36th United States Congress

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36th United States Congress
35th  
  37th
Capitol under const 1860.jpg

March 4, 1859 – March 4, 1861
Members66 senators
238 representatives
5 non-voting delegates
Senate majority Democratic
(until February 4, 1861)
Republican
(from February 4, 1861)
Senate President John C. Breckinridge (D)
House majority Republican-led coalition
House Speaker William Pennington (R)
Sessions
Special: March 4, 1859 – March 10, 1859
1st: December 5, 1859 – June 26, 1860
Special: June 26, 1860 – June 28, 1860
2nd: December 3, 1860 – March 4, 1861

The 36th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1859, to March 4, 1861, during the third and fourth years of James Buchanan's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1850 United States census. The Senate had a Democratic majority, and the House had a Republican plurality.

Contents

Major events

Major legislation

Constitutional amendments

Treaties

States admitted and territories organized

Party summary

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Know
Nothing

(A)
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
Other
End of previous congress 4 42 20 0660
Begin 2 38 25 0 65 1
End 25 26 5315
Final voting share3.8% 47.2% 49.1% 0.0%
Beginning of next congress 0 22 29 1 [lower-alpha 1] 5216

House of Representatives

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Know
Nothing

(A)
Democratic
(D)
Anti-
Lecompton
Democratic

(ALD)
Independent
Democratic

(ID)
Opposition
(O)
Republican
(R)
Other
End of previous congress 14 130 0 1 0 92 02370
Begin 5 83 8 7 19 113 0 235 2
End 59 7 17 115 21028
Final voting share2.4% 28.1% 3.3% 3.3% 8.1% 54.8% 0.0%
Beginning of next congress 0 44 0 1 0 108 25 [lower-alpha 2] 17862

Leadership

President of the Senate
John C. Breckinridge John C Breckinridge-04775-restored.jpg
President of the Senate
John C. Breckinridge

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1862; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1864; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1860.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

Senate changes
State
(class)
Vacated byReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 3]
Oregon
(2)
VacantSuccessor elected late due to legislature's failure to elect. Edward D. Baker (R)October 2, 1860
California
(1)
David C. Broderick (D)Died September 16, 1859, after taking part in a duel he participated in, which he was unlucky.
Interim successor was appointed to continue the term.
Henry P. Haun (D)November 3, 1859
Texas
(1)
Matthias Ward (D)Interim appointee lost nomination to finish the term
Successor elected December 5, 1859.
Louis Wigfall (D)December 5, 1859
California
(1)
Henry P. Haun (D)Interim appointee lost election to finish the term
Successor elected March 5, 1860.
Milton Latham (D)March 5, 1860
South Carolina
(2)
James Chesnut Jr. (D)Withdrew November 10, 1860.VacantNot filled this Congress
South Carolina
(3)
James H. Hammond (D)Withdrew November 11, 1860.VacantNot filled this Congress
Mississippi
(2)
Albert G. Brown (D)Withdrew January 12, 1861.VacantNot filled this Congress
Maine
(1)
Hannibal Hamlin (R)Resigned January 17, 1861, to become Vice President of the United States.
Successor elected January 17, 1861.
Lot M. Morrill (R)January 17, 1861
Alabama
(3)
Benjamin Fitzpatrick (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861.VacantNot filled this Congress
Alabama
(2)
Clement C. Clay (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861.VacantNot filled this Congress
Florida
(1)
Stephen Mallory (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861.VacantNot filled this Congress
Florida
(3)
David L. Yulee (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861.VacantNot filled this Congress
Mississippi
(1)
Jefferson Davis (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861.VacantNot filled this Congress
Georgia
(3)
Alfred Iverson Sr. (D)Withdrew January 28, 1861.VacantNot filled this Congress
Kansas
(2)
New seatNew state admitted to the Union January 29, 1861
Senator was not elected until the next Congress.
VacantNot filled this Congress
Kansas
(3)
New seatNew state admitted to the Union January 29, 1861
Senator was not elected until the next Congress.
VacantNot filled this Congress
Georgia
(2)
Robert Toombs (D)Withdrew February 4, 1861.VacantNot filled this Congress
Louisiana
(2)
Judah P. Benjamin (D)Withdrew February 4, 1861.VacantNot filled this Congress
Louisiana
(3)
John Slidell (D)Withdrew February 4, 1861.VacantNot filled this Congress
Tennessee
(2)
Alfred O. P. Nicholson (D)Withdrew March 3, 1861.VacantNot filled this Congress

House of Representatives

House changes
DistrictVacated byReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 3]
Illinois 6th VacantVacancy in term John A. McClernand (D)Seated November 8, 1859
Kentucky 5th VacantBrown could not take seat because he had not yet attained age required by the US Constitution John Y. Brown (D)Seated December 3, 1860
Ohio 14th Cyrus Spink (R)Died May 31, 1859 Harrison G. O. Blake (R)Seated October 11, 1859
Virginia 4th William Goode (D)Died July 3, 1859 Roger A. Pryor (D)Seated December 7, 1859
Michigan 1st George B. Cooper (D)Lost contested election May 15, 1860 Francis P. Blair Jr. (R)Seated May 15, 1860
Nebraska Territory At-large Experience Estabrook Lost contested election May 18, 1860 Samuel G. Daily (R)Seated May 18, 1860
New York 31st Silas M. Burroughs (R)Died June 3, 1860 Edwin R. Reynolds (R)Seated December 5, 1860
Missouri 1st John R. Barret (D)Lost contested election June 8, 1860 William A. Howard (R)Seated June 8, 1860
Pennsylvania 8th John Schwartz (ALD)Died June 20, 1860 Jacob K. McKenty (D)Seated December 3, 1860
Missouri 1st William A. Howard (R)Resigned June 25, 1860 John R. Barret (D)Seated December 3, 1860
Mississippi 1st Lucius Q. C. Lamar II (D)Retired December ???, 1860VacantNot filled this term
South Carolina 3rd Laurence M. Keitt (D)Retired December ???, 1860VacantNot filled this term
South Carolina 1st John McQueen (D)Retired December 21, 1860VacantNot filled this term
South Carolina 2nd William P. Miles (D)Retired December 21, 1860VacantNot filled this term
South Carolina 4th Milledge L. Bonham (D)Retired December 21, 1860VacantNot filled this term
South Carolina 5th John D. Ashmore (D)Retired December 21, 1860VacantNot filled this term
South Carolina 6th William W. Boyce (D)Retired December 21, 1860VacantNot filled this term
Maine 5th Israel Washburn Jr. (R)Resigned January 1, 1861, after being elected Governor of Maine Stephen Coburn (R)Seated January 2, 1861
Mississippi 2nd Reuben Davis (D)Withdrew January 12, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Mississippi 3rd William Barksdale (D)Withdrew January 12, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Mississippi 4th Otho R. Singleton (D)Withdrew January 12, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Mississippi 5th John J. McRae (D)Withdrew January 12, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Alabama 1st James A. Stallworth (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Alabama 2nd James L. Pugh (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Alabama 3rd David Clopton (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Alabama 4th Sydenham Moore (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Alabama 5th George S. Houston (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Alabama 7th Jabez L. M. Curry (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Florida At-large George S. Hawkins (D)Withdrew January 21, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Georgia 1st Peter E. Love (D)Retired January 23, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Georgia 2nd Martin J. Crawford (D)Withdrew January 23, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Georgia 3rd Thomas Hardeman Jr. (O)Withdrew January 23, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Georgia 4th Lucius J. Gartrell (D)Retired January 23, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Georgia 5th John W. H. Underwood (D)Withdrew January 23, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Georgia 6th James Jackson (D)Retired January 23, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Georgia 7th Joshua Hill (O)Resigned January 23, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Georgia 8th John J. Jones (D)Withdrew January 23, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Kansas Territory At-large Marcus J. Parrott (R)Kansas was admitted to the Union January 29, 1861Seat eliminated
Kansas At-large New SeatKansas was admitted to the Union January 29, 1861 Martin F. Conway (R)Seated January 29, 1861
Alabama 6th Williamson R. W. Cobb (D)Withdrew January 30, 1861VacantNot filled this term
Louisiana 2nd Miles Taylor (D)Withdrew February 5, 1861VacantNot filled this term

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Caucuses

Employees

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Notes

  1. Unionist
  2. Unionist & Constitutional Unionist
  3. 1 2 When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.

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References

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  2. 1 2 3 "1860 Democratic National Convention". Blueandgraytrail.com. August 19, 2006. Archived from the original on November 11, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  3. "Constitutional Union party Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Constitutional Union party". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  4. "Ordinance of Secession of South Carolina". Csawardept.com. Archived from the original on April 24, 2002. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hart, Albert Bushnell; Channing, Edward, eds. (November 1893). Ordinances of Secession and Other Documents. 1860-1861. American History Leaflets Colonial and Constitutional. Vol. 12. New York: A. Lovell & Company. OCLC   7759360 . Retrieved November 15, 2017. Alt URL
  6. "The Delaware Legislature.; Reception Of The Secession Commissioner From Mississippi". The New York Times. January 4, 1861.
  7. "Ordinance of Secession of Mississippi". Csawardept.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  8. "Ordinance of Secession of Florida". Csawardept.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  9. "Ordinance of Secession of Alabama". Csawardept.com. Archived from the original on January 15, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  10. "Ordinance of Secession of Georgia". Csawardept.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  11. "Ordinance of Secession of Louisiana". Csawardept.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  12. 1 2 "Ordinance of Secession of Texas". Csawardept.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  13. "Historical Highlights: Session to Count 1860 Electoral College Votes". United States House of Representatives History, Art & Archives. Retrieved January 3, 2023.
  14. Shafer, Ronald G. (December 30, 2012). "When the House needed two months and 133 votes to elect a speaker". The Washington Post. ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved January 3, 2023.

References