|Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives |
from Texas's 4th district
January 3, 2015
|Preceded by||Ralph Hall|
|United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Texas|
|President||George W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Matthew D. Orwig|
|Succeeded by||Rebecca Gregory|
|Mayor of Heath|
|Preceded by||Chris Cuny|
|Succeeded by||Lorne Liechty|
John Lee Ratcliffe
October 20, 1965
Mount Prospect, Illinois, U.S.
|Education|| University of Notre Dame (BA)|
Southern Methodist University (JD)
John Lee Ratcliffe(born October 20, 1965) is an American politician and attorney who has served as the congressman for Texas's 4th district since 2015.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national legislature of the United States.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.
Texas District 4 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves an area of Northeast Texas, that includes some counties along the Red River northeast of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. As of 2017, District 4 represents 747,188 people who are predominantly white and middle-class.
He has been regarded as one of the most conservative members of Congress.He is a prominent Trump supporter. President Donald Trump announced on July 28, 2019, that he intended to nominate Ratcliffe to replace Dan Coats as Director of National Intelligence (DNI), but abruptly withdrew his name five days later. Ratcliffe withdrew after Republican senators raised concerns about him, former intelligence officials said he might politicize intelligence, and media revealed Ratcliffe's embellishments regarding his prosecutorial experience in terrorism and immigration cases.
Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality.
Daniel Ray Coats is an American politician and former diplomat. Since March 16, 2017, he has served as the Director of National Intelligence in the Trump Administration. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as a United States Senator from Indiana from 1989 to 1999 and again from 2011 to 2017. He was the United States Ambassador to Germany from 2001 to 2005, and was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1981 to 1989. Coats served on the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence while in the U.S. Senate.
The United States director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government Cabinet-level official—subject to the authority, direction, and control of the president of the United States—required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to:
Born in Mount Prospect, Illinois, northwest of Chicago, Ratcliffe was the youngest of six children; both of his parents were teachers.He graduated from Carbondale Community High School in Carbondale, Illinois; from the University of Notre Dame in 1987 with a Bachelor of Arts in Government and International Studies; and the Southern Methodist University School of Law (now Dedman School of Law) with a Juris Doctor in 1989.
Mount Prospect is a village in Elk Grove and Wheeling Townships in Cook County, Illinois, about 20 miles (32 km) northwest of downtown Chicago, and approximately 4 miles north of O'Hare International Airport. As of the 2010 census, the village had a total population of 54,167.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,705,994 (2018), it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States, with small portions of the city extending westward into neighboring DuPage County. It is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as Chicagoland. At nearly 10 million people, the metropolitan area is the third-largest in the United States.
Carbondale Community High School is a public high school located in Carbondale, Illinois, United States. It serves grades 9-12 and is part of its own school district, having several different feeder schools within the city and outside of it. In 2013, 1093 students attended the school.
Until 2004, Ratcliffe was a lawyer in private practice.
Ratcliffe was elected to four consecutive two-year terms as mayor of Heath, Texas,a city of about 7,000 people, 25 miles east of downtown Dallas. He served in that position from June 2004 to May 2012.
Heath is a city in Rockwall and Kaufman counties, Texas, United States. The population was 6,921 at the 2010 census, up from 4,149 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex.
In 2004, President George W. Bush appointed Ratcliffe to be the Chief of Anti-Terrorism and National Security for the Eastern District of Texas, within the U.S. Department of Justice.In May 2007, Ratcliffe was named interim U.S. Attorney for the district. Ratcliffe returned to private law practice when Rebecca Gregory was confirmed by the Senate as the permanent U.S. Attorney for the district in April 2008.
The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas is a federal court in the Fifth Circuit.
Ratcliffe's official House of Representatives biography says that Radcliffe "arrested 300 illegal aliens in a single day" while working as prosecutor for the Eastern District.The claim is embellished. Ratcliffe played a supporting role in an initiative led by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement that involved U.S. Attorneys' offices in five states. In Ratcliffe's district, only 45 individuals suspected of being illegal immigrants who were arrested by ICE were charged with crimes, including two who turned out to be American citizens. Officials involved in the immigration enforcement actions said that Ratcliffe did not play a central role in those actions.
Ratcliffe's campaign website asserted that, as a federal prosecutor, Ratcliffe "personally managed dozens of international and domestic terrorism investigations involving some of the nation’s most sensitive security matters."and "put terrorists in prison." There is, however, no evidence Ratcliffe ever prosecuted a terrorism case.
Ratcliffe also misrepresented his involvement in the federal prosecution of the Holy Land Foundation for terrorism financing, claiming "there are individuals that currently sit in prison because I prosecuted them for funneling money to terrorist groups."Former officials and attorneys who worked on the case could not recall Ratcliffe being involved in either the initial trial of the Holy Land Foundation defendants, which ended in a mistrial, nor the subsequent retrial, which resulted in convictions. Rather, Ratcliff was appointed by Attorney General Michael Mukasey to look into allegations relating to the cause of the mistrial; in that role, Ratcliff made no recommendations.
In 2009, Ratcliffe became a partner with former Attorney General John Ashcroft in the law firm Ashcroft, Sutton, Ratcliffe.
In 2012, Ratcliffe was part of a transition team established before that year's general election by Republican candidate Mitt Romney, to vet potential Presidential appointees.
In 2014, Ratcliffe ran in the Republican primary against 17-term incumbent Congressman Ralph Hall of the 4th district. At 91, Hall was the oldest member of Congress and the oldest person ever to serve in the House of Representatives. The Dallas Morning News wrote that Ratcliffe was Hall's "most serious political challenge in years."
In a primary campaign where Hall had begun to look increasingly vulnerable, Ratcliffe received the endorsement of the Dallas Morning News, which applauded Hall's long record of public service but cited Ratcliffe's "impressive credentials" and the need for "new ideas and fresh energy."
In the March 4 primary, Ratcliffe finished second with 29 percent of the vote, behind Hall's 45 percent. Because Hall came up short of a majority, a runoff was required. For the runoff, Ratcliffe was endorsed by the Tea Party Express, the Senate Conservatives Fund, and Club for Growth. Hall was endorsed by the National Rifle Association, former Congressman Ron Paul, former Congresswoman Michele Bachmann, and former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee.In the May 27 runoff, Ratcliffe defeated Hall with 53 percent of the vote. Ratcliffe's victory marked the first time in 20 years that a sitting Republican congressman in Texas had been ousted in a primary. Ratcliffe was one of four candidates to defeat a sitting incumbent U.S. representative in a primary election in 2014.
In the November 2014 general election, Ratcliffe ran unopposed.The 4th is a heavily Republican district; with a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+25, it is the fifth most Republican district in Texas and tied for the 13th most Republican in the nation.
On March 1, 2016, Ratcliffe easily defeated two primary challengers, getting 68 percent of the vote, 47 percentage points ahead of the second-place finisher. Once again, no Democrat filed to run in the November general election. In the general election, Ratcliffe's Libertarian opponent got only 12 percent of the vote.
On November 6, 2018, Ratcliffe won re-election to a third term with nearly 76% of the vote, defeating Democratic challenger Catherine Krantz and Libertarian challenger Ken Ashby.
The Dallas Morning News said in April 2016 that "Ratcliffe's first term in Washington proves that freshman lawmakers can be players of consequence in Congress."
In a September 2016 hearing of the House Judiciary Committee, Ratcliffe questioned then-FBI Director James Comey about whether the FBI's decision not to recommend criminal charges against Hillary Clinton in connection with the email controversy came before or after Clinton was interviewed by investigations; Comey responded that the final decision had been made after the interviews.Ratcliffe subsequently suggested that the FBI had "predetermined the result" of the investigation.
Ratcliffe is a member of the Republican Study Committeeand the Congressional NextGen 9-1-1 Caucus. In late 2018, Ratcliffe was reportedly considered for the role of Attorney General by the Trump Administration.
In a March 2019 tweet, Ratcliffe asserted that former FBI attorney Lisa Page had confirmed to him under oath that the Obama Justice Department had ordered the FBI to not consider gross negligence charges against Hillary Clinton regarding her handling of classified material. However, the June 2018 DOJ inspector general report on the matter stated that the DOJ's analysis of the relevant statute found that the FBI evidence for such a charge was lacking, and that interpretation was consistent with "prior cases under different leadership including in the 2008 decision not to prosecute former Attorney General Alberto Gonzales for mishandling classified documents." Analysts also noted that the FBI does not charge individuals, rather the DOJ does, as Page clarified to Ratcliffe later in her testimony, but which Ratcliffe did not mention in his tweet. Fox News extensively reported Ratcliffe's account of the matter, which Trump tweeted about minutes later.
During the 115th Congress (2015–19), Ratcliffe was a member of the Ethics, Judiciary, and Homeland Security committees. Within the Homeland Security Committee, he was a member of the subcommittees on Oversight and Management Efficiency and Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection. Within the Judiciary Committee, he was a member of the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security and Investigations and vice chairman of the Subcommittee on Regulatory Reform, Commercial and Antitrust Law.
During the 116th Congress (2019-present), Ratcliffe kept his seats on the Ethics, Homeland Security, and Judiciary committees and also became a member of the Intelligence Committee.Within the Homeland Security Committee, Ratcliffe is a member of the subcommittees on Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Innovation and Transportation and Maritime Security. Within the Judiciary Committee, Ratcliffe is ranking member of the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism and Homeland Security and a member of the Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property and the Internet. Within the Intelligence Committee, Ratcliffe is a member of the Strategic Technologies and Advanced Research Subcommittee and Intelligence and Modernization Readiness Subcommittee.
President Donald Trump announced on July 28, 2019, that he intended to nominate Ratcliffe to replace Dan Coats as Director of National Intelligence.Trump expressed confidence Ratcliffe could "rein in" intelligence agencies which he asserted had "run amok."
Ratcliffe has little experience in national security or national intelligence and is reported to have demonstrated little engagement on the matters as a congressman.Trump's intent to nominate Ratcliffe also became controversial when press reports revealed that he had misrepresented his role in prosecuting terrorism and immigration cases.
Ratcliffe is well known for criticizing the FBI and the special counsel investigation as being biased against Trump. Ratcliffe has also alleged that Russian interference may have benefited Trump's 2016 rival candidate Hillary Clinton more than it benefited Trump. American intelligence agencies, the Senate Intelligence Committee and Robert Mueller have maintained that Russia interfered to help Trump. A week before Trump's announcement, Ratcliffe had argued that the special counsel investigation put Trump "below the law" because it declined to exonerate Trump. Later, Ratcliffe claimed on Fox News that the special counsel investigation's report was not written by special counsel Robert Mueller, but by "Hillary Clinton’s de facto legal team".
Democrats asserted Ratcliffe was unqualified and too partisan to serve in such a role, considered among the most nonpartisan in the federal government.Some Republicans also privately expressed discontent with his selection and concerns about his ability to be confirmed. However, Senate Intelligence Committee Chairman Richard Burr and Senator John Cornyn expressed confidence in him. Democratic senators including Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer and Ron Wyden, a member of the Intelligence Committee, said that Radcliffe’s only qualification for the office appeared to be "blind loyalty" to Trump, noting that he has promoted of some of Trump’s conspiracy theories about the Russia investigation and has called for prosecution of Trump’s political enemies. Several former members of the intelligence community expressed concerns that Ratcliffe's appointment risked politicizing intelligence work. They expressed fear that with Ratcliffe as DNI, Trump would in effect be assuming personal control over the intelligence community, which would then be expected to tell him only what he wants to hear. They stressed the need for intelligence to be "candid, truthful and accurate even if it is unpleasant and does not confirm to the biases of the president".
On August 2, 2019, Trump said in a tweet that he was withdrawing Ratcliffe's name from nomination, claiming that mainstream media scrutiny of Ratcliffe (though using the "lamestream" pejorative in the actual message) was unfair, and would result in "months of slander and libel," while White House sources said that Trump had become concerned about Ratcliffe's chances for confirmation, following feedback from some Republican senators.Speaking to reporters later that day, Trump insisted the press had treated Ratcliffe unfairly, but he also stated that he liked the way the press vetted his nominees, saying "You vet for me."
Ratcliffe is considered one of the most conservative members of Congress.In 2016, The Heritage Foundation ranked Ratcliffe as the most conservative Texas legislator in Congress and second-most conservative legislator in the country.
Ratcliffe has a hawkish position on Iran.
Ratcliffe supported President Donald Trump's 2017 executive order to prohibit immigration from seven predominantly Muslim countries, stating, "I applaud President Trump's actions to vamp up the vetting of refugees attempting to enter our country."
When he first ran for Congress, Radcliffe said that term limits were a central part of his platform.Ratcliffe said that "I have limited myself to four terms."
Ratcliffe was chairman of the House Homeland Security Subcommittee on Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Protection during the 115th Congress (2017–19), when Republicans controlled the House.
In March 2014, Ratcliffe oversaw a congressional hearing, "The Current State of DHS Private Sector Engagement for Cybersecurity", that studied ways to get the private sector and the Department of Homeland Security to better cooperate to prevent terrorist activity. He secured testimony from various organizations: the Hitrust Alliance, Intel Security Group, Symantec, Palo Alto Networks, and New America's Open Technology Institute.
On December 16, 2016, Barack Obama signed Ratcliffe's H.R. 5877 "United States-Israel Advanced Research Partnership Act of 2016" into public law.On November 2, 2017, Donald Trump signed Ratcliffe's H.R. 1616 "Strengthening State and Local Cyber Crime Fighting Act of 2017" into public law.
In December 2017, Ratcliffe signed a letter from Congress, along with 106 other members of Congress, to FCC Chairman Ajit Pai, supporting Pai's plan to repeal net neutrality.
Ratcliffe has staunchly supported Trump's criticism of the investigations into Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, in particular the origins of the investigation, contending "it does appear that there were crimes committed during the Obama administration."Ratcliffe has stated that he has "seen no evidence" that Russian interference in the 2016 election helped get Trump elected. He has described court-approved surveillance of the Trump campaign as spying. He has claimed without evidence that the Russia probe was tainted by a criminal conspiracy.
Days before he was announced as Trump's choice to be Director of National Intelligence, Ratcliffe drew headlines for his aggressive questioning of Robert Mueller during Mueller's congressional testimony.Ratcliffe criticized Mueller for describing instances of obstruction of justice in his report on Russian interference in the 2016 election. Ratcliffe claimed that Mueller went beyond the rules for special counsels, by covering instances of potential obstruction when the report did not charge any crimes. The Associated Press and PolitiFact found Ratcliffe's claim false, noting that special prosecutors are required by federal regulations to explain decisions not to prosecute. Neal Katyal, who wrote the special counsel regulations in 1999, called Ratcliffe "dead wrong."
Ratcliffe also falsely claimed that the Steele dossier, which he described as a "fake, phony dossier", was the start of the Russia probe.The House Republican intelligence committee's own memo about the Russia probe had said that it was information about George Papadopoulos that set off an investigation by the FBI in July 2016. Ratcliffe also asserted that Democrats "accused Donald Trump of a crime and then tried to reverse engineer a process to justify that accusation." Trump was reportedly impressed by Ratcliffe's aggressive questioning of Mueller, which some sources described as Ratcliffe's "audition" to be named DNI.
Shortly before Trump announced he would be nominated as DNI, Ratcliffe asserted the Obama administration had committed a felony by leaking classified transcripts of 2016 phone calls between Michael Flynn and Russian ambassador Sergey Kislyak to The Washington Post .The gist of the conversations were conveyed to Post reporters, but not the transcripts themselves. He also asserted, "The Mueller report and its conclusions weren’t from Robert Mueller. They were written by what a lot of people believe was Hillary Clinton’s de facto legal team, people that had supported her, even represented some of her aides."
In January 2018, Ratcliffe stated on Fox News and Twitter that he had seen a text message between FBI employees Peter Strzok and Lisa Page that referenced a "secret society," adding, "We learned today about information that in the immediate aftermath of his election, there may have been a ‘secret society’ of folks within the Department of Justice and the FBI, to include Page and Strzok, working against [Trump].” His assertion briefly went viral on pro-Trump media, and the next day Republican senator Ron Johnson claimed that Republican investigators had learned from an “informant" of meetings of a “secret society.” The text message did contain the expression "secret society," but it was soon learned to be a joke related to Strzok's purchase of "beefcake" calendars of Vladimir Putin for distribution to FBI employees who had worked on the Russian investigation.
Ratcliffe and his wife, Michele, live with their two daughters in Heath, Texas.
Robert Swan Mueller III is an American lawyer and government official who served as the sixth Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 2001 to 2013.
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Harold Watson "Trey" Gowdy III is an American attorney, television news personality, politician, and former federal prosecutor who served as the U.S. Representative for South Carolina's 4th congressional district from 2011 to 2019. His district included much of the Upstate region of South Carolina, including Greenville and Spartanburg.
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The Russian government interfered in the 2016 U.S. presidential election with the goal of harming the campaign of Hillary Clinton, boosting the candidacy of Donald Trump, and increasing political and social discord in the United States.
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The Trump–Russia dossier, also known as the Steele dossier, is a private intelligence report written from June to December 2016 containing allegations of misconduct and conspiracy between Donald Trump's presidential campaign and the Government of Russia during the 2016 election. The dossier comprises 17 memos and was authored by Christopher Steele, a former head of the Russia Desk for British intelligence (MI6), for the private investigative firm Fusion GPS. The report alleges that Trump campaign members and Russian operatives conspired to interfere in the election to benefit Trump. It also alleges that Russia sought to damage Hillary Clinton's candidacy, including sharing negative information about Clinton with the Trump campaign. The dossier was published in full by BuzzFeed on January 10, 2017. Several mainstream media outlets criticized BuzzFeed's decision to release it without verifying its allegations, while others defended its release.
The Special Counsel investigation was an investigation of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections and suspicious links between Trump associates and Russian officials, conducted by special prosecutor Robert Mueller from May 2017 to March 2019. It was also called the Russia investigation, the Mueller probe, and the Mueller investigation. Since July 2016, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) had been covertly investigating activities by Russian operatives and by members of the Trump presidential campaign, under the code name "Crossfire Hurricane". In May 2017, President Donald Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, because he was critical of Comey's handling of the Clinton and Russia probes. Within eight days, following a call to action by Democratic lawmakers and revelations by Comey, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Mueller, a former FBI director, to take over the FBI's work. According to its authorizing document, the investigation's scope included allegations of "links and/or coordination" between the Russian government and individuals associated with the Trump campaign. Mueller was also mandated to pursue "any matters that arose or may arise directly from the investigation." The probe included a criminal investigation which looked into potential obstruction of justice charges against Trump and members of his campaign or his administration.
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This is a timeline of major events in 2018 related to the investigations into links between associates of Donald Trump and Russian officials that are suspected of being inappropriate. It follows the timeline of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections and the timeline of investigations in 2017, and precedes that of 2019. These events are related to, but distinct from, Russian interference in the 2018 United States elections.
Reactions to the Special Counsel investigation of any Russian government efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election have been widely varied and have evolved over time. An initial period of bipartisan support and praise for the selection of former FBI director Robert Mueller to lead the Special Counsel investigation gave way to some degree of partisan division over the scope of the investigation, the composition of the investigative teams, and the results achieved.
This is a timeline of events in 2019 related to investigations into links between associates of Donald Trump and Russian officials that are suspected of being inappropriate. It follows the timeline of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections and the timelines of investigations in 2017 and 2018.
Crossfire Hurricane was the code name for a covert counterintelligence investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) into links between Trump associates and Russian officials and suspected coordination between the Donald Trump 2016 presidential campaign and the Russian government's interference in the 2016 United States elections.
The Mueller Report, officially titled Report on the Investigation into Russian Interference in the 2016 Presidential Election, is the official report documenting the findings and conclusions of Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation into Russian efforts to interfere in the 2016 United States presidential election, allegations of conspiracy or coordination between Donald Trump's presidential campaign and Russia, and allegations of obstruction of justice. The report was submitted to Attorney General William Barr on March 22, 2019, and a redacted version of the 448-page report was publicly released by the Department of Justice (DOJ) on April 18, 2019. It is divided into two volumes. The redactions from the report and its supporting material are under President Trump's temporary "protective assertion" of executive privilege as of May 8, 2019, preventing the material from being passed to Congress, despite earlier reassurance by Barr that Trump "confirmed" he would not exert privilege.
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives |
from Texas's 4th congressional district
|U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)|
| United States Representatives by seniority |
|114th||Senate: J. Cornyn • T. Cruz||House: J. Barton • L. Smith • S. Johnson • G. Green • E. B. Johnson • L. Doggett • S. J. Lee • M. Thornberry • K. Brady • K. Granger • R. Hinojosa • P. Sessions • J. Culberson • M. Burgess • J. Carter • J. Hensarling • R. Neugebauer • M. Conaway • H. Cuellar • L. Gohmert • A. Green • K. Marchant • M. McCaul • T. Poe • P. Olson • B. Farenthold • B. Flores • J. Castro • B. O'Rourke • M. Veasey • F. Vela Jr. • R. Weber • R. Williams • B. Babin • W. Hurd • J. Ratcliffe|
|115th||Senate: J. Cornyn • T. Cruz||House: J. Barton • L. Smith • S. Johnson • G. Green • E. B. Johnson • L. Doggett • S. J. Lee • M. Thornberry • K. Brady • K. Granger • P. Sessions • J. Culberson • M. Burgess • J. Carter • J. Hensarling • M. Conaway • H. Cuellar • L. Gohmert • A. Green • K. Marchant • M. McCaul • T. Poe • P. Olson • B. Farenthold (until Apr. 2018) • B. Flores • J. Castro • B. O'Rourke • M. Veasey • F. Vela Jr. • R. Weber • R. Williams • B. Babin • W. Hurd • J. Ratcliffe • J. Arrington • V. Gonzalez • M. Cloud (from Jun. 2018)|
|116th||Senate: J. Cornyn • T. Cruz||House: E. B. Johnson • L. Doggett • S. J. Lee • M. Thornberry • K. Brady • K. Granger • M. Burgess • J. Carter • M. Conaway • H. Cuellar • L. Gohmert • A. Green • K. Marchant • M. McCaul • P. Olson • B. Flores • J. Castro • M. Veasey • F. Vela Jr. • R. Weber • R. Williams • B. Babin • W. Hurd • J. Ratcliffe • J. Arrington • V. Gonzalez • M. Cloud • C. Allred • D. Crenshaw • V. Escobar • S. Garcia • L. Gooden • L. Fletcher • C. Roy • V. Taylor • R. Wright|