A total of twelve women have served, or are serving, as the head of an Australian government. Of these, one has served as the prime minister of Australia, six as the premier of a state and four as the chief minister of a territory. Fifteen women have also served, or are serving, as the deputy head of government in Australian states and territories; one has served as the deputy prime minister of the country, eight as the deputy premier of a state, and six as the chief minister of a territory.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.
The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of Australia. The individual who holds the office is the most senior Minister of State, the leader of the Federal Cabinet. The Prime Minister also has the responsibility of administering the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, and is the chair of the National Security Committee and the Council of Australian Governments. The office of Prime Minister is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia but exists through Westminster political convention. The individual who holds the office is commissioned by the Governor-General of Australia and at the Governor-General's pleasure subject to the Constitution of Australia and constitutional conventions.
The states and territories are the first-level administrative divisions of the Commonwealth of Australia. They are the second level of government in Australia, located between the federal and local government tiers.
The first female head of government in Australia, was Rosemary Follett in 1989, who was the 1st Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory. Carmen Lawrence became the first female premier of a state in 1990, by serving as the 25th Premier of Western Australia. In 2010, Julia Gillard became the first, and to date, only female Prime Minister of Australia.
Rosemary Follett is a former Australian politician who was the inaugural Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory, serving in 1989 and again between 1991 and 1995. She was the first woman to become head of government in an Australian state or territory.
The Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory is the head of government of the Australian Capital Territory. The leader of the party with the largest representation of seats in the unicameral Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly usually takes on the role. Unlike other states and territories, the Chief Minister of the ACT is not nominally appointed by an administrator or viceroy, but elected directly by the Assembly. Since there are no local governments in the territory, the Chief Minister's role is not only roughly equivalent to that of the Premiers of the states of Australia, but also that of the mayor of a local council.
Carmen Mary Lawrence is an Australian academic and former politician who was the Premier of Western Australia from 1990 to 1993, the first woman to become the premier of an Australian state. A member of the Labor Party, she later entered federal politics as a member of the House of Representatives from 1994 to 2007, and served as a minister in the Keating Government.
Today, every Australian state and territory has had at least one female government head, except for South Australia; the Australian Capital Territory has had the most, with three serving throughout its 27 year history; both New South Wales and Queensland have also a second female premier serving in their respective jurisdiction. The most female heads to serve concurrently was four, during the 315 days of 16 May 2011 to 26 March 2012. Clare Martin, who served as 7th Chief Minister of the Northern Territory for 6 years, from 2001 to 2007, has the longest–serving tenure of any female head of government in Australia. Queensland's Anna Bligh served as the 37th Premier of Queensland for 4 years, from 2007 to 2012, making her the longest–serving woman premier of a state. The shortest tenure of a former female head of government, belongs to Kristina Keneally, who served as the 42nd Premier of New South Wales for a year, from December 2009 to March 2011.
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres (379,725 sq mi), it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and fifth largest by population. It has a total of 1.7 million people, and its population is the second most highly centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are relatively small; Mount Gambier, the second largest centre, has a population of 28,684.
Clare Majella Martin is a former Australian journalist and politician. She was elected to the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly in a shock by-election win in 1995. She was appointed Opposition Leader in 1999, and won a surprise victory at the 2001 territory election, becoming the first Labor Party (ALP) and first female Chief Minister of the Northern Territory. At the 2005 election, she led Territory Labor to the second-largest majority government in the history of the Territory, before resigning as Chief Minister on 26 November 2007.
The Chief Minister of the Northern Territory is the head of government of the Northern Territory. The office is the equivalent of a State Premier. When the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly was created in 1974, the head of government was officially known as Majority Leader. This title was used in the first parliament (1974–1977) and the first eighteen months of the second. When self-government was granted the Northern Territory in 1978, the title of the head of government became Chief Minister.
There are currently two serving female heads of government in Australia, Annastacia Palaszczuk (39th Premier of Queensland) who was elected on 14 February 2015, and Gladys Berejiklian (45th Premier of New South Wales) who was appointed on 23 January 2017. Three women currently serve as deputy heads of government in Australia; Jackie Trad (Deputy Premier of Queensland) since 14 February 2015, Nicole Manison (Deputy Chief Minister of the Northern Territory) since 12 September 2016, Yvette Berry (Deputy Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory) since 31 October 2016, and Vickie Chapman (Deputy Premier of South Australia) since 19 March 2018. The tenures of these incumbents are accurate as of 20 June 2019.
Annastacia Palaszczuk is an Australian politician and 39th Premier of Queensland, serving since the 2015 election. She has been a Labor member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland since the 2006 election, representing the electorate of Inala. She held various ministerial portfolios in the Bligh Labor government from 2009. Following Labor's defeat in the 2012 election, Palaszczuk succeeded Bligh as leader of Queensland Labor. After the defeat of the Newman LNP government in 2015, Palaszczuk became the first woman in Australia to become Premier of a state from Opposition. Her first ministry was majority female, a first in Australia.
The Premier of Queensland is the head of government in the Australian state of Queensland.
Gladys Berejiklian is an Australian politician serving as the 45th and current Premier of New South Wales and the Leader of the New South Wales Liberal Party, offices which she assumed on 23 January 2017 following the resignation of Mike Baird. She has been a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly since 2003, representing the seat of Willoughby.
|State or Territory||Term start||Term end||Elections||Duration||Party||Notes|
|Chief Minister|| Rosemary Follett |
|Australian Capital Territory||11 May 1989||5 December 1989|| 1989 ,|
|4 years, 112 days||Labor|
|6 June 1991||2 March 1995|
|Premier|| Carmen Lawrence |
|Western Australia||12 February 1990||16 February 1993||1993||3 years, 4 days||Labor|
|Premier|| Joan Kirner |
|Victoria||10 August 1990||6 October 1992||1992||2 years, 57 days||Labor|
|Chief Minister|| Kate Carnell |
|Australian Capital Territory||2 March 1995||18 October 2000|| 1995 ,|
|5 years, 230 days||Liberal|
|Chief Minister|| Clare Martin |
|Northern Territory||18 August 2001||26 November 2007|| 2001 ,|
|6 years, 100 days||Labor|
|Premier|| Anna Bligh |
|Queensland||13 September 2007||26 March 2012|| 2009 ,|
|4 years, 195 days||Labor|
|Premier|| Kristina Keneally |
|New South Wales||4 December 2009||28 March 2011||2011||1 year, 114 days||Labor|
|Prime Minister|| Julia Gillard |
| Australia |
|24 June 2010||27 June 2013||2010||3 years, 3 days||Labor|
|Premier|| Lara Giddings |
|Tasmania||24 January 2011||31 March 2014||2014||3 years, 66 days||Labor|
|Chief Minister|| Katy Gallagher |
|Australian Capital Territory||16 May 2011||11 December 2014||2012||3 years, 209 days||Labor|
|Premier|| Annastacia Palaszczuk |
|Queensland||14 February 2015||Incumbent|| 2015 ,|
|4 years, 126 days||Labor|
|Premier|| Gladys Berejiklian |
|New South Wales||23 January 2017||Incumbent||2019||2 years, 148 days||Liberal|
|Term Start||Term End||Duration|
|Joan Kirner||Victoria||Labor||John Cain II||7 February 1989||10 August 1990||1 year, 184 days|
|Joan Sheldon||Queensland||Liberal||Rob Borbidge||19 February 1996||26 June 1998||2 years, 127 days|
|Sue Napier||Tasmania||Liberal||Tony Rundle||18 March 1996||14 September 1998||2 years, 180 days|
|Anna Bligh||Queensland||Labor||Peter Beattie||28 July 2005||13 September 2007||2 years, 47 days|
|Katy Gallagher||Australian Capital Territory||Labor||Jon Stanhope||20 April 2006||16 May 2011||5 years, 26 days|
|Marion Scrymgour||Northern Territory||Labor||Paul Henderson||26 November 2007||8 February 2009||1 year, 74 days|
|Julia Gillard||Australia||Labor||Kevin Rudd||3 December 2007||24 June 2010||2 years, 203 days|
|Lara Giddings||Tasmania||Labor||David Bartlett||26 May 2008||24 January 2011||2 years, 243 days|
|Carmel Tebbutt||New South Wales||Labor|| Nathan Rees,|
|5 September 2008||28 March 2011||2 years, 204 days|
|Delia Lawrie||Northern Territory||Labor||Paul Henderson||9 February 2009||29 August 2012||3 years, 202 days|
|Robyn Lambley||Northern Territory||Country Liberal||Terry Mills||29 August 2012||6 April 2013||251 days|
|Jackie Trad||Queensland||Labor||Annastacia Palaszczuk||14 February 2015||Incumbent||4 years, 126 days|
|Liza Harvey||Western Australia||Liberal||Colin Barnett||16 February 2016||17 March 2017||1 year, 29 days|
|Nicole Manison||Northern Territory||Labor||Michael Gunner||12 September 2016||Incumbent||2 years, 281 days|
|Yvette Berry||Australian Capital Territory||Labor||Andrew Barr||31 October 2016||Incumbent||2 years, 232 days|
|Vickie Chapman||South Australia||Liberal||Steven Marshall||19 March 2018||Incumbent||1 year, 93 days|
Red represents members of the Australian Labor Party, blue represents members of the Liberal Party of Australia.
The Australian Labor Party is a major centre-left political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at the federal level since the 2013 election. The party is a federal party with branches in each state and territory. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, and in both the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory. The party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and state levels. It is the oldest political party in Australia.
The Liberal Party of Australia is a major centre-right political party in Australia, one of the two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-left Australian Labor Party (ALP). It was founded in 1944 as the successor to the United Australia Party (UAP).
Red represents members of the Australian Labor Party, blue represents members of the Liberal Party of Australia and orange represents the Country Liberal Party.
The Country Liberal Party (CLP), officially the Country Liberals , is a liberal conservative political party in Australia founded in 1974, which operates solely in the Northern Territory.
Peter Douglas Beattie is a former Australian politician who served as the 36th Premier of Queensland, in office from 1998 to 2007. He was the state leader of the Labor Party from 1996 to 2007.
The Premiers of the Australian states are the heads of the executive governments in the six states of the Commonwealth of Australia. They perform the same function at the state level as the Prime Minister of Australia performs at the national level. The territory equivalents to the Premiers are the Chief Ministers of the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. The Queen of Australia and the State Governors are the formal repositories of executive power, however, in practice, they act only on the advice of State Premiers and Ministers except in extreme circumstances.
The politics of Queensland has several unique features with respect to other states in Australia including a unicameral legislature.
Anna Maria Bligh is a former Australian politician who served as the 37th Premier of Queensland, in office from 2007 to 2012 as leader of the Labor Party. She was the first woman to hold either position.
From the turn of the 20th century, women have participated in government in Australia. Following federation, the government of the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia passed the Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902 allowing most women to both vote and stand at the 1903 Federal election. South Australia and Western Australia granted women the vote before federation, and the states of New South Wales, Tasmania, Queensland and Victoria also passed legislation allowing women to participate in government at the state and local levels following federation. Indigenous Australian women did not achieve suffrage at all levels of government and in all states and territories until 1962.
Jo-Ann Roslyn Miller is an Australian politician. She has been a Labor Party member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland since February 2000, representing the electorate of Bundamba.
Yvette Maree D'Ath is an Australian politician. She is a Labor member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland representing the seat of Redcliffe. D'Ath is currently the Attorney-General of Queensland, Minister for Justice and Minister for Training and Skills. She was previously a Labor member of the Australian House of Representatives representing the outer Brisbane seat of Petrie from 2007 to 2013.
Mark Lionel Furner is an Australian politician. He was a Labor member of Australian Senate from 2008 to 2014, representing the state of Queensland. Since the 2015 Queensland state election, he has represented Ferny Grove in the Queensland Legislative Assembly.
Heinrich Palaszczuk is a former Labor member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland, and minister of the Beattie Government of Queensland. He was elected as the member for Archerfield in 1984, and held that seat until his election as the member for Inala in 1992. Palaszczuk retired from politics in 2006, and was succeeded in his seat of Inala by his daughter Annastacia Palaszczuk, who has been the Premier of Queensland since 2015.
There have been 92 women in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland since its establishment in 1860. Women have had the right to vote in the Assembly since 1905 and the right to stand as candidates since 1915.
Women's suffrage in Australia was one of the earliest objectives and the of the movement for gender equality in Australia. It began to be socially and politically accepted and legislated during the late 19th century, beginning with South Australia in 1894 and Western Australia in 1899. In 1902, the newly established Australian Parliament passed the Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902, which set a uniform law enabling women to vote at federal elections and to stand for the federal Parliament. This removed gender discrimination in relation to electoral rights for federal elections in Australia. By 1911, the remaining Australian states had legislated for women's suffrage for state elections. It took longer before women could stand for parliament throughout Australia and even longer before they were actually elected.
The 2015 Queensland state election was held on 31 January 2015 to elect all 89 members of the unicameral Legislative Assembly of Queensland.
Ian Bradley Walker is an Australian politician. He was a Liberal National member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly from 2012 to 2017, representing the electorate of Mansfield. He was Minister for Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts from 2013 to 2015 under Campbell Newman.
Dr Christopher Karl Davis is a former Australian Liberal National politician who was the member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland for Stafford, having defeated Stirling Hinchliffe at the 2012 state election until he resigned in May 2014. He was appointed Assistant Minister for Health on 3 April 2012, but was expelled from the ministry for breaches of cabinet solidarity.
Jacklyn Anne "Jackie" Trad is an Australian politician. She has been Deputy Premier of Queensland since 2015, Treasurer of Queensland since 2017 and has represented the Queensland Legislative Assembly seat of South Brisbane for the Labor Party since the 2012 South Brisbane by-election. Trad is also the leader of Labor's left faction in Queensland.
The 2017 Queensland state election was held on 25 November 2017 to elect all 93 members of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland, the unicameral Parliament of Queensland.
Michael Christopher de Brenni is an Australian politician. He has been the Labor member for Springwood in the Queensland Legislative Assembly since 2015. He served as the Chief Government Whip from the 19 February 2015 to 8 December 2015.
The First Palaszczuk Ministry was a ministry of the Government of Queensland led by Annastacia Palaszczuk. Palaszczuk led the Labor Party to victory in the 2015 state election, forming a minority government with the support of independent MP Peter Wellington. Her interim ministry was sworn in on 14 February 2015 by Governor Paul de Jersey. The full Palaszczuk Ministry was sworn in two days later. Several changes were made to the ministry on 8 December 2015, with 3 cabinet positions and one assistant ministry added.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Women of Australia .|