General ticket

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General ticket representation is a type of block voting in which voters opt for a party, or a team's set list of candidates, and the highest-polling one becomes the winner. It, unless tempered to apply to a specific proportion, arrives at a 100% return for one party's list who become representatives for the membership or representative positions which are the purpose of the election.

Contents

At (top-tier) national level it was used for as many as seven of the states, for any given regularly convened US Congress, in the US House of Representatives before 1967 but mainly before 1847; and in France, in the pre-World War I decades of the Third Republic which began in 1870. It is in use in the Parliament of Singapore as to its dominant type of constituencies, those being multi-member, however moderated by the inclusion of at least one person of a different race than the others in any "team" (which is not necessarily a party team) which is selected by voters.

As to the regional councils within countries it is used in France and Italy for a third and fifth of their councillors respectively, generally who then serve the region at-large.

In modern proportional systems, a full or partial return by the party-list system is common. The partial return is referred to as a return of additional members, who may serve regionally or cross-country at-large . Such modern systems award winners among more than the highest-polling party, if a low vote threshold is reached by a minority party, and often are counterweighted to do justice to the overall votes cast for smaller parties. This tempers a simple preference system as to smaller electoral districts used for the same chamber, body or assembly.

Usage

France

The scrutin de liste (Fr. scrutin, voting by ballot, and liste, a list) was, before World War I, a system of election of national representatives in France by which the electors of a department voted for a party-homogenous slate of deputies to be elected to serve it nationally. It was distinguished from the scrutin d'arrondissement, also called scrutin uninominal, under which the electors in each arrondissement returned one deputy. [1] It has been abolished since, as to the French Parliament.

It is used on two-round basis to elect 13 of the regional councillors, and favours the largest party of that council's election.

Italy

In Italy, this system applies to 15 of the regional councillors since 1995. As in the French version, its goal is to ensure that the assembly is controlled by the leading coalition of parties. There is one round of voting.

Singapore

In Singapore, the general ticket system, locally known as the party block vote, elects by far most members of the Parliament of Singapore from multi-member districts known as group representation constituencies (GRCs), on a first-past-the-post basis. This operates in parallel to elections from single-member district and nominations. It is moderated by the inclusion of at least one person of a different race than the others in any "team" (which is not necessarily a party team) which is selected by voters.

United States

For an at-large one-party return, many states adopted a general ticket. The state voted for and returned an at-large delegation to the House of Representatives. As in the Electoral College for Presidential elections this negates (outside of campaigning) the existence of any votes for any non-overall winning party's candidates. In terms of paper practices, these varied between issue of:

This was quite common until reserved to special use by the 1842 Apportionment Bill and locally implementing legislation which took effect after the 184547 Congress. [2] Until the Congress ending in 1967 it took effect in rare instances, save for a two cases of ex-Confederate States for one term these had tiny delegations, were for top-up members to be at-large allocated pending redistricting, or were added to the union since the last census.

The following is a table of every instance of the use of the general ticket in the United States Congress.

CongressDatesState and
number of representatives
1st 1789–1791Connecticut (5), New Jersey (4), New Hampshire (3), Pennsylvania (8)
2nd 1791–1793Connecticut (5), New Jersey (4), New Hampshire (3)
3rd 1793–1795Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Pennsylvania (13), Rhode Island (2)
4th 1795–1797Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
5th 1797–1799Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
6th 1799–1801Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
7th 1801–1803Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
8th 1803–1805Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2), Tennessee (3)
9th 1805–1807Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Jersey (5), Rhode Island (2)
10th 1807–1809Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
11th 1809–1811Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
12th 1811–1813Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
13th 1813–1815Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
14th 1815–1817Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
15th 1817–1819Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
16th 1819–1821Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
17th 1821–1823Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
18th 1823–1825Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (5)
19th 1825–1827Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
20th 1827–1829Connecticut (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
21st 1829–1831Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
22nd 1831–1833Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
23rd 1833–1835Connecticut (6), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
24th 1835–1837Connecticut (6), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
25th 1837–1839New Hampshire (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)
26th 1839–1841New Hampshire (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)
27th 1841–1843Alabama (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Hampshire (5), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)
28th 1843–1845New Hampshire (4), Georgia (8), Missouri (5), Mississippi (4)
29th 1845–1847Iowa (2), New Hampshire (4), Missouri (5), Mississippi (4)
30th 1847–1849Wisconsin (2)
31st 1849–1851California (2)
32nd 1851–1853California (2)
33rd 1853–1855California (2)
34th 1855–1857California (2)
35th 1857–1859California (2), Minnesota (2)
36th 1859–1861California (2), Minnesota (2)
37th 1861–1863California (3), Minnesota (2)
38th to 42nd 1863–1873California (3)
43rd to 47th 1873–1883Florida (2), Kansas (3)
48th 1883–1885Maine (4)
51st 1889–1891South Dakota (2)
52nd 1891–1893South Dakota (2)
53rd 1893–1895South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
54th 1895–1897South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
55th 1897–1899South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
56th 1899–1901South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
57th 1901–1903South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
58th 1903–1905North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)
59th 1905–1907North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)
60th 1907–1909North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)
61st 1909–1911North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2)
62nd 1911–1913North Dakota (2), New Mexico (2), South Dakota (2)
63rd 1913–1915Idaho (2), Montana (2), UT (2)
64th 1915–1917Idaho (2), Montana (2)
65th to 72nd 1917–1933Idaho (2), Montana (2)
73rd 1933–1935Kentucky (9), Minnesota (9), Missouri (13), North Dakota (2), Virginia (9)
74th 1935–1937North Dakota (2)
75th 1937–1939North Dakota (2)
76th 1939–1941North Dakota (2)
77th 1941–1943North Dakota (2)
78th 1943–1945Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
79th 1945–1947Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
80th 1947–1949Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
81st 1949–1951New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
82nd 1951–1953New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
83rd 1953–1955New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
84th 1955–1957New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
85th 1957–1959New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
86th 1959–1961New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
87th 1961–1963New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
88th 1963–1965Alabama (8), Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)
89th 1965–1967Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)
90th 1967–1969Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)
91st 1969–1971Hawaii (2)

See also

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References

  1. Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Scrutin de Liste". Encyclopædia Britannica . 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 487.
  2. Public Law 90-196, 2 U.S.C.   § 2c)

Sources