116th United States Congress

Last updated

116th United States Congress
115th  
  117th
U.S. Capitol grounds magnolias in March 2020.jpg

January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2021
Members100 senators
435 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Republican
Senate President Mike Pence (R)
House Majority Democratic
House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D)
Sessions
1st: January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2020
2nd: January 3, 2020 – January 3, 2021

The 116th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2019, and ended on January 3, 2021, during the final two years of Donald Trump's presidency. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress, and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census.

Contents

In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate. Consequently, this was the first split Congress since the 113th Congress of 2013–2015, and the first Republican Senate–Democratic House split since the 99th Congress of 1985–1987. This Congress was the youngest incoming class by mean age in the past three cycles [1] and the most demographically diverse ever.

Upon joining the Libertarian Party on May 1, 2020, [2] Justin Amash became the first member of Congress to represent a political party other than the Democrats or the Republicans since Rep. William Carney, who served as a Conservative before switching to the Republican Party in 1985. Before joining the Libertarian Party, Amash had been serving as an independent since his departure from the Republican Party on July 4, 2019. [3] Paul Mitchell also left the Republicans in December 2020, becoming an independent. [4]

Major events

2019 State of the Union Address 2019 State of the Union (40042020903) (cropped).jpg
2019 State of the Union Address
Robert Mueller's statements as special counsel.
House of Representatives approved two articles of impeachment. House of Representatives Votes to Adopt the Articles of Impeachment Against Donald Trump.jpg
House of Representatives approved two articles of impeachment.
Chief Justice John Roberts presided over the Impeachment trial of Donald Trump Chief Justice John Roberts presides over the impeachment trial of Donald Trump.jpg
Chief Justice John Roberts presided over the Impeachment trial of Donald Trump

Major legislation

Speaker Nancy Pelosi signed the future Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act. Nancy Pelosi signs the coronavirus emergency response.jpg
Speaker Nancy Pelosi signed the future Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act.
Congressional Record:
Volume 165 (2019) Congressional Record Volume 165, Issue 001, 2019-01-03.pdf
Congressional Record :
Volume 165 (2019)

Enacted

President Trump signing the Dingell Act, March 12, 2019 Signing of the John D. Dingell, Jr. Act.jpg
President Trump signing the Dingell Act, March 12, 2019
President Trump signing the Hong Kong Autonomy Act, together with Executive Order 13936, July 14, 2020 President Trump Signs an Executive Order (50119222336).jpg
President Trump signing the Hong Kong Autonomy Act, together with Executive Order 13936, July 14, 2020

Proposed (but not enacted)

Major resolutions

The Green New Deal, championed by Democrats upon their new House majority, was proposed by Senator Ed Markey (speaking) and Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (next to him, February 7, 2019 GreenNewDeal Presser 020719 (7 of 85) (46105849995) (cropped).jpg
The Green New Deal, championed by Democrats upon their new House majority, was proposed by Senator Ed Markey (speaking) and Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (next to him, February 7, 2019

Adopted

Proposed

Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section below.

Senate

AffiliationParty
(shading indicates majority caucus)
TotalVacant
Democratic Independent
(caucusing with
Democrats)
Republican
End of previous Congress 47250991
Begin (January 3, 2019)45252991
January 8, 2019 [lower-alpha 1] 531000
December 31, 2019 [lower-alpha 2] 52991
January 6, 2020 [lower-alpha 2] 531000
December 2, 2020 [lower-alpha 3] 4652
Final voting share
Beginning of the next Congress 46251991

House of Representatives

AffiliationParty
(shading indicates majority caucus)
TotalVacant
Democratic Independent Libertarian Republican
End of previous Congress 196002364323
Begin (January 3, 2019) [lower-alpha 4] 235001994341
January 23, 2019 [lower-alpha 5] 1984332
February 10, 2019 [lower-alpha 6] 1974323
May 21, 2019 [lower-alpha 5] 1984332
July 4, 2019 [lower-alpha 7] 1197
September 10, 2019 [lower-alpha 4] [lower-alpha 6] 1994350
September 23, 2019 [lower-alpha 8] 1984341
October 1, 2019 [lower-alpha 9] 1974332
October 17, 2019 [lower-alpha 10] 2344323
November 3, 2019 [lower-alpha 11] 2334314
December 19, 2019 [lower-alpha 12] 232198
January 13, 2020 [lower-alpha 13] 1974305
March 30, 2020 [lower-alpha 14] 1964296
April 29, 2020 [lower-alpha 10] 2334305
May 1, 2020 [lower-alpha 7] 01
May 12, 2020 [lower-alpha 11] [lower-alpha 8] 1984323
May 22, 2020 [lower-alpha 15] 1974314
June 23, 2020 [lower-alpha 9] 1984323
July 17, 2020 [lower-alpha 16] 2324314
October 4, 2020 [lower-alpha 17] 1974305
December 1, 2020 [lower-alpha 16] 2334314
December 7, 2020 [lower-alpha 18] 1964305
December 14, 2020 [lower-alpha 19] 1195
Final voting share 
Non-voting members 310260
Beginning of the next Congress 222002114332

Leadership

Senate

Senate President
Senate President pro tempore

Presiding

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

House of Representatives

House Speaker

Presiding

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

Demographics

Most members of this Congress were Christian (88.2%), with approximately half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic. Jewish membership is 6.4%. Other religions represented included Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. One senator said that she was religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased. [29] [30] [31]

Roughly 96% of members held college degrees. All but 128 members were white and all but 131 members were men. [32]

Senate

The Senate included 74 men and 26 women, the most women to date. In 6 states, both senators were women; 14 states were represented by 1 man and 1 woman; and 30 states were represented by 2 men. During this Congress, Johnny Isakson retired for health reasons and Kelly Loeffler was appointed, which increased the number of women from 25 after the 2018 elections to 26. There were 91 non-Hispanic white, 4 Hispanic, 2 Black, 2 Asian, and 1 multiracial (Black/Asian) senators. Additionally, 2 senators were LGBTQ+. [1] [33] [ better source needed ] The average age of Senators at the beginning of this congress was 62.9 years. [32]

House of Representatives

There were 101 women in the House, the largest number in history. [34] There were 313 non-Hispanic white, 56 Black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, and 4 Native American congress members. Seven are LGBTQ+. [35] Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — were the youngest (30) and oldest (78) freshmen women in history. [36] Freshmen Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) and Ilhan Omar (DFL-MN) were the first two Muslim women and freshmen Sharice Davids (D-KS) and Deb Haaland (D-NM) were the first two Native American women elected as well. [37] The average age of Members of the House at the beginning of the 116th Congress was 57.6 years. [32]

With the election of Carolyn Maloney as the first woman to chair the House Oversight Committee, [38] women chaired a record six House committees in a single Congress (out of 26 women to ever chair House committees in the history of Congress), including House members Maxine Waters (Financial Services), Nita Lowey (Appropriations), Zoe Lofgren (Administration), Eddie Bernice Johnson (Science, Space and Technology) and Nydia Velázquez (Small Business), as well as Kathy Castor, who chaired the Select Committee on the Climate Crisis. [38] In addition, women chaired a record 39 House subcommittees. Lowey and Kay Granger were also the first women to serve as chair and ranking member of the same committee in the same Congress since the since-defunct Select Committee on the House Beauty Shop, which was chaired and populated entirely by congresswomen during its existence from 1967 to 1977.

Diversity of the freshman class

The demographics of the 116th U.S. Congress freshmen were more diverse than any previous incoming class. [39] [40] [41]

At least 25 new congressional representatives were Hispanic, Native American, or people of color, and the incoming class included the first Native American women, the first Muslim women, and the two youngest women ever elected. [39] The 116th Congress included more women elected to the House than any previous Congress. [40] [41]

Members

Senate

The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024; class 2 means their term ends with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and class 3 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.

House of Representatives

Caucuses

Changes in membership

Senate

State
(class)
VacatorReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 25]
Florida
(1)
VacantSenator-elect chose to wait until finishing term as Governor of Florida. [42] Rick Scott
(R)
January 8, 2019
Georgia
(3)
Johnny Isakson
(R)
Incumbent resigned December 31, 2019. [43]
Successor was appointed the same day [lower-alpha 20] to continue the term until the January 5, 2021 runoff special election. [43]
Kelly Loeffler
(R)
January 6, 2020 [54]
Arizona
(3)
Martha McSally
(R)
Appointment expired following a special election.
Successor elected November 3, 2020.
Mark Kelly
(D)
December 2, 2020 [55]

House of Representatives

DistrictVacatorReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 25]
North Carolina 9 VacantVacant from the start of the term as allegations of fraud in the 2018 general election prevented the results from being certified.
A special election was held September 10, 2019. [56]
Dan Bishop
(R)
September 17, 2019 [57]
Pennsylvania 12 Tom Marino
(R)
Resigned January 23, 2019, to take job in private sector. [51]
A special election was held May 21, 2019. [58]
Fred Keller
(R)
June 3, 2019
North Carolina 3 Walter B. Jones Jr.
(R)
Died February 10, 2019.
A special election was held September 10, 2019. [59]
Greg Murphy
(R)
September 17, 2019 [60]
Michigan 3 Justin Amash
(R)
Changed party July 4, 2019. [8] Justin Amash
(I)
July 4, 2019
Wisconsin 7 Sean Duffy
(R)
Resigned September 23, 2019.
A special election was held May 12, 2020. [61]
Tom Tiffany
(R)
May 19, 2020
New York 27 Chris Collins
(R)
Resigned October 1, 2019.
A special election was held June 23, 2020. [62]
Chris Jacobs
(R)
July 21, 2020
Maryland 7 Elijah Cummings
(D)
Died October 17, 2019.
A special election was held April 28, 2020. [48] [63]
Kweisi Mfume
(D)
May 5, 2020
California 25 Katie Hill
(D)
Resigned November 3, 2019, due to allegations of improper relationships with staffer.
A special election was held March 3, 2020 and a runoff election was held May 12, 2020. [64] [65]
Mike Garcia
(R)
May 19, 2020
New Jersey 2 Jeff Van Drew
(D)
Changed party December 19, 2019. [66] Jeff Van Drew
(R)
December 19, 2019
California 50 Duncan D. Hunter
(R)
Resigned January 13, 2020, following felony indictment. [67] Vacant until the next Congress
North Carolina 11 Mark Meadows
(R)
Resigned March 30, 2020, to become White House Chief of Staff. [68] [69] Vacant until the next Congress
Michigan 3 Justin Amash
(I)
Changed party May 1, 2020. [2] Justin Amash
(L)
May 1, 2020
Texas 4 John Ratcliffe
(R)
Resigned May 22, 2020, to become Director of National Intelligence.
The seat will remain vacant until the next Congress.
Vacant until the next Congress
Georgia 5 John Lewis
(D)
Died July 17, 2020.
A special election runoff was held December 1, 2020. [70]
Kwanza Hall
(D)
December 3, 2020
Georgia 14 Tom Graves
(R)
Resigned October 4, 2020.
The seat will remain vacant until the next Congress.
Vacant until the next Congress
California 8 Paul Cook
(R)
Resigned December 7, 2020 after being elected a member of the San Bernardino County Supervisors.
The seat will remain vacant until the next Congress.
Vacant until the next Congress
Michigan 10 Paul Mitchell
(R)
Changed party December 14, 2020.Paul Mitchell
(I)
December 14, 2020

Committees

Section contents: Senate, House, Joint

Listed by chamber and then alphabetically by committee name, including chair and ranking member.

Senate

CommitteeChairRanking Member [71]
Aging (Special) Susan Collins (R-ME) Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA)
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Pat Roberts (R-KS) Debbie Stabenow (D-MI)
Appropriations Richard Shelby (R-AL) Patrick Leahy (D-VT)
Armed Services Jim Inhofe (R-OK) Jack Reed (D-RI)
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Mike Crapo (R-ID) Sherrod Brown (D-OH)
Budget Mike Enzi (R-WY) Bernie Sanders (I-VT)
Commerce, Science and Transportation Roger Wicker (R-MS) Maria Cantwell (D-WA)
Energy and Natural Resources Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) Joe Manchin (D-WV)
Environment and Public Works John Barrasso (R-WY) Tom Carper (D-DE)
Ethics (Select) Johnny Isakson (R-GA) until December 2019
James Lankford (R-OK) from January 2020 [72]
Chris Coons (D-DE)
Finance Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Ron Wyden (D-OR)
Foreign Relations Jim Risch (R-ID) Bob Menendez (D-NJ)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Lamar Alexander (R-TN) Patty Murray (D-WA)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Ron Johnson (R-WI) Gary Peters (D-MI)
Indian Affairs (Permanent Select) John Hoeven (R-ND) Tom Udall (D-NM)
Intelligence (Select) Richard Burr (R-NC) until May 15, 2020
Marco Rubio (R-FL) Acting from May 18, 2020
Mark Warner (D-VA)
International Narcotics Control (Permanent Caucus) John Cornyn (R-TX) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Judiciary Lindsey Graham (R-SC) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Rules and Administration Roy Blunt (R-MO) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Marco Rubio (R-FL) Ben Cardin (D-MD)
Veterans' Affairs Johnny Isakson (R-GA) until December 2019
Jerry Moran (R-KS) from January 2020 [73]
Jon Tester (D-MT)

House of Representatives

CommitteeChairRanking Member
Agriculture Collin Peterson (D-MN) Mike Conaway (R-TX)
Appropriations Nita Lowey (D-NY) Kay Granger (R-TX)
Armed Services Adam Smith (D-WA) Mac Thornberry (R-TX)
Budget John Yarmuth (D-KY) Steve Womack (R-AR)
Climate Crisis (Select) Kathy Castor (D-FL) Garret Graves (R-LA)
Education and Labor Bobby Scott (D-VA) Virginia Foxx (R-NC)
Energy and Commerce Frank Pallone (D-NJ) Greg Walden (R-OR)
Ethics Ted Deutch (D-FL) Kenny Marchant (R-TX)
Financial Services Maxine Waters (D-CA) Patrick McHenry (R-NC)
Foreign Affairs Eliot Engel (D-NY) Michael McCaul (R-TX)
Homeland Security Bennie Thompson (D-MS) Mike Rogers (R-AL)
House Administration Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Rodney Davis (R-IL)
Intelligence (Permanent Select) Adam Schiff (D-CA) Devin Nunes (R-CA)
Judiciary Jerrold Nadler (D-NY) Doug Collins (R-GA) (until March 12, 2020)
Jim Jordan (R-OH) (from March 12, 2020)
Modernization of Congress (Select) Derek Kilmer (D-WA) Tom Graves (R-GA) (until October 4, 2020) [74]
Natural Resources Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ) Rob Bishop (R-UT)
Oversight and Reform Elijah Cummings (D-MD) (until October 17, 2019) [48]
Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) (from October 17, 2019)
Jim Jordan (R-OH) (until March 12, 2020, from March 31, 2020 – June 29, 2020)
Mark Meadows (R-NC) (March 12, 2020 – March 30, 2020)
James Comer (from June 29, 2020)
Rules Jim McGovern (D-MA) Tom Cole (R-OK)
Science, Space and Technology Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX) Frank Lucas (R-OK)
Small Business Nydia Velázquez (D-NY) Steve Chabot (R-OH)
Transportation and Infrastructure Peter DeFazio (D-OR) Sam Graves (R-MO)
Veterans' Affairs Mark Takano (D-CA) Phil Roe (R-TN)
Ways and Means Richard Neal (D-MA) Kevin Brady (R-TX)

Joint

CommitteeChairVice ChairRanking MemberVice Ranking Member
Economic Mike Lee (R-UT) Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) (until January 16, 2020)
Don Beyer (D-VA) (from January 16, 2020)
David Schweikert (R-AZ) Martin Heinrich (D-NM)
Inaugural Ceremonies (Special) Roy Blunt (R-MO) Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Library Roy Blunt (R-MO) Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Rodney Davis (R-IL) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Printing Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Roy Blunt (R-MO) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Rodney Davis (R-IL)
Taxation [lower-alpha 26] Richard Neal (D-MA) Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Ron Wyden (D-OR) Kevin Brady (R-TX)

Employees and legislative agency directors

Also called "elected" or "appointed" officials, there are many employees of the House and Senate whose leaders are included here. [75]

Senate

House of Representatives

Legislative branch agency directors

See also

Elections

Membership lists

Notes

  1. In Florida: Rick Scott (R) assumed office late January 8, 2019.
  2. 1 2 In Georgia: Johnny Isakson (R) resigned December 31, 2019, and Kelly Loeffler (R) was appointed January 6, 2020, to continue the term.
  3. 1 2 In Arizona: Mark Kelly (D) replaced interim appointee Martha McSally (R) in a special election.
  4. 1 2 3 In North Carolina's 9th district : the November 2018 election results were not certified due to a dispute over voting irregularities. Dan Bishop (R) was elected September 10, 2019.
  5. 1 2 In Pennsylvania's 12th district : Tom Marino (R) resigned January 23, 2019, and Fred Keller (R) was elected May 21, 2019.
  6. 1 2 In North Carolina's 3rd district : Walter Jones (R) died February 10, 2019, and Greg Murphy (R) was elected September 10, 2019.
  7. 1 2 In Michigan's 3rd district : Justin Amash changed parties from Republican to Independent July 4, 2019, [8] then changed to Libertarian May 1, 2020. [2]
  8. 1 2 In Wisconsin's 7th district : Sean Duffy (R) resigned September 23, 2019, and Tom Tiffany (R) was elected May 12, 2020.
  9. 1 2 In New York's 27th district : Chris Collins (R) resigned October 1, 2019, and Chris Jacobs (R) was elected June 23, 2020.
  10. 1 2 In Maryland's 7th district : Elijah Cummings (D) died October 17, 2019, and Kweisi Mfume (D) was elected April 29, 2020.
  11. 1 2 In California's 25th district : Katie Hill (D) resigned November 3, 2019, and Mike Garcia (R) was elected May 12, 2020.
  12. In New Jersey's 2nd district : Jeff Van Drew changed parties from Democratic to Republican December 19, 2019.
  13. In California's 50th district : Duncan D. Hunter (R) resigned January 13, 2020.
  14. In North Carolina's 11th district : Mark Meadows (R) resigned March 30, 2020.
  15. In Texas's 4th district : John Ratcliffe (R) resigned May 22, 2020.
  16. 1 2 In Georgia's 5th district : John Lewis (D) died July 17, 2020, and Kwanza Hall (D) was elected December 1, 2020.
  17. In Georgia's 14th district : Tom Graves (R) resigned October 4, 2020.
  18. In California's 8th district : Paul Cook (R) resigned December 7, 2020.
  19. In Michigan's 10th district : Paul Mitchell changed from Republican to Independent.
  20. 1 2 Loeffler's appointment was "effective December 31, 2019." [44]
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) is the Minnesota affiliate of the U.S. Democratic Party and its members are counted as Democrats.
  22. Although Sanders ran for U.S. President in the Democratic primary and claimed to be a "bona fide Democrat" in accordance to DNC rules, he is currently and officially an Independent senator. [45]
  23. In Michigan's 3rd district : Justin Amash changed from Republican to Independent, July 4, 2019. [8] He became a Libertarian on May 1, 2020. [2]
  24. In New Jersey's 2nd district : Jeff Van Drew changed from Democratic to Republican, December 19, 2019.
  25. 1 2 When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.
  26. The Joint Taxation Committee leadership rotate the chair and vice chair and the ranking members between the House and Senate at the start of each session (calendar year) in the middle of the congressional term. The first session leadership is shown here.

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References

  1. 1 2 Jin, Beatrice (January 7, 2019) [First published November 23, 2018]. "Congress's incoming class is younger, bluer, and more diverse than ever". Politico. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  2. 1 2 Schultz, Marisa (May 2, 2020). "Amash, taking historic step to White House bid, becomes first Libertarian in Congress: 'I'm in the race to win it'". Fox News . Retrieved May 3, 2020.
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