Tourism in Australia

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A surfer on the Gold Coast. An iconic global image of Australian tourism focuses on its beaches, which are an integral part of the Australian identity. Currumbin Beach, Queensland, Australia.jpg
A surfer on the Gold Coast. An iconic global image of Australian tourism focuses on its beaches, which are an integral part of the Australian identity.
Driving on the Lasseter Highway near the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park in the Northern Territory. Lasseter Highway1437.jpg
Driving on the Lasseter Highway near the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park in the Northern Territory.
The Whitsunday Islands in Queensland. WhitsundayIslandBeach.JPG
The Whitsunday Islands in Queensland.
Ski ranges on Mount Hotham, located in Victoria MarysSlide.jpg
Ski ranges on Mount Hotham, located in Victoria
Great Keppel Island beach GreatKeppelIsland beach.jpg
Great Keppel Island beach

Tourism in Australia is an important component of the Australian economy. In the financial year 2014/15, tourism represented 3.0% of Australia's GDP contributing A$47.5 billion to the national economy. [2] Domestic tourism is a significant part of the tourism industry, representing 73% of the total direct tourism GDP. [2]

Economy of Australia national economy

The economy of Australia is a large mixed-market economy, with a GDP of A$1.69 trillion as of 2017. In 2018 Australia became the country with the largest median wealth per adult. Australia's total wealth was AUD$8.9 trillion as of June 2016. In 2016, Australia was the 14th-largest national economy by nominal GDP, 20th-largest by PPP-adjusted GDP, and was the 25th-largest goods exporter and 20th-largest goods importer. Australia took the record for the longest run of uninterrupted GDP growth in the developed world with the March 2017 financial quarter, the 103rd quarter and marked 26 years since the country had a technical recession.

Tourism travel for recreational or leisure purposes

Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours, business and other purposes".

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

Contents

In calendar year 2015, there were 7.4 million visitor arrivals. [3] Tourism employed 580,800 people in Australia in 2014-15, 5% of the workforce. [2] About 43.7% of persons employed in tourism were part-time. Tourism also contributed 8.0% of Australia's total export earnings in 2010-11. [2]

Popular Australian destinations include the coastal cities of Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne, as well as other high-profile destinations including regional Queensland, the Gold Coast and the Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest reef. Uluru and the Australian outback are other popular locations, as is the Tasmanian wilderness. The unique Australian wildlife is also another significant point of interest in the country's tourism.

Sydney City in New South Wales, Australia

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.

Brisbane capital city of Queensland, Australia

Brisbane is the capital of and the most populated city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of 2 million, and the South East Queensland region, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3 million. The Brisbane central business district stands on the historic European settlement and is situated inside a peninsula of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the floodplain of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the Great Dividing Range, sprawling across several of Australia's most populous local government areas (LGAs)—most centrally the City of Brisbane, which is by far the most populous LGA in the nation. The demonym of Brisbane is "Brisbanite" or "Brisbanian".

Melbourne City in Victoria, Australia

Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2 (3,858.1 sq mi), comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, and is also the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of approximately 5 million, and its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians".

Despite the global economic challenges and natural disasters in 2010-2011, Australia's tourism growth was supported by increased consumption (up 4.4% over the previous year, largely due to an increase in the number of visitors from overseas). On the back of a strong Australian dollar, 2010-11 also saw a record 7.4 million short-term resident departures from Australia, an increase of 9.9% from 2009-10. Domestic tourism consumption grew at less than half the pace of international consumption in 2010-11 (up 2.1% compared to 4.4%). [4]

The Australian Government released the 2020 Tourism Industry Potential on 15 November 2010, and estimates the Australian tourism industry to be worth up to $140 billion in overnight expenditure. This growth will largely be due to key emerging markets, including the China market, which is estimated to be the largest economic contributor to the Australian tourism industry by 2020. [5] The number of Chinese visitors has more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 reaching a peak of 626,400 in 2012 and surpassing for the first time the number of arrivals from the United Kingdom. [6] In 2013, China was Australia's fastest growing tourist market. [7] According to Tourism Australia Managing Director Andrew McEvoy, the Chinese are the highest spending visitors to the country. [8]

Visas

All visitors to Australia, apart from New Zealanders, require advance permission to enter the country. For most countries, a full visa is required. Holders of passports of all European Union countries as well as all Schengen Area countries and European microstates only need to apply online for an eVisitor authorisation. Citizens of some OECD and some East Asian countries are able to apply for the similar Electronic Travel Authority authorisation. [9]

History

From colonial days the idea of travel has been more natural to Australians than to people long established at one from their homes, were prone to continue their search for wealth or security for a while, or, having settled down, to return to the old countries to visit their kin and refresh old memories. The opening of new lands, the establishment of industries and towns and the consequent dispersal of people over Australia created a habit of mobility and enterprise which encouraged Australians to face the hardships of early travel by coach, on horseback or by ship. Even so, the slow and uncomfortable modes of travel and the vast distances separating Australian towns tended to restrict travel to essential journeys for purposes of trade, to pursue an occupation or to settle. This changed somewhat with the advent of rail travel.

The initial emphasis in tourism for purposes of pleasure was strongest on travel to resorts near the main population centres. These included the Blue Mountains in New South Wales and the hill and coast resorts close to Melbourne and other major Victorian cities. The existing railway services radiating from those cities, together with the 'feeder' horse-drawn, and later motor, coach transport connecting with the railways, rendered the State Government railway tourist bureaux the main means for selling intrastate, and even some interstate, travel.

After the 1914-18 War in the 1920s, and again after the easing of the effects of the Great Depression of the 1930s, travel for all purposes increased steadily. This period saw the establishment of the Australian National Travel Association with bureaux in the UK and USA. [10] The organisation received government funding on top of industry contributions and promoted the country 'vigorously' via a poster campaign, and from 1934–1974 via Walkabout magazine. [11] From August 1946, Walkabout also doubled as the official journal of the newly formed Australian Geographical Society (AGS), founded with a ₤5,000 grant from ANTA, its banner subscript reading 'Journal of the Australian Geographical Society'. This role is now filled by Australian Geographic magazine. Later it became ‘Australia's Way of Life Magazine’ when supported by the Australian National Publicity Association and later the Australian Tourist Commission.

Traffic in tourism continued to be mainly by rail, but also by sea, although the family motor era began in the 1930s to participate in the shorterintrastate traffic. A considerable fleet of passenger ships provided frequent and popular services linking most ports between Fremantle and Cairns. Other services linked Sydney and Melbourne with Tasmanian ports. The winter cruise of those days to Queensland ports could be regarded as the equivalent of today's drive or flight north for a winter holiday at the Gold Coast or a Barrier Reef Island, or today's shorter South Pacific cruises. The first cruises from Australia to New Zealand were organised in the summer of 1934-35, and Australians were travelling to Britain for as low as $78 in tourist class in the years immediately preceding the 1939-45 War.

In the period following the 1939-45 War the advent of new and improved methods of transportation, combined with rising standards of living and the energetic publicising of foreign destinations, developed international travel into a mass-movement. New ocean liners shortened travelling time considerably, and travel by car and bus increased in many countries. Most of all, air travel became widely available, faster, safer, and cheaper. The beginning of the jet age in 1960, with larger aeroplanes carrying more than 100 passengers at speeds approximating 600 miles per hour, diminished the world by half in terms of time. Rising standards of living in the post-war period led to greater expenditure on tourism, thus making it more important to the national economy.

Australia has shared in this worldwide expansion of travel, particularly in respect of its domestic tourism. Because of the marked increase in incomes and private car ownership among large sections of the population, greater leisure time, three weeks paid annual holidays (introduced first in New South Wales in 1958) and the introduction of long-service leave, thousands of Australians now travel by road into almost every part of the Commonwealth. This has led to investment in the development of new and improved facilities, especially accommodation, of new resorts at dispersed points around Australia, and to modifications in organisation and methods of tourist administration, development and promotion. These activities in turn have had an important influence on matters such as the improvement of highways and the opening up of national parks and foreshores. A recent consequence is the first detailed study and survey of the entire Australian tourist industry, its development and its future potential.

A White Paper was produced analysing the tourist industry in Australia in 2003. [12]

Organisations

Apart from the federal and state government authorities involved in promotion and marketing, the industry has also the Australian Tourism Industry Council (ATIC). [13] , which includes promotion of the Australian Tourism Accreditation Program, the Australian Tourism Awards and Star Ratings Australia; and the Australian Tourism Export Council (ATEC). [14]

Marketing

Fitzroy Island, Queensland. Welcomebay.jpg
Fitzroy Island, Queensland.
A tourist plane prepares for take-off from the Melaleuca Airstrip in the South West Wilderness of Tasmania Melaleuca Airstrip SW Tas.jpg
A tourist plane prepares for take-off from the Melaleuca Airstrip in the South West Wilderness of Tasmania

Australia's international tourism campaigns have focused on Australia's laid back style, such as a 1980s advertising campaign featuring actor Paul Hogan telling American tourists "I'll slip an extra shrimp on the barbie for you", or its cheeky side, as in its controversial 2006 campaign in the United Kingdom using the Australian colloquialism slogan "So where the bloody hell are you?".[ citation needed ]

Tourism Australia's "No Leave No Life" campaign was launched in March 2009 by the Federal Minister for Tourism, the Hon. Martin Ferguson AM MP. This campaign was designed to remind employees of the personal and professional benefits of taking annual leave, and of taking that leave in Australia. At 30 June 2009 there were 126 million days of stockpiled annual leave in the Australian economy. [15] At the end of the June 2010 quarter, this number had decreased to 117 million days, following falls in the preceding three quarters.

Tourism Australia's latest consumer campaign "There's Nothing Like Australia" invites Australians to share their favourite Australian place or experience with the world.

The campaign is based on research conducted by Tourism Australia that showed Australians were eager to get involved in promoting their country. It was developed to involve Australians because they are the experts on what makes Australia unlike anywhere else. The core message, that "There's Nothing Like Australia" was designed for longevity through different mediums, audiences and activities. [16]

Types of tourists

International tourists

Country20002005201320142015
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 120,000250,000708,900839,0001,310,900
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 817,0001,098,9001,100,0001,241,4001,309,000
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 580,400708,800657,600652,100688,400
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 488,100370,300393,100411,000433,300
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 285,700266,100339,800372,100395,800
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 820,000685,300324,400326,500335,500
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 152,100166,000278,100324,500338,800
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 157,400250,500197,500204,100230,100
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 154,100159,500183,500201,600219,700
Flag of India.svg  India n/an/a168,600196,600233,100
Total4,931,4005,499,1006,382,0006,868,0007,428,600
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics [17] [18] [19]
Monthly visitor departures, by state where they spent the most time, since 1991. New South Wales, Queensland, and Victoria are the top three states for visitor numbers. AustralianVisitorFlowsByState.svg
Monthly visitor departures, by state where they spent the most time, since 1991. New South Wales, Queensland, and Victoria are the top three states for visitor numbers.

New Zealand tourists make up a distinctive part of the Australian tourism market, usually taking short package tours which concentrate heavily on the iconic sights (typically Sydney, Uluru, Gold Coast and Cairns),[ citation needed ] and viewing Australian native animals (particularly the koala and kangaroo). [20]

Backpackers

Another major source of tourists to Australia include backpackers, mostly young people from Western European countries (particularly Britain)[ citation needed ]. Spending more time in Australia, these travelers tend to explore considerably more of the country. Many backpackers participate in working holidays enabling them to stay longer in the country. Working holiday visas for Australia are available for those aged 18 to 30 for most Western European citizens, and also citizens of Canada and some developed East Asian nations such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. [21]

Domestic tourism

The domestic tourism market is estimated at $63 billion. [22] In 2009, the Australian domestic market experienced a 10% slump in the number of visitor nights. [23] Domestic tourism in general and in particular free caravan and camping sites for overnight accommodation experienced strong demand in 2012. [24]

Australians are big domestic travellers, with a profusion of seaside resort towns in every state (many located on or near good surfing beaches), mountain retreats, plentiful national parks, rivers, fishing locations, wine growing regions, as well as domestic visitation of the major tourist spots.[ citation needed ] Domestic tourism peaks during the Australian school holidays.

In 2011, a leading Australian travel agent warned that low-cost carriers such as AirAsia and Jetstar who offered cheap packages to Asia threatened the domestic tourism market. [25]

Markets

Country / RegionDescription [26]
Australia (Domestic)For the year ended 31 December 2009, the total economic value of domestic tourism measured $63.3 billion, with 66.1 million overnight trips taken in Australia by Australian residents aged 15 years and over.
United States of America There was $2.126 billion in total expenditure from the United States in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the United States market has the potential to grow to between $4.530 billion and $5.519 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Canada Canada was Australia's twelfth largest inbound market for total expenditure in 2010, with $700 million spent on trips to Australia.
Argentina Argentina is one of Tourism Australia's developing markets. Arrivals to Australia from Argentina continue to perform well, with visiting friends and relatives, holiday and education segments reporting good growth from a small base.
Brazil 46,400 tourists from Brazil visited Australia in 2014-2015, an increase in 19% from the year prior. [27]
China There was $3.26 billion in total expenditure from the China market in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that China has the potential to grow to between $7.406 billion and $9.022 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
India There was $0.826 billion in total expenditure from the India market in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that India has the potential to grow to between $1.854 billion and $2.258 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Hong Kong Hong Kong was Australia's eleventh largest inbound market for total expenditure in 2010, with $0.808 billion spent on trips to Australia.
Indonesia Indonesia was Australia's thirteenth largest inbound market for total expenditure in 2010, with $0.608 billion spent on trips to Australia.
South Korea There was $1.279 billion in total expenditure from South Korea in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the South Korea market has the potential to grow to between $2.792 billion and $3.401 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Malaysia There was $1.047 billion in total expenditure from Malaysia in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the Malaysia market has the potential to grow to between $2.046 billion and $2.492 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Taiwan Tourists from Taiwan increased to 121,400 in the year ending April 2015, an increase of 9.1% from the previous year. The total inbound economic value of the Taiwan market increased by 21 per cent to $398 million.
Singapore There was $1.199 billion in total expenditure from Singapore in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the Singapore market has the potential to grow to between $2.266 billion and $2.760 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Thailand Thailand is ranked 15th among Australia's source markets in terms of arrivals. Australia received a total of 77,500 visitors from Thailand in 2008/09, a decrease of 8 per cent compared to the previous year.
Vietnam There were 37,246 arrivals from Vietnam in calendar year 2010, an increase of seven per cent on the previous year.
United Kingdom There was $3.184 billion in total expenditure from the United Kingdom in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the United Kingdom market has the potential to grow to between $5.479 billion and $6.675 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Netherlands The total inbound economic value of the Netherlands market was $300 million in 2008/09 which was a three per cent increase on the previous year.
Germany There was $0.910 billion in total expenditure from Germany in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that Germany has the potential to grow to between $1.902 billion and $2.316 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Switzerland Australia received a total of 53,600 visitors from Switzerland in 2014/2015. The total inbound economic value was $270 million which was one per cent less than the previous year.
France There was $0.561 billion in total expenditure from France in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the France market has the potential to grow to between $1.153 billion and $1.405 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Nordic The total inbound economic value of the Nordic market increased by 5 per cent during 2008/2009 and was valued at $506 million. Australia received a total of 58,700 visitors from the Nordic region in 2008/09.
Ireland Australia received a total of 64,420 visitors from Ireland in 2008/09, a decrease of 1 per cent compared to the previous year. The total inbound economic value increased 3 per cent to A$479 million in 2008/09.
Spain Despite a strong increase in October visitor arrivals, total arrivals year to date (YTD) continue to be well below last year and Spain continues to be one of the hardest hit European markets.
Italy There were 73,200 visitor arrivals from Italy in 2014-2015.

Major attractions

Jamison Valley in the Blue Mountains Jamison Valley, Blue Mountains, Australia - Nov 2008.jpg
Jamison Valley in the Blue Mountains

Destinations

Hervey Bay is a popular tourist town with ample opportunities for whale watching, although there are plenty of other places along the Australian coastline to see whales.

Fraser Island (K'gari) The island is considered to be the largest sand island in the world at 1840 km2. It is also Queensland's largest island. Fraser Island has been inhabited by humans for as much as 5,000 years.The island has rainforests, eucalyptus woodland, mangrove forests, wallum and peat swamps, sand dunes and coastal heaths. The island can be reached by a ferry from River Heads (South of Hervey Bay) to Kingfisher Bay and Wanggoolba Creek or Inskip Point to north of Rainbow Beach to Hook Point, or by chartered flight from Maroochydore Airport.

Great Barrier Reef

Snorkelling on the Great Barrier Reef, 2011 Great Barrier Reef.jpg
Snorkelling on the Great Barrier Reef, 2011
Australian beaches are world-renowned. Whitehaven Beach, Whitsunday Island, Queensland.jpg
Australian beaches are world-renowned.

The Great Barrier Reef attracts up to two million visitors every year. [28] Careful management, which includes permits for camping and all commercial marine tourism within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, has so far ensured that tourists have a very minimal impact on the reef. [28] Uluru, Kakadu National Park and Fraser Island are major natural attractions. Uluru won the 2013 Qantas Australian Tourism Awards and was named Australia's best major tourist attraction. [29]

In December 2013, Greg Hunt, the Australian environment minister, approved a plan for dredging to create three shipping terminals as part of the construction of a coalport. According to corresponding approval documents, the process will create around 3 million cubic metres of dredged seabed that will be dumped within the Great Barrier Reef marine park area. [30]

Sydney Opera House

Another attraction that appeals to many tourists is the Sydney Opera House. Shopping and casinos are a major drawcard for wealthy Chinese visitors. [31] Wine, indigenous culture and nature tourism also generate travel in Australia.

Events

Major events attract a large number of tourists. The Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras is an annual event that attractions thousands of international tourists. [32]

The 2000 Sydney Olympics resulted in significant inbound and domestic tourism to Sydney. During the games, Sydney hosted 362,000 domestic and 110,000 international visitors. In addition, up to 4 billion people watched the games worldwide. [33] The 2003 Rugby World Cup attracted 65,000 international visitors to Australia. [33] Schoolies Week is an annual celebration of Year 12 school leavers in late November, many of whom travel to the Gold Coast, where in 2011 they were expected to boost the economy by $60 million. [34]

Australia's icons

Major Australian icons for tourists to visit include:

See also

Beach of Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast Surfers Paradise Dec 2013.JPG
Beach of Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast

Related Research Articles

Tourism in India Indian economy and is growing rapidly

Tourism in India is important for the country's economy and is growing rapidly. The World Travel and Tourism Council calculated that tourism generated 16.91 lakh crore (US$240 billion) or 9.2% of India's GDP in 2018 and supported 42.673 million jobs, 8.1% of its total employment. The sector is predicted to grow at an annual rate of 6.9% to 32.05 lakh crore (US$450 billion) by 2028. In October 2015, India's medical tourism sector was estimated to be worth US$3 billion, and it is projected to grow to US$7–8 billion by 2020. In 2014, 184,298 foreign patients traveled to India to seek medical treatment.

Tourism in New Zealand

Tourism comprises an important sector of the New Zealand economy, directly contributing NZ$12.9 billion of the country's GDP in 2016, as well as supporting 188,000 full-time-equivalent jobs. The flow-on effects of tourism indirectly contribute a further 4.3% of GDP. Despite the country's geographical isolation, spending by international tourists accounted for 17.1% of New Zealand's export earnings. International and domestic tourism contributes, in total, NZ$34 billion to New Zealand's economy every year.

Tourism in Indonesia

Tourism in Indonesia is an important component of the Indonesian economy as well as a significant source of its foreign exchange revenues. Indonesia was ranked at 20th in the world tourist Industry in 2017, also ranked as the ninth-fastest growing tourist sector in the world, the third-fastest growing in Asia and fastest-growing in Southeast Asia.The country has planned to achieve 8 percent of GDP from tourism sector and targeted to attract about 20 million of visitors by 2019. The tourism sector ranked as the 4th largest among goods and services export sectors.

Tourism in the Philippines

Tourism is an important sector for Philippine economy. In 2015, the travel and tourism industry contributed 10.6% to the country's GDP. Philippines is an archipelagic country composed of 7,641 islands with 82 provinces divided in 17 regions. The country is known for having its rich biodiversity as its main tourist attraction. Its beaches, heritage towns and monuments, mountains, rainforests, islands and diving spots are among the country's most popular tourist destinations. The country's rich historical and cultural heritage, including its festivals and indigenous traditions, are also one of the attractions of Philippines. Popular destinations among tourists are Cebu, Boracay, Palawan, Siargao, and many more.

Australian passport passport

Australian passports are travel documents issued to Australian citizens under Australian Passports Act 2005 by the Australian Passport Office of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), both in Australia and overseas, which enable the passport bearer to travel internationally. Australian citizens are allowed to hold passports from other countries. Since 1988 over a million Australian passports have been issued annually, and it reached 1.4 million in 2007, and increasing towards a projected 3 million annually by 2021.

Visa policy of Australia visa policy

The visa policy of Australia deals with the requirements that a foreign national wishing to enter Australia must meet to obtain a visa, which is a permit to travel, to enter and remain in the country. Visa rules are set out in the Migration Act 1958 and the Migration Regulations, which are administered by the Department of Home Affairs.

Tourism in China

Tourism in China is a significant industry. The rate of tourism has greatly expanded over the last few decades since the beginning of reform and opening. The emergence of a newly rich middle class and an easing of restrictions on movement by the Chinese authorities are both fueling this travel boom. China has become one of the world's most-watched and hottest inbound and outbound tourist markets. According to Xinhuanet, world is on the cusp of a sustained Chinese tourism boom.

Tourism in Taiwan

Tourism in Taiwan is one of the major industries and contributor to the economy of Taiwan. In 2015, Taiwan received roughly 10 million international visitors. Tourism affairs are managed by the Tourism Bureau of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications of Taiwan.

Tourism in South Africa

South Africa is a tourist destination and the industry accounts for a substantial amount of the country's revenue. According to the World Travel & Tourism Council, the tourism industry directly contributed ZAR 102 billion to South African GDP in 2012, and supports 10.3% of jobs in the country. The official national marketing agency of the South African government, with the goal of promoting tourism in South Africa both locally and globally is known as South African Tourism.

Tourism in Iran

Tourism in Iran is diverse, providing a range of activities from hiking and skiing in the Alborz and Zagros mountains, to beach holidays by the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. The Iranian government has been making concerted efforts to attract tourists to the various destinations in the country and arrivals have increased during the past few years. Kish Island alone attracts around 1 million visitors per year, the majority of whom are Iranian but the area also attracts many non-Iranian Muslims who like to have beach holidays with Islamic style beaches where men and women use separate beaches.

Visa policy of Indonesia

Visitors to Indonesia must obtain a visa from one of the Indonesian diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. All visitors must hold a passport valid for 6 months as well as a valid return ticket. Passport with validity of more than 3 months can be accepted in special cases or business travel. The immigration officer at the port of entry may ask the passenger to produce any necessary documents.

Visa requirements for Canadian citizens

Visa requirements for Canadian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Canada. As of 26 March 2019, Canadian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 184 countries and territories, ranking the Canadian passport 6th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley & Partners Passport Index.

Visa requirements for Russian citizens

Visa requirements for Russian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Russia. As of 26 March 2019, Russian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 118 countries and territories, ranking the Russian passport 47th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.

Visa requirements for Indian citizens

Visa requirements for Indian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of India. As of 26 March 2019, Indian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 60 countries and territories, and ranking the Indian passport 80th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.

Visa requirements for Chinese citizens Visa requirements

Visa requirements for Chinese citizens are administrative entry restrictions imposed on citizens of China by the authorities of other states.

Visa requirements for Australian citizens

Visa requirements for Australian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Australia entering with an Australian passport.

Visa requirements for New Zealand citizens

Visa requirements for New Zealand citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of New Zealand. As of 26 March 2019, New Zealand citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 181 countries and territories, ranking the New Zealand passport 9th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.

Visa requirements for British Nationals (Overseas)

Visa requirements for British Nationals (Overseas) are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states and territories placed on British National (Overseas) passport holders. Several million people, the vast majority with a Hong Kong connection, hold this passport.

British Overseas citizenship is a form of British nationality under the British Nationality Act 1983. BOCs are British nationals but do not have the right of abode in the United Kingdom. This citizenship is normally for certain people who retained British nationality after independence, but do not have enough ties with the United Kingdom to be British Citizens.

A British Overseas Territories citizen holds British nationality by virtue of a connection with a British Overseas Territory.

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