39th United States Congress

Last updated
39th United States Congress
38th  
  40th
USCapitol1877.jpg
March 4, 1865 – March 4, 1867
Senate President Andrew Johnson (D)
until April 15, 1865
Vacant
from April 15, 1865
Senate President pro tem Lafayette S. Foster (R)
Benjamin Wade (R)
House Speaker Schuyler Colfax (R)
Members54 senators
193 members of the House
9 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Republican
House Majority Republican
Sessions
Special: March 4, 1865 – March 11, 1865
1st: December 4, 1865 – July 28, 1866
2nd: December 3, 1866 – March 4, 1867

The Thirty-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1865, to March 4, 1867, during the first month of Abraham Lincoln's fifth year as president, and the first two years of the administration of his successor, U.S. President Andrew Johnson.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

United States House of Representatives Lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national legislature of the United States.

Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first president of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city, located on the Potomac River bordering Maryland and Virginia, is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

Contents

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

Republican Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

Major events

Abraham Lincoln 16th president of the United States

Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. He preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the U.S. economy.

Confederate States of America (de facto) federal republic in North America from 1861 to 1865

The Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves. Convinced that white supremacy and the institution of slavery were threatened by the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, the Confederacy declared its secession from the United States, with the remaining states becoming known as the Union during the ensuing American Civil War. According to Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens in his famous Cornerstone Speech, Confederate ideology was centrally based "upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition".

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy). The most studied and written about episode in U.S. history, the Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Major legislation

Civil Rights Act of 1866 First U. S. federal law to define citizenship and affirm that all citizens are equally protected by the law

The Civil Rights Act of 1866, 14 Stat. 27–30, enacted April 9, 1866, was the first United States federal law to define citizenship and affirm that all citizens are equally protected by the law. It was mainly intended, in the wake of the American Civil War, to protect the civil rights of persons of African descent born in or brought to the United States. This legislation was passed by Congress in 1865 and vetoed by U.S. President Andrew Johnson. In April 1866 Congress again passed the bill to support the Thirteenth Amendment. Johnson again vetoed it, but a two-thirds majority in each chamber overrode the veto to allow it to become law without presidential signature.

<i>United States Statutes at Large</i>

The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is originally published as a slip law, which is classified as either public law or private law (Pvt.L.), and designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications. The session law publication for U.S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U.S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, and codification.

Judicial Circuits Act

The Judicial Circuits Act of 1866 reorganized the United States circuit courts and provided for the gradual elimination of several seats on the Supreme Court of the United States. It was signed into law on July 23, 1866, by President Andrew Johnson. It denied him the opportunity of appointing any justices to the Supreme Court. It was the first major legislation dealing with the judiciary following the American Civil War.

Constitutional amendments

Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime

The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865. The amendment was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865. On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed its adoption. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War.

Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally. Ratification defines the international act in which a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, and in the case of multilateral treaties, the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation.

State legislature (United States) legislature of a U.S. state

A state legislature in the United States is the legislative body of any of the 50 U.S. states. The formal name varies from state to state. In 25 states, the legislature is simply called the Legislature, or the State Legislature, while in 19 states, the legislature is called the General Assembly. In Massachusetts and New Hampshire, the legislature is called the General Court, while North Dakota and Oregon designate the legislature the Legislative Assembly.

States admitted

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

During this Congress, two seats were added for the new state of Nebraska.

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
Unionist
(U)
Unconditional
Unionist

(UU)
End of previous congress 10 33 3 45022
Begin 9 37 1 1 48 24
End 8 41 3 2 5420
Final voting share14.8% 75.9% 5.6% 3.7%
Beginning of next congress 8 45 0 05321

House of Representatives

During this Congress, one seat was added for the new state of Nebraska.

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
Independent
Republican

(IR)
Unionist
(U)
Unconditional
Unionist

(UU)
Other
End of previous congress 72 84 2 9 16 018356
Begin 40 132 1 0 10 0 183 59
End 39 135 4 13 19251
Final voting share20.3% 70.3% 0.5% 2.1% 6.8% 0.0%
Beginning of next congress 45 140 1 0 0 2 [lower-alpha 1] 18855

Leadership

President of the Senate
Andrew Johnson, until April 15, 1865 President Andrew Johnson.jpg
President of the Senate
Andrew Johnson, until April 15, 1865

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1868; Class 2 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1870; and Class 3 meant their term ended in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1866.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

State
(class)
VacatorReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 2]
Maryland (3)VacantSen. Thomas Hicks had died during previous congress.
Successor elected March 9, 1865.
John Creswell (UU)March 9, 1865
New Jersey (2)VacantAlthough elected in time for this Congress, the Senator-elect was not seated until March 15, 1865.
Senator was later removed in election dispute, see below.
John P. Stockton (D)March 15, 1865
Tennessee (2)VacantTennessee re-admitted to the Union.
Senators were elected July 24, 1866.
Joseph S. Fowler (U)July 24, 1866
Tennessee (1) David T. Patterson (U)July 28, 1866
Iowa (3) James Harlan (R)Resigned May 15, 1865, after being appointed U.S. Secretary of the Interior.
Successor elected January 13, 1866.
Samuel J. Kirkwood (R)January 13, 1866
Vermont (3) Jacob Collamer (R)Died November 9, 1865.
Successor was appointed November 21, 1865, to continue the term.
Appointee was elected October 24, 1866, to finish the term. [3]
Luke P. Poland (R)November 21, 1865
New Jersey (2) John P. Stockton (D)Disputed election led to Senate vacating the seat March 27, 1866.
Successor elected September 19, 1866.
Alexander G. Cattell (R)September 16, 1866
Vermont (1) Solomon Foot (R)Died March 28, 1866.
Successor was appointed April 3, 1866, to continue the term.
Appointee was elected October 24, 1866, to finish the term. [3]
George F. Edmunds (R)April 3, 1866
Kansas (2) James H. Lane (R)Died July 11, 1866, after being mortally wounded from a self-inflicted gunshot 10 days earlier
Successor was appointed July 19, 1866, to continue the term.
Appointee was elected January 23, 1867, to finish the term. [4]
Edmund G. Ross (R)July 19, 1866
New Hampshire (3) Daniel Clark (R)Resigned July 27, 1866, after being appointed Judge of the U.S. District Court for the District of New Hampshire.
Successor was appointed August 31, 1866.
George G. Fogg (R)August 31, 1866
New Jersey (1) William Wright (D)Died November 1, 1866.
Successor was appointed November 12, 1866.
Appointee was elected January 23, 1867, to finish the term. [5]
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen (R)November 12, 1866
Nebraska (1)New seatNebraska admitted to the Union March 1, 1867. Thomas Tipton (R)March 1, 1867
Nebraska (2) John M. Thayer (R)

House of Representatives

DistrictVacatorReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 2]
Tennessee 1st VacantTennessee re-admitted into the Union Nathaniel G. Taylor (U)July 24, 1866
Tennessee 2nd Horace Maynard (UU)
Tennessee 3rd William B. Stokes (UU)
Tennessee 4th Edmund Cooper (U)
Tennessee 5th William B. Campbell (U)
Tennessee 6th Samuel M. Arnell (UU)
Tennessee 7th Isaac R. Hawkins (U)
Tennessee 8th John W. Leftwich (UU)
Maryland 2nd Edwin H. Webster (UU)Resigned some time in July, 1865 after being appointed Collector of Customs for the port of Baltimore John L. Thomas Jr. (UU)December 4, 1865
New York 16th Orlando Kellogg (R)Died August 24, 1865 Robert S. Hale (R)December 3, 1865
Massachusetts 6th Daniel W. Gooch (R)Resigned September 1, 1865, after being appointed Navy Agent for the port of Boston Nathaniel P. Banks (R)December 4, 1865
Pennsylvania 16th Vacantincumbent Coffroth prevented from taking seat due to election contest Alexander H. Coffroth (D)February 19, 1866
Pennsylvania 16th Alexander H. Coffroth (D)Lost contested election July 18, 1866 William H. Koontz (R)July 18, 1866
Indiana 7th Daniel W. Voorhees (D)Lost contested election February 23, 1866 Henry D. Washburn (R)February 23, 1866
New York 8th James Brooks (D)Lost contested election April 7, 1866 William E. Dodge (R)April 7, 1866
New York 3rd James Humphrey (R)Died June 16, 1866 John W. Hunter (D)December 4, 1866
Kentucky 6th Green C. Smith (UU)Resigned some time in July, 1866 after being appointed Governor of the Montana Territory. Andrew H. Ward (D)December 3, 1866
Kentucky 5th Lovell Rousseau (UU)Resigned July 21, 1866, after being reprimanded for his assault of Iowa Rep. Josiah B. Grinnell. Was re-elected to fill his own seat. Lovell Rousseau (UU)December 3, 1866
Kentucky 3rd Henry Grider (D)Died September 7, 1866 Elijah Hise (D)December 3, 1866
Pennsylvania 11th Philip Johnson (D)Died January 29, 1867VacantNot filled this term
Nebraska Territory At-large Phineas Hitchcock (R)Nebraska achieved statehood March 1, 1867District eliminated
Nebraska At-large New StateNebraska admitted to the Union March 1, 1867. Seat remained vacant until March 2, 1867 Turner M. Marquette (R)March 2, 1867

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Caucuses

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Notes

  1. Conservative & Conservative Republican
  2. 1 2 This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.

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References

  1. "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". National Archives. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
  2. Huckabee, David C. (September 30, 1997). "Ratification of Amendments to the U.S. Constitution" (PDF). Congressional Research Service reports . Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress.
  3. 1 2 Byrd & Wolff, page 176
  4. Byrd & Wolff, page 108
  5. Byrd & Wolff, page 142

Further reading

Transcripts of debates and proceedings

The Congressional Globe contains the official transcripts and proceedings of the Thirty-Ninth Congress, although newspapers often provided their own transcripts that sometimes differed from the official ones. Following are external links to the pertinent volumes of the Globe, which are downloadable and/or searchable via Google Books and HathiTrust :

Congressional Globe, 39th Congress, External Links to Full Text
SessionPartStart dateEnd datePagesGoogleHathi
FirstOneDecember 4, 1865February 21, 18661 to 960 EL EL
FirstTwoFebruary 21, 1866April 12, 1866961 to 1920 EL EL
FirstThreeApril 12, 1866May 29, 18661921 to 2880 EL EL
FirstFourMay 29, 1866July 16, 18662881 to 3840 EL EL
FirstFiveJuly 16, 1866July 28, 18663841 to 4310, plus Appendix EL EL
SecondOneDecember 3, 1866January 25, 18671 to 752 EL EL
SecondTwoJanuary 25, 1867February 18, 1867753 to 1504 EL EL
SecondThreeFebruary 18, 1867March 2, 18671505 to 2005, plus Appendix EL EL