Kremlin

Last updated

Moscow Kremlin
Native name
Russian: Московский Кремль
Moscow 05-2012 Kremlin 22.jpg
Central Moscow.svg
Red pog.svg
Location in Central Moscow
Russia administrative location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kremlin (Russia)
Europe blank laea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kremlin (Europe)
Location Moscow, Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Coordinates 55°45′6″N37°37′4″E / 55.75167°N 37.61778°E / 55.75167; 37.61778 Coordinates: 55°45′6″N37°37′4″E / 55.75167°N 37.61778°E / 55.75167; 37.61778
Area27.7 ha (0.277 km2)
Built1482–1495
Official nameKremlin and Red Square, Moscow
TypeCultural
Criteriai, ii, iv, vi
Designated1990 (14th session)
Reference no. 545
State Party Russia
Region Eastern Europe

The Kremlin is a fortified complex in the centre of Moscow founded by the Rurikids ruling dynasty. [1] It is the best known of the kremlins (Russian citadels), and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. In addition, within this complex is the Grand Kremlin Palace that was formerly the Tsar's Moscow residence. The complex now serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation and as a museum with almost 3 million visitors in 2017. [2] The Kremlin overlooks the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.

Contents

The name "Kremlin" means "fortress inside a city", [3] and is often also used metonymically to refer to the government of the Russian Federation. It previously referred to the government of the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and its highest members (such as general secretaries, premiers, presidents, ministers, and commissars). The term "Kremlinology" refers to the study of Soviet and Russian politics.

The Kremlin is open to the public and offers individual and group guided tours. [4] Visible are the Armoury Chamber, Tsar Cannon, Tsar Bell, artillery pieces, and the exposition of Russian wooden sculpture and carvings. [5]

History

Origin

View from the House on Embankment. Moskovskii Kreml', vid s Doma na naberezhnoi.jpg
View from the House on Embankment.

The site had been continuously inhabited by Finnic peoples (especially the Meryans) since the 2nd century BC. The East Slavs occupied the south-western portion of Borovitsky Hill as early as the 11th century, as evidenced by a metropolitan seal from the 1090s which was unearthed by Soviet archaeologists in the area. The Vyatichi built a fortified structure (or "grad") on the hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River.

Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the 'grad of Moscow'. The word "Kremlin" was first recorded in 1331 [6] (though etymologist Max Vasmer mentions an earlier appearance in 1320 [7] ). The grad was greatly extended by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1156, destroyed by the Mongols in 1237 and rebuilt in oak in 1339. [8]

Seat of grand dukes

Dmitri Donskoi replaced the oak walls with a strong citadel of white limestone in 1366–1368 on the basic foundations of the current walls; [8] this fortification withstood a siege by Khan Tokhtamysh. Dmitri's son Vasily I resumed construction of churches and cloisters in the Kremlin. The newly built Cathedral of the Annunciation was painted by Theophanes the Greek, Andrei Rublev, and Prokhor in 1406. The Chudov Monastery was founded by Dmitri's tutor, Metropolitan Alexis; while his widow, Eudoxia, established the Ascension Convent in 1397.

Residence of the tsars

Moscow July 2011-10a.jpg
Moskau-Grosse-Glocke Mai 08.jpg
Tsar Cannon and Tsar Bell, two of the Kremlin's visitor attractions

The Golden Hall, a throne room with murals painted probably after 1547, was destroyed to make place for the Kremlin Palace, commissioned by Elizabeth of Russia and designed by architect Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli in 1752. [9]

Grand Prince Ivan III organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy, including Petrus Antonius Solarius, who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and Marcus Ruffus who designed the new palace for the prince. It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, and the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505–08 and augmented to its present height in 1600. The Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495. [8] Spasskie gates of the wall still bear a dedication in Latin praising Petrus Antonius Solarius for the design.

After construction of the new kremlin walls and churches was complete, the monarch decreed that no structures should be built in the immediate vicinity of the citadel. The Kremlin was separated from the walled merchant town (Kitay-gorod) by a 30-meter-wide moat, over which Saint Basil's Cathedral was constructed during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The same tsar also renovated some of his grandfather's palaces, added a new palace and cathedral for his sons, and endowed the Trinity metochion inside the Kremlin. The metochion was administrated by the Trinity Monastery, and contained the graceful tower church of St. Sergius, which was described by foreigners as one of the finest in the country.

During the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin paved the way for the election of Mikhail Romanov as the new tsar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis and grandson Feodor, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace and the palace of Patriarch Nikon were built. Following the death of Alexis's son, Feodor, and the Moscow Uprising of 1682, Tsar Peter escaped with much difficulty from the Kremlin and as a result developed a dislike for it. Three decades later, Peter abandoned the residence of his forefathers for his new capital, Saint Petersburg.

Panoramic view, 1800 Kremlin1800.jpg
Panoramic view, 1800
External images
Searchtool.svg Graphic reconstruction of the Moscow fortress at the beginning of the 18th century
Searchtool.svg Graphic reconstruction of the Moscow fortress at the beginning of the 19th century

Imperial period

Grand Kremlin Palace, commissioned 1838 by Czar Nicholas I, constructed 1839-1849, today the official residence of the President of Russia Moscow Grand Kremlin Palace3.jpg
Grand Kremlin Palace, commissioned 1838 by Czar Nicholas I, constructed 1839–1849, today the official residence of the President of Russia

Although still used for coronation ceremonies, the Kremlin was abandoned and neglected until 1773, when Catherine the Great engaged Vasili Bazhenov to build her new residence there. Bazhenov produced a bombastic Neoclassical design on a heroic scale, which involved the demolition of several churches and palaces, as well as a portion of the Kremlin wall. After the preparations were over, construction was delayed due to lack of funds. Several years later the architect Matvey Kazakov supervised the reconstruction of the dismantled sections of the wall and of some structures of the Chudov Monastery, and built the spacious and luxurious Offices of the Senate, since adapted for use as the principal workplace of the President of Russia.

During the Imperial period, from the early 18th and until the late 19th century, the Kremlin walls were traditionally painted white, in accordance with fashion. [10]

French forces occupied the Kremlin from 2 September to 11 October 1812, following the French invasion of Russia. When Napoleon retreated from Moscow, he ordered the whole Kremlin to be blown up. The Kremlin Arsenal, several portions of the Kremlin Wall and several wall towers were destroyed by explosions and the Faceted Chamber and other churches were damaged by fire. Explosions continued for three days, from 21 to 23 October 1812. However, rain damaged the fuses, and the damage was less severe than intended. Restoration works were undertaken in 1816–1819, supervised by Osip Bove. During the remainder of the reign of Alexander I, several ancient structures were renovated in a fanciful neo-Gothic style, but many others, including all the buildings of the Trinity metochion, were condemned as "disused" or "dilapidated" and were torn down.

On visiting Moscow for his coronation festivities, Tsar Nicholas I was not satisfied with the Grand Palace (alias Winter Palace), which had been erected in the 1750s to the design of Francesco Rastrelli. The elaborate Baroque structure was demolished, as was the nearby church of St. John the Precursor, built by Aloisio the New in 1508 in place of the first church constructed in Moscow. The architect Konstantin Thon was commissioned to replace them with the Grand Kremlin Palace, which was to rival the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg in its dimensions and in the opulence of its interiors. The palace was constructed in 1839–1849, followed by the re-building of the Kremlin Armoury in 1851.

After 1851 the Kremlin changed little until the Russian Revolution of 1917. The only new features added during this period were the Monument to Alexander II and a stone cross marking the spot where in 1905 Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia was assassinated by Ivan Kalyayev. These monuments were destroyed by the Bolsheviks in 1918.

Soviet period and beyond

Kremlin in bird's-eye view Kremlin birds eye view-1.jpg
Kremlin in bird's-eye view

The Soviet government moved from Petrograd (present-day Saint Petersburg) to Moscow on 12 March 1918. Vladimir Lenin selected the Kremlin Senate as his residence. Joseph Stalin also had his personal rooms in the Kremlin. He was eager to remove all the "relics of the tsarist regime" from his headquarters. Golden eagles on the towers were replaced by shining Kremlin stars, while the wall near Lenin's Mausoleum was turned into the Kremlin Wall Necropolis.

The Chudov Monastery and Ascension Convent, with their 16th-century cathedrals, were dismantled to make room for the military school. The Little Nicholas Palace and the old Saviour Cathedral were pulled down as well.

During the Second World War the towers were repainted with different colors and covered with wooden tents. Every roof was painted rusty brown so as to make them indistinguishable from typical roofs in the city. The grounds, paved with cobblestone, were covered up with sand. Tents painted to look like roofs were stretched over the gardens, with facades of the buildings also painted to confuse the German pilots. [11]

The residence of the Soviet government was closed to tourists until 1955. It was not until the Khrushchev Thaw that the Kremlin was reopened to foreign visitors. The Kremlin Museums were established in 1961, and the complex was among the first Soviet patrimonies inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1990.

Although the current director of the Kremlin Museums, Elena Gagarina (Yuri Gagarin's daughter), advocates a full-scale restoration of the destroyed cloisters, recent developments have been confined to expensive restoration of the original interiors of the Grand Kremlin Palace, which were altered during Stalin's rule.

State Kremlin Palace

State Kremlin Palace (alias Kremlin Palace of Congresses), built 1959-1961 Tverskoy District, Moscow, Russia - panoramio (800).jpg
State Kremlin Palace (alias Kremlin Palace of Congresses), built 1959–1961

The State Kremlin Palace (alias Kremlin Palace of Congresses), was commissioned by Nikita Khrushchev as a modern arena for Communist Party meetings, and was built within the Kremlin walls 1959–1961. Externally the palace is faced with white marble and the windows are tinted and reflective. The construction of a large modern public building in a historic neighborhood generated an uproar, especially since the building replaced several heritage buildings including the old neo-classical building of the State Armory and some of the rear parts of the Great Kremlin Palace. Although this was not the first time that the Soviet government had destroyed architectural heritage (notably the Chudov Monastery and Ascension Cloisters) in the Kremlin and in the country in general, by the mid 1950s laws were in place effectively considering all pre-Soviet constructions as historical monuments and preventing their demolition, in some ways making the construction illegal[ further explanation needed ]. Nevertheless, the Palace was integrated into the larger complex of the Great Kremlin Palace with walkways linking it to the Patriarchal Chambers and the Terem Palace.

Buildings

Bashni Moskovskogo kremlia.jpg
Moskovskii Kreml'-Kolokol'nia Ivana Velikogo.jpg
Two of the Kremlin's numerous historical buildings: Spasskaya Tower with one of the Kremlin stars on top, and the Ivan the Great Bell Tower
Dormition Cathedral MoscowKremlin AssumptionCathedral S21.jpg
Dormition Cathedral
Troitskaya Tower 1495, 80 m (260 ft) Moscow (8352322062).jpg
Troitskaya Tower 1495, 80 m (260 ft)

The existing Kremlin walls and towers were built by Italian masters from 1485 to 1495. The irregular triangle of the Kremlin wall encloses an area of 275,000 square metres (2,960,000 sq ft). Its overall length is 2,235 metres (2,444 yards), but the height ranges from 5 to 19 metres (16 to 62 ft), depending on the terrain. The wall's thickness is between 3.5 and 6.5 metres (11 and 21 ft).

Originally there were eighteen Kremlin towers, but their number increased to twenty in the 17th century. All but three of the towers are square in plan. The highest tower is the Troitskaya, which was built to its present height of 80 metres (260 ft) in 1495. Most towers were originally crowned with wooden tents. The extant brick tents with strips of colored tiles date to the 1680s.

Map of buildings MoscowKremlinMap.jpg
Map of buildings

Cathedral Square is the heart of the Kremlin. It is surrounded by six buildings, including three cathedrals. The Cathedral of the Dormition was completed in 1479 to be the main church of Moscow and where all the Tsars were crowned. The massive limestone façade, capped with its five golden cupolas, was the design of Aristotele Fioravanti. Several important metropolitans and patriarchs are buried there, including Peter and Makarii. The gilded, three-domed Cathedral of the Annunciation was completed next in 1489, only to be reconstructed to a nine-domed design a century later. On the south-east of the square is the much larger Cathedral of the Archangel Michael (1508), where almost all the Muscovite monarchs from Ivan Kalita to Ivan V of Russia are interred. (Boris Godunov was originally buried there, but was moved to the Trinity Monastery.)

There are two domestic churches of the Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow, the Church of the Twelve Apostles (1653–1656) and the exquisite one-domed Church of the Deposition of the Virgin's Robe, built by Pskov artisans from 1484 to 1488 and featuring superb icons and frescoes from 1627 and 1644.

The other notable structure is the Ivan the Great Bell Tower on the north-east corner of the square, which is said to mark the exact centre of Moscow and resemble a burning candle. Completed in 1600, it is 81 metres (266 feet) high. Until the Russian Revolution, it was the tallest structure in the city, as construction of buildings taller than that was forbidden. Its 21 bells would sound the alarm if any enemy was approaching. The upper part of the structure was destroyed by the French during the Napoleonic Invasion and has been rebuilt. The Tsar bell, the largest bell in the world, stands on a pedestal next to the tower.

The oldest secular structure still standing is Ivan III's Palace of Facets (1491), which holds the imperial thrones. The next oldest is the first home of the royal family, the Terem Palace. The original Terem Palace was also commissioned by Ivan III, but most of the existing palace was built in the 17th century. The Terem Palace and the Palace of Facets are linked by the Grand Kremlin Palace. This was commissioned by Nicholas I in 1838. The largest structure in the Kremlin, it cost 11 million rubles to build and more than one billion dollars to renovate in the 1990s. It contains dazzling reception halls, a ceremonial red staircase, private apartments of the tsars, and the lower storey of the Resurrection of Lazarus church (1393), which is the oldest extant structure in the Kremlin and the whole of Moscow.

The northern corner of the Kremlin is occupied by the Arsenal, which was built for Peter the Great in 1701. The southwestern section of the Kremlin holds the Armoury building. Built in 1851 to a Renaissance Revival design, it is currently a museum housing Russian state Regalia and Diamond Fund.

The haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium Methylophaga muralis (first called Methylophaga murata) was first isolated from deteriorating marble in the Kremlin. [12]

Helipad

To stop disruptions to traffic caused by motorcades, President Vladimir Putin authorized the construction of the Kremlin helipad. The helipad was completed in May 2013. The President will now commute back and forth to the Kremlin using a Mil Mi-8 helicopter. Careful consideration was taken in choosing the location of the helipad. The location chosen is said to be of no threat to the architecture of the Kremlin. [13]

Moscow Metro

The nearest Moscow Metro stations to the Kremlin are: Okhotny Ryad and Biblioteka Imeni Lenina (Sokolnicheskaya Line), Teatralnaya (Zamoskvoretskaya Line), Ploshchad Revolyutsii (Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line), Arbatskaya (Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line), Alexandrovsky Sad (Filyovskaya Line), and Borovitskaya (Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line).

Related Research Articles

Red Square Square in Moscow, Russia

Red Square is one of the oldest and largest squares in Moscow, the capital of Russia. Owing to its historical significance and the adjacent historical buildings, it is regarded as one of the most famous squares in Europe and the world. It is located in Moscow's historic centre, in the eastern walls of the Kremlin. It is the city landmark of Moscow, with iconic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral, Lenin's Mausoleum and the GUM. In addition, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990.

Saint Basils Cathedral Cathedral in Moscow, Russia

The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed, commonly known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, is an Orthodox church in Red Square of Moscow, and is one of the most popular cultural symbols of Russia. The building, now a museum, is officially known as the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat, or Pokrovsky Cathedral. It was built from 1555 to 1561 on orders from Ivan the Terrible and commemorates the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan. It was the city's tallest building until the completion of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in 1600.

Terem Palace

Terem Palace or Teremnoy Palace is a historical building in the Moscow Kremlin, Russia, which used to be the main residence of the Russian czars in the 17th century. Its name is derived from the Greek word τερεμνον. Currently, the structure is not accessible to the public, as it belongs to the official residence of the President of Russia.

Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius Russian monastery and the spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church

The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius is the most important Russian monastery and the spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church. The monastery is situated in the town of Sergiyev Posad, about 70 km to the north-east from Moscow by the road leading to Yaroslavl, and currently is home to over 300 monks.

Chudov Monastery Old monastery in the Moscow Kremlin

The Chudov Monastery was founded in the Moscow Kremlin in 1358 by Metropolitan Alexius of Moscow. The monastery was dedicated to the miracle of the Archangel Michael at Chonae. The Monastery was closed in 1918, and dismantled in 1929.

Cathedral of the Archangel Church in Moscow, Russia

The Cathedral of the Archangel is a Russian Orthodox church dedicated to the Archangel Michael. It is located in Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin in Russia between the Great Kremlin Palace and the Ivan the Great Bell Tower. It was the main necropolis of the Tsars of Russia until the relocation of the capital to St. Petersburg. It was constructed between 1505 and 1508 under the supervision of an Italian architect Aloisio the New on the spot of an older cathedral, built in 1333. Now it also serves as a part of Moscow Kremlin Museums.

Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow Church in Moscow, Russia

The Cathedral of the Annunciation is a Russian Orthodox church dedicated to the Annunciation of the Theotokos. It is located on the southwest side of Cathedral Square in the Moscow Kremlin in Russia, where it connects directly to the main building of the complex of the Grand Kremlin Palace, adjacent to the Palace of Facets. It was originally the personal chapel for the Muscovite tsars, and its abbot remained a personal confessor of the Russian royal family until the early 20th century. Now it also serves as a part of Moscow Kremlin Museums.

Novodevichy Convent Monastery in Moscow, Russia

Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery, is probably the best-known cloister of Moscow. Its name, sometimes translated as the New Maidens' Monastery, was devised to differ from the Old Maidens' Monastery within the Moscow Kremlin. Unlike other Moscow cloisters, it has remained virtually intact since the 17th century. In 2004, it was proclaimed a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Krutitsy

Krutitsy Metochion, full name: Krutitsy Patriarchal Metochion is an operating ecclesiastical estate of Russian Orthodox Church, located in Tagansky District of Moscow, Russia, 3 kilometers south-east from the Kremlin. The name Krutitsy (pl.), i.e. steep river banks, originally meant the hills immediately east from Yauza River. Krutitsy Metochion, established in the late 13th century, contains listed historical buildings erected in the late 17th century on the site of earlier 16th century foundations. After a brief period of prosperity in the 17th century, Krutitsy was shut down by imperial authorities in the 1780s, and served as a military warehouse for nearly two centuries. It was restored by Petr Baranovsky and gradually opened to the public after World War II; in 1991-1996, Krutitsy was returned to the Church and re-established as the personal metochion of Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia.

Kazan Kremlin Historic site in Kazan, Russia

The Kazan Kremlin is the chief historic citadel of Russia, situated in the city of Kazan. It was built at the behest of Ivan the Terrible on the ruins of the former castle of Kazan khans. It was declared a World Heritage Site in 2000.

Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery

Joseph Volokolamsk Monastery is a monastery for men, located 17 km northeast of Volokolamsk, Moscow Oblast. In the 15th and 16th century, it rivaled the Trinity as the most authoritative and wealthy monastery in Russia. It was frequently referred to as lavra, although there was no official corroboration of that status.

Russian architecture Overview of the architecture in Russia

Russian architecture follows a tradition whose roots lie in early Russian stone architecture and in the architecture of Kievan Rus' with its centers in Veliky Novgorod and Kiev. From the Rus' era, the Byzantine Empire and Islamic architecture influenced the architecture and people of Russia. In other phases of Russian history the architecture developed independently and was characterized by national and local features. After the Mongol invasion of Rus, Russian architectural history continued in the principalities of Vladimir-Suzdal, Novgorod, and the succeeding states of the Tsardom of Russia. The great churches of Kievan Rus', built after the adoption of Christianity in 988, were the first examples of monumental architecture in the East Slavic region. Early Eastern Orthodox churches were mainly built from hay, with their simplest form known as a cell church. Cathedrals often featured many small domes, which has led some art historians to infer how the pagan Slavic temples may have appeared.

Ascension Convent

Ascension Convent, known as the Starodevichy Convent or Old Maidens' Convent until 1817, was an Orthodox nunnery in the Moscow Kremlin which contained the burials of grand princesses, tsarinas, and other noble ladies from the Muscovite royal court.

Church of the Twelve Apostles Church in Moscow, Russia

The Patriarchal Chambers and the Church of the Twelve Apostles is a minor cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, commissioned by Patriarch Nikon as part of his stately residence in 1653 and dedicated to Philip the Apostle three years later. Now it is used by the Moscow Kremlin Museums.

Russian Revival architecture Late-19th-century Byzantine revivalist architectural style

The Russian Revival style is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture that arose in the second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of Byzantine elements and pre-Petrine architecture.

The Tobolsk Kremlin is the sole stone kremlin in Siberia. It is located in Tobolsk, Tyumen Oblast, Russia.

Kremlin Presidium

The Kremlin Presidium, also denominated Building 14, was an edifice within the Moscow Kremlin in Russia. Constructed in 1934, until 2011 it housed, first, the Supreme Soviet, i. e. the supreme legislative body of the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991, and, second, the offices of the Presidential Administration of Russia. It was demolished in 2016.

Saint Sophia Cathedral, Vologda

Saint Sophia Cathedral is the oldest surviving building in the city of Vologda and the main church of the Vologda Eparchy of the Russian Orthodox Church. It was constructed between 1568 and 1570 at the behest of Ivan the Terrible who had made Vologda the centre of his personal demesne. The cathedral is located on the right bank of the Vologda River, just outside the former citadel known as the Vologda Kremlin.

Osip Startsev

Osip Dmitrievich Startsev was a Russian architect who mastered both Muscovite Baroque and Ukrainian Baroque idioms during the early part of Peter the Great's reign. His father Dmitry Startsev was the architect responsible for the completion of the Arkhangelsk Gostiny Dvor in the 1680s.

Moscow Kremlin Museums Major museum in Moscow

Moscow Kremlin Museums is a major state-run museum in Moscow Kremlin. Its roots lie in the Kremlin Armoury museum founded in 1806, the current form of the museum started in 1991. The Head of the museum is Yelena Gagarina, daughter of cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. There were 424,922 visitors to the Kremlin Museums in 2020, a drop of 86 percent from 2019 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, but it still ranked 46th on the List of most-visited art museums in the world in 2020.

References

Specific

  1. Paul, Michael C. (January 2004). "The Military Revolution in Russia 1550–1682". The Journal of Military History. 68 (1): 31. doi : 10.1353/jmh.2003.0401. S2CID 159954818.
  2. "Moscow Kremlin Museums: ABOUT THE MUSEUM".
  3. "Кремль" [Kremlin]. Vasmer Etymological dictionary.
  4. "Moscow Kremlin Museums: VISIT US". kreml.ru. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  5. "Exposition of Russian wooden sculpture and carvings". kreml.ru. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  6. Agrawal, Premendra (4 February 2012). Silent Assassins Jan 11, 1966. Agrawal Overseas. p. 184. ISBN   9789350878453 . Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  7. Фасмера, Макс. "Этимологический Словарь Фасмера" [Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary] (in Russian). p. 321.
  8. 1 2 3 Paul, Michael C. (January 2004). "The Military Revolution in Russia 1550–1682". The Journal of Military History. 68 (1): 31. doi:10.1353/jmh.2003.0401. S2CID   159954818.
  9. Rowland, Daniel B. (2020). God, Tsar, and people : the political culture of early modern Russia. Ithaca. ISBN   978-1-5017-5211-7. OCLC   1145926960.
  10. Semenko, Xenia (25 November 2013). "Почему кремлевские стены красили в белый цвет" [Why the Kremlin walls painted white]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  11. MANAEV, GEORGY (9 May 2019). "How the Russians made the Kremlin 'disappear' during". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  12. Doronina NV; Li TsD; Ivanova EG; Trotsenko IuA. (2005). "Methylophaga murata sp. nov.: a haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylotroph from deteriorating marble". Mikrobiologiia. 74 (4): 511–9. PMID   16211855.
  13. Rosenberg, Steve (27 May 2013). "Vladimir Putin gets Kremlin helipad to ease congestion" (Embedded video). BBC News . Retrieved 18 May 2017.

Bibliography