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General ticket representation is a type of block voting in which voters opt for a party, or a team's set list of candidates, and the highest-polling one becomes the winner. It, unless tempered to apply to a specific proportion, arrives at a 100% return for one party's list who become representatives for the membership or representative positions which are the purpose of the election.
At (top-tier) national level it was used for as many as seven of the states, for any given regularly convened US Congress, in the US House of Representatives before 1967 but mainly before 1847; and in France, in the pre-World War I decades of the Third Republic which began in 1870. It is in use in the Parliament of Singapore as to its dominant type of constituencies, those being multi-member, however moderated by the inclusion of at least one person of a different race than the others in any "team" (which is not necessarily a party team) which is selected by voters.
As to the regional councils within countries it is used in France and Italy for a third and fifth of their councillors respectively, generally who then serve the region at-large.
In modern proportional systems, a full or partial return by the party-list system is common. The partial return is referred to as a return of additional members, who may serve regionally or cross-country at-large . Such modern systems award winners among more than the highest-polling party, if a low vote threshold is reached by a minority party, and often are counterweighted to do justice to the overall votes cast for smaller parties. This tempers a simple preference system as to smaller electoral districts used for the same chamber, body or assembly.
The scrutin de liste (Fr. scrutin, voting by ballot, and liste, a list) was, before World War I, a system of election of national representatives in France by which the electors of a department voted for a party-homogenous slate of deputies to be elected to serve it nationally. It was distinguished from the scrutin d'arrondissement, also called scrutin uninominal, under which the electors in each arrondissement returned one deputy.It has been abolished since, as to the French Parliament.
It is used on two-round basis to elect 1⁄3 of the regional councillors, and favours the largest party of that council's election.
In Italy, this system applies to 1⁄5 of the regional councillors since 1995. As in the French version, its goal is to ensure that the assembly is controlled by the leading coalition of parties. There is one round of voting.
In Singapore, the general ticket system, locally known as the party block vote, elects by far most members of the Parliament of Singapore from multi-member districts known as group representation constituencies (GRCs), on a first-past-the-post basis. This operates in parallel to elections from single-member district and nominations. It is moderated by the inclusion of at least one person of a different race than the others in any "team" (which is not necessarily a party team) which is selected by voters.
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For an at-large one-party return, many states adopted a general ticket. The state voted for and returned an at-large delegation to the House of Representatives. As in the Electoral College for Presidential elections this negates (outside of campaigning) the existence of any votes for any non-overall winning party's candidates. In terms of paper practices, these varied between issue of:
This was quite common until reserved to special use by the 1842 Apportionment Bill and locally implementing legislation which took effect after the 1845–47 Congress. Until the Congress ending in 1967 it took effect in rare instances, save for a two cases of ex-Confederate States – for one term – these had tiny delegations, were for top-up members to be at-large allocated pending redistricting, or were added to the union since the last census.
The following is a table of every instance of the use of the general ticket in the United States Congress.
number of representatives
|1st||1789–1791||Connecticut (5), New Jersey (4), New Hampshire (3), Pennsylvania (8)|
|2nd||1791–1793||Connecticut (5), New Jersey (4), New Hampshire (3)|
|3rd||1793–1795||Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Pennsylvania (13), Rhode Island (2)|
|4th||1795–1797||Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)|
|5th||1797–1799||Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)|
|6th||1799–1801||Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)|
|7th||1801–1803||Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)|
|8th||1803–1805||Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2), Tennessee (3)|
|9th||1805–1807||Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Jersey (5), Rhode Island (2)|
|10th||1807–1809||Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)|
|11th||1809–1811||Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)|
|12th||1811–1813||Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)|
|13th||1813–1815||Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)|
|14th||1815–1817||Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)|
|15th||1817–1819||Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)|
|16th||1819–1821||Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)|
|17th||1821–1823||Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)|
|18th||1823–1825||Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (5)|
|19th||1825–1827||Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)|
|20th||1827–1829||Connecticut (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)|
|21st||1829–1831||Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)|
|22nd||1831–1833||Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)|
|23rd||1833–1835||Connecticut (6), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)|
|24th||1835–1837||Connecticut (6), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)|
|25th||1837–1839||New Hampshire (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)|
|26th||1839–1841||New Hampshire (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)|
|27th||1841–1843||Alabama (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Hampshire (5), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)|
|28th||1843–1845||New Hampshire (4), Georgia (8), Missouri (5), Mississippi (4)|
|29th||1845–1847||Iowa (2), New Hampshire (4), Missouri (5), Mississippi (4)|
|35th||1857–1859||California (2), Minnesota (2)|
|36th||1859–1861||California (2), Minnesota (2)|
|37th||1861–1863||California (3), Minnesota (2)|
|38th to 42nd||1863–1873||California (3)|
|43rd to 47th||1873–1883||Florida (2), Kansas (3)|
|51st||1889–1891||South Dakota (2)|
|52nd||1891–1893||South Dakota (2)|
|53rd||1893–1895||South Dakota (2), Washington (2)|
|54th||1895–1897||South Dakota (2), Washington (2)|
|55th||1897–1899||South Dakota (2), Washington (2)|
|56th||1899–1901||South Dakota (2), Washington (2)|
|57th||1901–1903||South Dakota (2), Washington (2)|
|58th||1903–1905||North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)|
|59th||1905–1907||North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)|
|60th||1907–1909||North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)|
|61st||1909–1911||North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2)|
|62nd||1911–1913||North Dakota (2), New Mexico (2), South Dakota (2)|
|63rd||1913–1915||Idaho (2), Montana (2), UT (2)|
|64th||1915–1917||Idaho (2), Montana (2)|
|65th to 72nd||1917–1933||Idaho (2), Montana (2)|
|73rd||1933–1935||Kentucky (9), Minnesota (9), Missouri (13), North Dakota (2), Virginia (9)|
|74th||1935–1937||North Dakota (2)|
|75th||1937–1939||North Dakota (2)|
|76th||1939–1941||North Dakota (2)|
|77th||1941–1943||North Dakota (2)|
|78th||1943–1945||Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)|
|79th||1945–1947||Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)|
|80th||1947–1949||Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)|
|81st||1949–1951||New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)|
|82nd||1951–1953||New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)|
|83rd||1953–1955||New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)|
|84th||1955–1957||New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)|
|85th||1957–1959||New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)|
|86th||1959–1961||New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)|
|87th||1961–1963||New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)|
|88th||1963–1965||Alabama (8), Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)|
|89th||1965–1967||Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)|
|90th||1967–1969||Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)|
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical, and to ideological partitioning of the electorate. For instance at the European parliament each member state has a number of seats that is (roughly) proportional to its population. The same logic prevails when voters vote for parties. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party or set of candidates as their favorite, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party or those candidates. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result—not just a plurality, or a bare majority. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts, as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, PR systems that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve or closely approach proportional representation through the use of multiple-member constituencies and each voter casting a single ballot on which candidates are ranked. The preferential (ranked) balloting allows transfer of votes to produce proportionality, to form consensus behind select candidates and to avoid the waste of votes prevalent under other voting systems.
Single non-transferable vote or SNTV is an electoral system used in multi-member constituency elections. It is a generalization of first-past-the-post, applied to multi-member constituencies.
The additional member system (AMS), also known as mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) outside the United Kingdom, is a mixed electoral system with one tier of single-member district representatives, and another tier of ‘additional members’ elected to make the overall election results more proportional.
The Australian electoral system comprises the laws and processes used for the election of members of the Australian Parliament. The system presently has a number of distinctive features including compulsory enrolment, compulsory voting, majority-preferential instant-runoff voting in single-member seats to elect the lower house, the House of Representatives, and the use of the single transferable vote proportional representation system to elect the upper house, the Senate.
An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a subdivision of a larger state created to provide its population with representation in the larger state's legislative body. That body, or the state's constitution or a body established for that purpose, determines each district's boundaries and whether each will be represented by a single member or multiple members. Generally, only voters (constituents) who reside within the district are permitted to vote in an election held there. District representatives may be elected by a first-past-the-post system, a proportional representative system, or another voting method. They may be selected by a direct election under universal suffrage, an indirect election, or another form of suffrage.
France is a representative democracy. Public officials in the legislative and executive branches are either elected by the citizens or appointed by elected officials. Referendums may also be called to consult the French citizenry directly on a particular question, especially one which concerns amendment to the Constitution.
There are four types of elections in Spain: general elections, elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities, local elections and elections to the European Parliament. General elections and elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities are called after the mandate of the national or regional legislature expires, usually four years after the last election, although early elections may occur. Elections to local councils and to the European Parliament are held on fixed dates but some local government bodies are not directly elected. For most elections party list PR is used, but the plurality system is used for the Senate.
Elections in Belgium are organised for legislative bodies only, and not for executive functions. Direct elections take place for the European Parliament, the bicameral Federal Parliament, the Parliaments of the Communities and Regions, the provincial councils, the municipal councils and a few district councils. Voting is mandatory and all elections use proportional representation which in general requires coalition governments.
Elections in the Philippines are of several types. The president, vice-president, and the senators are elected for a six-year term, while the members of the House of Representatives, governors, vice-governors, members of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan, mayors, vice-mayors, members of the Sangguniang Panlungsod/members of the Sangguniang Bayan, barangay officials, and the members of the Sangguniang Kabataan are elected to serve for a three-year term.
The coattail effect or down-ballot effect is the tendency for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election. For example, in the United States, the party of a victorious presidential candidate will often win many seats in Congress as well; these Members of Congress are voted into office "on the coattails" of the president.
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 3rd Congress were held in 1792 and 1793, coinciding with the re-election of George Washington as President. While Washington ran for president as an independent, his followers formed the nation's first organized political party, the Federalist Party, whose members and sympathizers are identified as pro-Administration on this page. In response, followers of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison created the opposition Democratic-Republican Party, who are identified as anti-Administration on this page. The Federalists promoted urbanization, industrialization, mercantilism, centralized government, and a broad interpretation of the United States Constitution. In contrast, Democratic-Republicans supported the ideal of an agrarian republic made up of self-sufficient farmers and small, localized governments with limited power.
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 1st Congress were held in 1788 and 1789, coinciding with the election of George Washington as first President of the United States. The dates and methods of election were set by the states. Actual political parties did not yet exist, but new members of Congress were informally categorized as either "pro-Administration" or "anti-Administration".
At-large is a description for members of a governing body who are elected or appointed to represent a whole membership or population, rather than a subset. In multi-hierarchical bodies the term rarely extends to a tier beneath the highest division. A contrast is implied, with certain electoral districts or narrower divisions. It can be given to the associated territory, if any, to denote its undivided nature, in a specific context. Unambiguous synonymous are the prefixes of cross-, all- or whole-, such as cross-membership, or all-state.
Split-ticket voting is when a voter in an election votes for candidates from different political parties when multiple offices are being decided by a single election, as opposed to straight-ticket voting, where a voter chooses candidates from the same political party for every office up for election.
Elections in California are held to fill various local, state and federal seats. In California, regular elections are held every even year ; however, some seats have terms of office that are longer than two years, so not every seat is on the ballot in every election. Special elections may be held to fill vacancies at other points in time. Recall elections can also be held. Additionally, statewide initiatives, legislative referrals and referenda may be on the ballot.
A plural district was a district in the United States House of Representatives that was represented by more than one member. States using this method elected multiple members from some of their geographically defined districts. They did so on a single ballot or on separate concurrent ballots for each seat. In more modern terms, for less ambiguity, such a district is termed a multi-member district.
Electoral districts go by different names depending on the country and the office being elected.
Municipal elections in France allow the people to elect members of the City Council in each commune. These are called conseillers municipaux. They elect the mayor, who chairs the city council, as well as Deputies to the Mayor. The term of office of councilors, the mayor and his deputies is, in principle, six years.
The 2020 French municipal elections were held from 15 March to 28 June to renew the municipal councils of the approximately 35,000 French communes. The first round took place on 15 March and the second round was postponed to 28 June due to the 2020 coronavirus pandemic.