C. C. Claiborne (age mid-30s).
| United States Senator |
March 4, 1817 – November 23, 1817
|Preceded by||James Brown|
|Succeeded by||Henry Johnson|
|1st Governor of Louisiana|
April 30, 1812 –December 16, 1816
|Preceded by||Himself (as Governor of the Territory of Orleans)|
|Succeeded by||Jacques Villeré|
|Governor of the Territory of Orleans|
December 20, 1803 –April 30, 1866
|Preceded by||Pierre Clément de Laussat (Under French control)|
|Succeeded by||Himself (as Governor of Louisiana)|
|2nd Governor of Mississippi Territory|
May 25, 1801 –March 1, 1803
|Preceded by||Winthrop Sargent|
|Succeeded by||Robert Williams|
|Member of the |
U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's at-large district
November 23, 1797 –March 3, 1801
|Preceded by||Andrew Jackson|
|Succeeded by||William Dickson|
William Charles Cole Claiborne
Sussex County, Colony of Virginia, British America
|Died||November 23, 1817 (aged approx. 42)|
New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
|Relatives||Claiborne Pell (great-great-great-grandnephew)|
|Alma mater|| College of William & Mary |
William Charles Cole Claiborne (c. 1773~1775 – 23 November 1817) was an American politician, best known as the first non-colonial governor of Louisiana. He also has the distinction of possibly being the youngest member of the United States Congress in U.S. history, although reliable sources differ about his age.
Claiborne supervised the transfer of Louisiana to U.S. control after the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, governing the "Territory of Orleans" from 1804–1812, the year in which Louisiana became a state. He won the first election for Louisiana's state Governor and served through 1816, for a total of thirteen years as Louisiana's executive administrator. New Orleans served as the capital city during both the colonial period and the early statehood period.[ citation needed ]
William C.C. Claiborne was born in Sussex County, Virginia sometime between 1773~1775.His parents were Colonel William Claiborne and Mary Leigh Claiborne. He was a descendant of Colonel William Claiborne (1600–1677), an English pioneer who was born in Crayford, Kent, England, and settled in the Colony of Virginia.
Claiborne studied at the College of William and Mary, then Richmond Academy. At age 16 he moved to New York City, which was then the seat of U.S. Congress, where he worked as a clerk under John Beckley, the clerk of the United States House of Representatives. He moved to Philadelphia with the Federal Government. Claiborne then began to study law.[ citation needed ]
In 1794 Claiborne moved to Tennessee to start a law practice. Governor John Sevier appointed Claiborne to the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1796.[ citation needed ] In 1797, he resigned his appointment to the court and ran for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives. He won, and succeeded Andrew Jackson, though he apparently was not yet twenty-five years of age as required by the United States Constitution. Earlier in 1797, he described his age to George Washington in vague terms: "Born, Sir, at a period, when every American Breast palpitated for freedom, I became early attached to civil Liberty. ..."
Claiborne took his seat in the House on November 23, 1797.State records apparently indicate that, when he took his seat, he was 24. Other sources speculate he was 22. His gravestone says he was 23.
Claiborne served in the House through 1801. The United States presidential election of 1800 was decided in the House of Representatives, due to a tie in the Electoral College, by which time Claiborne had already turned 25 years old.
Claiborne was appointed governor and superintendent of Indian affairs in the Mississippi Territory, from 1801–1803. Although he favored acquiring some land from the Choctaw and Chickasaw, Claiborne was generally sympathetic and conciliatory toward Indians. He worked long and patiently to iron out differences that arose, and to improve the material well-being of the Indians.[ citation needed ]
Claiborne was also partly successful in promoting the establishment of law and order in the region. From 1803–1804, he offered a two-thousand dollar reward to eliminate, once and for all, a gang of outlaws headed by the notorious Samuel Mason.
Though he looked out for his constituents, his positions on issues indicated a national rather than regional focus. Claiborne expressed the philosophy of the Republican Party and helped that party defeat the Federalists.[ citation needed ]
When a smallpox epidemic broke out in the spring of 1802, Claiborne's actions resulted in the first recorded mass vaccination in the territory and saved Natchez from the disease.
Claiborne moved to New Orleans and oversaw the transfer of Louisiana to U.S. control after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Local French and Spanish inhabitants saw it for what it was, i.e., a military occupation [ citation needed ]which they resented, quoting in their remonstrances and meetings that they were no more than conquered subjects who had not been consulted. He governed what would become the state of Louisiana, then termed the "Territory of Orleans", during its period as a United States territory from 1804 until 1812.
Relations with Louisiana's Créole population were initially rather strained: Claiborne was young, inexperienced, and unsure of himself, and at the time of his arrival spoke no French. The white elite were initially alarmed when Claiborne retained the services of free people of color in the militia, who had served with considerable distinction during the preceding forty-year Spanish rule. Claiborne bestowed a ceremonial flag and 'colors' on the battalion, an act which would enmesh him in a duel three years later.
The duel was held in then-Spanish territory, near the current Houmas House plantation, with his arch-enemy Daniel Clark. On June 8, 1807, the Governor was shot through one thigh, with the bullet lodging in the other leg. [ citation needed ]Claiborne gradually gained the confidence of the French elite and oversaw the taking in of Francophone refugees from the Haitian Revolution.
An event which is now said to have been the largest slave revolt in U.S. history, the 1811 German Coast Uprising, occurred while Claiborne was the territorial Governor. However, the American government, over which he presided, had little participation in its suppression. The parish courts, dominated by wealthy planters, imposed quick convictions and sentencing of those black slaves who survived the fighting. Federal military forces arrived too late to either capture the slave rebels or prevent what amounted to their slaughter at the hands of the local militia: The powerful white planters along the Mississippi River.[ citation needed ]
Claiborne himself wrote at least twice to parish officials requesting that they refer cases to him for executive pardon or clemency, rather than accept the wholesale death sentences which were being handed out in Orleans Parish, as well as in St. Charles Parish and St. John the Baptist Parish. The only known beneficiaries of his pardon were two men named Theodore and Henry; however, no records exist of Claiborne refusing any other pardon requests related to the rebellion.
After the Republic of West Florida won a short-lived period of independence (from Spain) in 1810, Claiborne annexed the area to the Orleans Territory on the orders of President James Madison, who determined to consider it as part of the Louisiana Purchase.[ citation needed ]
Claiborne was the first elected governor after Louisiana became a U.S. state, winning the election of 1812 against Jacques Villeré, and serving from 1812 through 1816. On the eve of the War of 1812 he sent interpreter Simon Favre to the Choctaws to attempt to keep them out of the war. Claiborne raised militia companies and negotiated the aid of Jean Lafitte to defend New Orleans from British attack late in 1814.
After his term as governor, Claiborne was elected to the United States Senate, serving from March 4, 1817, until his death on November 23, 1817, years to the day after his first day in Congress.[ citation needed ]which was 20
Claiborne died on November 23, 1817. The Louisiana Courier attributed Claiborne's demise to a "liver ailment". p223) Claiborne was buried at the St. Louis Cemetery Number 1, in New Orleans, then the most prestigious of the city's cemeteries. This was a controversial honor, as it is a Roman Catholic cemetery, while Claiborne was Protestant. He was later re-interred at the Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans.(
Claiborne Parish, Louisiana, was named in his honor as were two U.S. counties: Claiborne County, Mississippi; and Claiborne County, Tennessee. The longest street in New Orleans was named in his honor: Claiborne Avenue.[ citation needed ]
The Supreme Court case Claiborne v. Police Jury established the three distinct governing structures of the U.S. in Louisiana. The decision was only made after Claiborne's death.
The World War II Camp Claiborne was named for him in 1939. This installation is still used today for training the Louisiana Army National Guard, particularly by the 256th Infantry Brigade for road marches and land navigation.[ citation needed ]
The Claiborne Building is located in downtown Baton Rouge and serves as an administrative center for the Louisiana state government.[ citation needed ]
In 1993, Claiborne was posthumously inducted into the Louisiana Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfield. He was among the first thirteen inductees into the Hall of Fame.
Claiborne's first two wives, Eliza Wilson Lewis and Marie Clarisse Duralde, died of yellow fever in New Orleans, within five years of each other. The child of the first marriage, a little girl named Cornelia Tennessee Claiborne, died the same day as her mother. The second marriage produced a son, William C.C. Claiborne, Jr.
In 1812, Governor Claiborne married a third time, to Suzette Bosque, daughter of Don Bartólome Bosque, a Spanish colonial official. Their child was Sophronië (or Sophronia) Louise Claiborne, who married Antoine James de Marigny, son of Bernard de Marigny.[ citation needed ]
William Claiborne was the great-great-great-grandfather of fashion designer Liz Claiborne.
Claiborne was related to numerous individuals who served in Congress over several generations.He was the brother of Nathaniel Herbert Claiborne, nephew of Thomas Claiborne, uncle of John Francis Hamtramck Claiborne, granduncle of James Robert Claiborne, great-great-great granduncle of Lindy Boggs, and great-great-great granduncle of Claiborne Pell.
The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States from France in 1803. In return for fifteen million dollars, or approximately eighteen dollars per square mile, the United States nominally acquired a total of 828,000 sq mi. However, France only controlled a small fraction of this area, most of it inhabited by American Indians; for the majority of the area, what the United States bought was the "preemptive" right to obtain Indian lands by treaty or by conquest, to the exclusion of other colonial powers. The total cost of all subsequent treaties and financial settlements over the land has been estimated to be around 2.6 billion dollars.
The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory. The territory was formed out of the District of Louisiana, which consisted of the portion of the Louisiana Purchase north of the 33rd parallel.
David Holmes was an American politician in Virginia and Mississippi. He served five terms as a US congressman from Virginia's 2nd congressional district, and later was important in Mississippi's development as a state. He was appointed by the federal government as the fourth and last governor of the Mississippi Territory. In 1817 he was unanimously elected as the first governor of the state of Mississippi. He served a term as US senator from Mississippi, appointed to fill a vacancy until elected by the legislature. Elected again as governor, he was forced to resign early due to ill health. He returned to Virginia in his last years.
West Florida was a region on the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico that underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history. As its name suggests, it was formed out of the western part of former Spanish Florida, along with lands taken from French Louisiana; Pensacola became West Florida's capital. The colony included about two thirds of what is now the Florida Panhandle, as well as parts of the modern U.S. states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.
Daniel Clark was the first Delegate from the Territory of Orleans to the United States House of Representatives. Born in Sligo, Ireland, he was reportedly educated at Eton College in England.
The Territory of Orleans or Orleans Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from October 1, 1804, until April 30, 1812, when it was admitted to the Union as the State of Louisiana.
The Territory of Mississippi was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from April 7, 1798, until December 10, 1817, when the western half of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Mississippi. The eastern half was redesignated as the Alabama Territory until it was admitted to the Union as the State of Alabama on December 14, 1819.
John Francis Hamtramck Claiborne was a member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Mississippi.
Nathaniel Herbert Claiborne was a nineteenth-century American politician from Virginia. He was the brother of William Charles Cole Claiborne, the nephew of Thomas Claiborne, the uncle of John Francis Hamtramck Claiborne and the great-great-great granduncle of Marie Corinne Morrison Claiborne Boggs and Claiborne de Borda Pell. He was a descendant of Colonel William Claiborne (1600–1677), who was born in Crayford, Kent, England and settled in the Colony of Virginia.
The Republic of West Florida was a short-lived republic in the western region of Spanish West Florida for just over two and a half months during 1810. It was annexed and occupied by the United States later in 1810 and subsequently became part of eastern Louisiana.
James Pitot (1761–1831), also known as Jacques Pitot, was the third Mayor of New Orleans, after Cavelier Petit served for a ten-day interim following Mayor Boré's resignation. Because he had already attained American citizenship, he is sometimes called New Orleans' first American mayor.
Jean-Noël Destréhan de Tours was a Creole politician in Louisiana and one-time owner of St. Charles Parish's Destrehan Plantation, one of Louisiana's historic antebellum landmarks. The community of Destrehan was named for his family.
Henry S. Johnson was an American attorney and politician who served as the fifth Governor of Louisiana (1824–1828). He also served as a United States representative and as a United States senator.
Pierre Augustin Charles Bourguignon Derbigny was the sixth Governor of Louisiana. Born in 1769, at Laon, France, the eldest son of Augustin Bourguignon d'Herbigny who was President of the Directoire de l'Aisne and Mayor of Laon, and Louise Angélique Blondela.
The Claiborne-Dallas-Pell family is a family of politicians from the United States. Below is a list of members:
The 1811 German Coast uprising was a revolt of black slaves in parts of the Territory of Orleans on January 8–10, 1811. The uprising occurred on the east bank of the Mississippi River in what is now St. John the Baptist, St. Charles and Jefferson Parishes, Louisiana. While the slave insurgency was the largest in US history, the rebels killed only two white men. Confrontations with militia and executions after trial killed 95 black people.
William Sprigg was an American attorney who twice served as Justice of the Ohio Supreme Court, as well as adjudicated on the Superior Court of the Orleans Territory and the highest court of the Illinois Territory.
Robert Williams was Governor of the Mississippi Territory from 1805 to 1809.
Clarksville is a ghost town in Wilkinson County, Mississippi, United States.
22 years" and "William C.C. Claiborne
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William C. C. Claiborne .|
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives |
from Tennessee's at-large congressional district
| Governor of Mississippi Territory |
Pierre Clément de Laussat
| Governor of Territory of Orleans |
Became Governor of Louisiana
| Governor of Louisiana |
| U.S. senator (Class 2) from Louisiana |
Served alongside: Eligius Fromentin