Transport in Australia

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A map of major roads in Australia. Roads are the main method of transport in Australia. GA20891.pdf
A map of major roads in Australia. Roads are the main method of transport in Australia.

There are many forms of transport in Australia. Australia is highly dependent on road transport. There are more than 300 airports with paved runways. Passenger rail transport includes widespread commuter networks in the major capital cities with more limited intercity and interstate networks. The Australian mining sector is reliant upon rail to transport its product to Australia's ports for export.

Road transport collective term for all forms of transport which takes place on roads, exept railroads

Road transport or road transportation is a type of transport by using roads. Transport on roads can be roughly grouped into the transportation of goods and transportation of people. In many countries licensing requirements and safety regulations ensure a separation of the two industries. Movement along roads may be by bike or automobile, truck, or by animal such as horse or oxen. Standard networks of roads were adopted by Romans, Persians, Aztec, and other early empires, and may be regarded as a feature of empires. Cargo may be transported by trucking companies, while passengers may be transported via mass transit. Commonly defined features of modern roads include defined lanes and signage. Within the United States, roads between regions are connected via the Interstate Highway System.

Mining in Australia

Mining in Australia is a significant primary industry and contributor to the Australian economy. Historically, mining booms have also encouraged immigration to Australia. Many different ores and minerals are mined throughout the country.

Contents

Roads

The Eastern Freeway, Melbourne. Facing inbound. Eastern Freeway Belford St.jpg
The Eastern Freeway, Melbourne. Facing inbound.

Road transport is an essential element of the Australian transport network, and an enabler of the Australian economy. There is a heavy reliance on road transport due to Australia's large area and low population density in considerable parts of the country. [1]

Economy of Australia national economy

The economy of Australia is a large mixed-market economy, with a GDP of A$1.69 trillion as of 2017. In 2018 Australia overtook Switzerland, and became the country with the largest median wealth per adult. Australia's total wealth was AUD$8.9 trillion as of June 2016. In 2016, Australia was the 14th-largest national economy by nominal GDP, 20th-largest by PPP-adjusted GDP, and was the 25th-largest goods exporter and 20th-largest goods importer. Australia took the record for the longest run of uninterrupted GDP growth in the developed world with the March 2017 financial quarter, the 103rd quarter and marked 26 years since the country had a technical recession.

Population density A measurement of population numbers per unit area or volume

Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square.

Another reason for the reliance upon roads is that the Australian rail network has not been sufficiently developed for a lot of the freight and passenger requirements in most areas of Australia. This has meant that goods that would otherwise be transported by rail are moved across Australia via road trains. Almost every household owns at least one car, and uses it most days. [2]

Rail transport in Australia railway transport in Australia

Rail transport in Australia is a crucial aspect of the Australian transport network. Rail in Australia is to a large extent state-based. As at 2018, the Australian rail network consisted of a total of 33,168 kilometres (20,610 mi) of track on three major track gauges.

Road train

A road train or land train is a trucking vehicle of a type used in rural and remote areas of Australia and the United States and in Europe to move freight efficiently. It consists of two or more trailers or semi-trailers hauled by a prime mover.

Car A wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation

A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, and mainly transport people rather than goods.

Australia has the second highest level of car ownership in the world. It has three to four times more road per capita than Europe and seven to nine times more than Asia. Australia also has the third highest per capita rate of fuel consumption in the world. Melbourne is the most car-dependent city in Australia, according to a data survey in the 2010s. Having over 110,000 more cars driving to and from the city each day than Sydney. Perth, Adelaide and Brisbane are rated as being close behind. All these capital cities are rated among the highest in this category in the world (car dependency). [3] The distance travelled by car (or similar vehicle) in Australia is among the highest in the world, being exceeded by USA and Canada. [1]

Melbourne City in Victoria, Australia

Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2 (3,858.1 sq mi), comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, and is also the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of approximately 4.9 million, and its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians".

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

Sydney City in New South Wales, Australia

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,131,326, and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.

There are 3 different categories of Australian roads. They are federal highways, state highways and local roads. The road network comprises a total of 913,000 km broken down into: [4]

Victoria has the largest network, with thousands of arterial (major, primary and secondary) roads to add.

Victoria (Australia) State in Australia

Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Melbourne, Australia's second-largest city. Geographically the smallest state on the Australian mainland, Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south, New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, and South Australia to the west.

The majority of road tunnels in Australia have been constructed since the 1990s to relieve traffic congestion in metropolitan areas, or to cross significant watercourses.

Public transport in Australia

Commuter train in Melbourne Cardinia Road 2012-07-22 03.jpg
Commuter train in Melbourne
Alstom Citadis and Flexity Classic trams in Adelaide AECExtensionCitadisFlexity.jpg
Alstom Citadis and Flexity Classic trams in Adelaide
Sydney Metro Train Interior (Due to start operation in 2019) Sydney Metro train interior.jpg
Sydney Metro Train Interior (Due to start operation in 2019)
Opal and Myki smartcard ticketing used for travel in Sydney and Melbourne Opal and myki.JPG
Opal and Myki smartcard ticketing used for travel in Sydney and Melbourne

Commuter rail

Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide have extensive commuter rail networks which have grown and expanded over time. Australian commuter rail typically operates with bidirectional all day services with Sydney, Melbourne, and to a lesser extent Perth’s systems operating with much higher frequencies, particularly in their underground cores. Sydney Trains operates the busiest system in the country with approximately 1 million trips per day. Metro Trains Melbourne operates a larger system albeit with a lower number of trips.

Trams and light rail

Trams have historically operated in many Australian towns and cities, with the majority of these being shut down before the 1970s in the belief that more widespread car ownership would render them unnecessary. Melbourne is a major exception and today has the largest tram network of any city in the world. Adelaide also retained one tram service - the Glenelg tram, since extended from 2008 onwards to Hindmarsh and the East End. Trams had operated in a number of major regional cities including Ballarat, Bendigo, Brisbane, Broken Hill, Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart, Kalgoorlie, Launceston, Maitland, Newcastle, Perth, Rockhampton, Sorrento, Sydney and St Kilda.

A modern light rail system opened in Sydney in 1997 with the conversion of a disused section of a freight railway line into what is now part of the Dulwich Hill Line. A second CBD and South East Light Rail line in Sydney is currently under construction and is due to open in 2019. A light rail system opened on the Gold Coast in 2014. A line opened in Newcastle in February 2019, with a line Canberra scheduled to open in April 2019. [5]

Rapid transit

Major cities in Australia do not currently have full-fledged rapid transit systems, however a driverless rapid transit system in Sydney is currently under construction with completion of its first stage in 2019. Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth's commuter systems are all partially underground and reflect some aspects of typical rapid transit systems, particularly in the city centres.

Intra-city public transport networks

The following table presents an overview of multi-modal intra-city public transport networks in Australia's larger cities. The only Australian capital cities without multi-modal networks are Canberra and Darwin, which rely entirely on buses. Canberra is building a light rail line, which will link with existing bus services, and is scheduled to open in 2018. [6] The table does not include tourist or heritage transport modes (such as the private monorail at Sea World or the tourist Victor Harbor Horse Drawn Tram).

CityOverviewIntegrated network name Buses Urban rail/Commuter rail Light rail [7] Watercraft [8] Rapid transit
Adelaide Public transport in Adelaide Adelaide Metro Yes Yes Yes
Brisbane Public transport in Brisbane Translink Yes Yes Yes
Canberra Public transport in Canberra Yes Under construction
Darwin Public transport in Darwin YesLimited
Gold Coast Public transport on the Gold Coast Translink Yes Yes Yes
Hobart Transport in Hobart Metro Yes Yes
Melbourne Public transport in Melbourne Public Transport Victoria Yes Yes Yes Limited
Newcastle Transport in Newcastle Newcastle Transport Yes Limited Yes Limited
Perth Public transport in Perth Transperth Yes Yes Yes
Sydney Public transport in Sydney "Transport" Yes Yes Yes Yes Under construction

Intercity rail transport

Map of passenger railway services in Australia
State Government owned rail services:
Queensland Rail City network and Traveltrain services
NSW TrainLink services
V/Line services
Transwa services
Great Southern Rail lines:
Indian Pacific
The Overland
The Ghan Passenger rail services in Australia en.png
Map of passenger railway services in Australia
State Government owned rail services:
   NSW TrainLink services
   V/Line services
   Transwa services
Great Southern Rail lines:
   The Ghan
The Indian Pacific in Perth Indian Pacific Perth, Western Australia.jpg
The Indian Pacific in Perth

The railway network is large, comprising a total of 33,819 km (2,540 km electrified) of track: 3,719 km broad gauge, 15,422 km standard gauge, 14,506 km narrow gauge and 172 km dual gauge. Rail transport started in the various colonies at different dates. Privately owned railways started the first lines, and struggled to succeed on a remote, huge, and sparsely populated continent, and government railways dominated. Although the various colonies had been advised by London to choose a common gauge, the colonies ended up with different gauges.

Inter-state rail services

The Great Southern Rail, operates three trains: the Indian Pacific (Sydney-Adelaide-Perth), The Ghan (Adelaide-Alice Springs-Darwin) and The Overland (Melbourne-Adelaide). [9] NSW owned NSW TrainLink services link Brisbane, Canberra and Melbourne to Sydney. Since the extension of the Ghan from Alice Springs to Darwin was completed in 2004, all mainland Australian capital cities are linked by standard gauge rail, for the first time.

Intra-state and city rail services

There are various state and city rail services operated by a combination of government and private entities, the most prominent of these include V/Line (regional trains and coaches in Victoria); Metro Trains Melbourne (suburban services in Melbourne); NSW TrainLink (regional trains and coaches in New South Wales); Sydney Trains (suburban services in Sydney); Queensland Rail (QR) operating long distance Traveltrain services and the City network in South-East Queensland, and Transwa operating train and bus services in Western Australia.

In Tasmania, TasRail operates a short haul narrow gauge freight system, that carries inter-modal and bulk mining goods. TasRail is government owned (by the State of Tasmania) and is going through a significant below and above rail upgrades with new locomotives and wagons entering service. Significant bridge and sleeper renewal has also occurred. The Tasmanian Government also operates the West Coast Wilderness Railway as a tourist venture over an isolated length of track on Tasmania's West Coast.

Mining railways

Six heavy-duty mining railways carry iron ore to ports in the northwest of Western Australia. These railways carry no other traffic, and are isolated by deserts from all other railways. The lines are standard gauge and are built to the heaviest US standards. Each line is operated by one of either BHP, Rio Tinto, Fortescue Metals Group and Hancock Prospecting.

A common carrier railway was proposed to serve the port of Oakajee just north of Geraldton, but this was later cancelled after a collapse in the iron ore price.

Cane railways

In Queensland about 15 sugar mills have narrow gauge (2 ft  / 610 mm gauge) cane tramways that deliver sugar cane to the mills.

Pipelines

There are several pipeline systems including:

Projects under construction or planned:
Victoria

Waterways

Between 1850 and 1940 paddle steamers were used extensively on the Murray-Darling Basin to transport produce, especially wool and wheat, to river ports such as Echuca, Mannum and Goolwa. However, the water levels of the inland waterways are highly unreliable, making the rivers impassable for large parts of the year. A system of locks was created largely to overcome this variability but the steamers were unable to compete with rail, and later, road transport. Traffic on inland waterways is now largely restricted to private recreational craft. [13]

Ports and harbours

A Sydney ferry. Sydney Ferry Collaroy 1 - Nov 2008.jpg
A Sydney ferry.
Total employment in the water transport sector (thousands of people) since 1984 ABS-6291.0.55.003-LabourForceAustraliaDetailedQuarterly-EmployedPersonsByIndustrySubdivisionSex-EmployedTotal-WaterTransport-Persons-A2545652X.svg
Total employment in the water transport sector (thousands of people) since 1984

Mainland

General

Iron ore

Tasmania

Merchant marine vessels

A container crane and ship at the Port of Melbourne. Melbourne--swanston-dock-container-crane.jpg
A container crane and ship at the Port of Melbourne.
Port Botany, Sydney Portbotanysydney.JPG
Port Botany, Sydney

In 2006, the Australian fleet consisted of 53 ships of 1,000 gross tonnage or over. The use of foreign registered ships to carry Australian cargoes between Australian ports is permitted under a permit scheme, with either Single Voyage Permit (SVP) or a Continuous Voyage Permit (CVP) being issued to ships. [14] Between 1996 and 2002 the number of permits issued has increased by about 350 per cent. [15]

Over recent years the number of Australian registered and flagged ships has greatly declined, from 75 ships in 1996 to less than 40 in 2007, by 2009 the number is now approaching 30. Marine unions blame the decline on the shipping policy of the Howard Government which permitted foreign ships to carry coastal traffic. [16]

There have also been cases where locally operated ships have Australian flag from the vessel, registering it overseas under a flag of convenience, then hiring foreign crews who earn up to about half the monthly rate of Australian sailors. [15] Such moves were supported by the Howard Government but opposed by maritime unions and the Australian Council of Trade Unions. [17] The registration of the ships overseas also meant the earnings of the ships are not subject to Australian corporate taxation laws. [16]

Statistics for the shipping industry of Australia
Total: 53 ships (1,000  gross register tons (GRT) or over)
Totalling: 1,361,000  GRT/1,532,874 tonnes deadweight (DWT)
Cargo ships
Bulk ships 17
Cargo ship 4
Container ships 1
Roll-on / roll-off ships 5
Tankers
Liquefied gas tanker ships 4
Chemical tanker ships 3
Petroleum tanker ships 6
Passenger ships
General passenger ships 6
Combined passenger/cargo 7
Source:This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain.

Aviation

Total monthly arrivals to Australia since 1976 ABS-3401.0-OverseasArrivalsDeparturesAustralia-TotalMovementArrivals CategoryMovement-NumberMovements-TotalArrivals-A1830887L.svg
Total monthly arrivals to Australia since 1976
Melbourne Airport Tullamarine International terminal Vabre-1.jpg
Melbourne Airport
Sydney Airport Sydneyairportt1airlines.JPG
Sydney Airport
Qantas Airbus A380 taking off at Sydney Airport Qantas A380 VH-OQB Sydney.jpg
Qantas Airbus A380 taking off at Sydney Airport

Qantas is the flag carrier of Australia. The Australian National Airways was the predominant domestic carrier from the mid-1930s to the early 1950s. After World War II, Qantas was nationalised and its domestic operations were transferred to Trans Australia Airlines. The Two Airlines Policy was establish to protect both airlines. However, ANA's leadership was quickly eroded by TAA, and it was sold to Ansett Airways in 1957. The duopoly continued of the next four decades. In the mid 1990s Qantas was merged with TAA and later privatised. Ansett collapsed in September 2001. In the following years, Virgin Australia became a challenger to Qantas. Both companies launched low-cost subsidiaries Jetstar and Tiger Airways Australia respectively.

Overseas flights from Australia to Europe via the Eastern Hemisphere are known as the Kangaroo Route, whereas flights via the Western Hemisphere are known as the Southern Cross Route. In 1954, the first flight from Australia to North America was completed, as a 60-passenger Qantas aircraft connected Sydney with San Francisco and Vancouver, having fuel stops at Fiji, Canton Island and Hawaii. In 1982, a Pan Am first flew non-stop from Los Angeles to Sydney. A non-stop flight between Australia and Europe was first completed in March 2018 from Perth to London.

There are many airports around Australia paved or unpaved. A 2004 estimate put the number of airports at 448. The busiest airports in Australia are:

  1. Sydney Airport Sydney, New South Wales SYD
  2. Melbourne Airport Melbourne, Victoria MEL
  3. Brisbane Airport Brisbane, Queensland BNE
  4. Perth Airport Perth, Western Australia PER
  5. Adelaide Airport Adelaide, South Australia ADL
  6. Gold Coast Airport Gold Coast, Queensland OOL
  7. Cairns Airport Cairns, Queensland CNS
  8. Canberra Airport Canberra, Australian Capital Territory CBR
  9. Hobart International Airport Hobart, Tasmania HBA
  10. Darwin International Airport, Northern Territory DRW
  11. Townsville Airport Townsville, Queensland TSV

Airports with paved runways

There are 305 airports with paved runways:

Airports with unpaved runways

There are 143 airports with unpaved runways:

Note:

sourced from CIA World Fact Book https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html

Environmental impact

The environmental impact of transport in Australia is considerable. In 2009, transport emissions made up 15.3% of Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions. Between 1990 and 2009, transport emissions grew by 34.6%, the second-highest growth rate in emissions after stationary energy. [18]

Australia subsidises fossil fuel energy, keeping prices artificially low and raising greenhouse gas emissions due to the increased use of fossil fuels as a result of the subsidies[ citation needed ]. The Australian Energy Regulator and state agencies such as the New South Wales' Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal set and regulate electricity prices, thereby lowering production and consumer cost.

See also

Related Research Articles

Transport in Hungary relies on several main modes, including transport by road, rail, air and water.

Dual gauge line of track for trains of two separate track gauges

A dual gauge railway is a track that allows the passage of trains of two different track gauges. It is sometimes called a "mixed gauge" track. A dual gauge track consists of three rails. There will be two vital rails, one for each gauge close together and a third rail, a "common" rail further away. Sometimes, four rails are required using two outer and two inner rails to create the dual gauge. Dual gauge is not to be confused with a "third rail" or "check or guard rails".

Rail transport in New South Wales

The Australian state of New South Wales has an extensive network of railways, which were integral to the growth and development of the state. The vast majority of railway lines were government built and operated, but there were also several private railways, some of which operate to this day.

Railways in Adelaide

The rail network in Adelaide, South Australia, consists of six lines and 89 stations, totalling 125.9 km. It is operated by Adelaide Metro, and is part of the citywide Adelaide Metro public transport system.

Australians generally assumed in the 1850s that railways would be built by the private sector. Private companies built railways in the then colonies of Victoria, opened in 1854, and New South Wales, where the company was taken over by the government before completion in 1855, due to bankruptcy. South Australia's railways were government owned from the beginning, including a horse-drawn line opened in 1854 and a steam-powered line opened in 1856. In Victoria, the private railways were soon found not to be financially viable, and existing rail networks and their expansion was taken over by the colony. Government ownership also enabled railways to be built to promote development, even if not apparently viable in strictly financial terms. The railway systems spread from the colonial capitals, except in cases where geography dictated a choice of an alternate port.

Rail transport in South Australia

The first railway in colonial South Australia was a horse-drawn tramway from the port of Goolwa on the Murray River to an ocean harbour at Port Elliot in 1854. Today the state has 1,600 mm broad gauge suburban railways in Adelaide, a number of country freight lines, as well as key 1,435 mm standard gauge links to other states.

Australian Rail Track Corporation

The Australian Rail Track Corporation (ARTC) is a Government of Australia owned statutory corporation, established in July 1998, that manages most of Australia's interstate rail network.

QantasLink is a regional brand of Australian airline Qantas and is an affiliate member of the Oneworld airline alliance. It is a major competitor to Regional Express Airlines and Virgin Australia Regional Airlines. As of September 2010 QantasLink provides 1,900 flights each week to 54 domestic locations.

Trans-Australian Railway railway line

The Trans-Australian Railway crosses the Nullarbor Plain of Australia from Port Augusta in South Australia to Kalgoorlie in Western Australia. It includes a 478-kilometre (297 mi) stretch of dead-straight track, the world's longest, between the 797 km (495 mi) post west of Ooldea and the 1,275 km (792 mi) post west of Loongana.

Transport in Melbourne

Transport in Melbourne, the state capital of Victoria, Australia, consists of several interlinking modes. Melbourne is a hub for intercity, intracity and regional travel. Road-based transport accounts for most trips across many parts of the city, facilitated by Australia's largest freeway network. Public transport, including the world's largest tram network, trains and buses, also forms a key part of the transport system. Other dominant modes include walking, cycling and commercial-passenger vehicle services such as taxis. Melbourne is a busy regional transport hub for the statewide passenger rail network, coaches and interstate rail services to New South Wales and South Australia. Freight transport also makes up a significant proportion of trips made on the network from the Port of Melbourne, Melbourne Airport and industrial areas across the city.

Transport in Adelaide

The metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia is served by a wide variety of transport. Being centrally located on the Australian mainland, it forms a hub for east-west and north-south routes. The road network includes major expressways such as the Southern Expressway, the South Eastern Freeway, the Port River Expressway, the Northern Expressway and the South Road Superway. The city also has a public transport system managed by Adelaide Metro, consisting of a contracted bus system including the O-Bahn Busway, six metropolitan railway lines, and the Glenelg-Adelaide-Hindmarsh Tram. According to a study conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Adelaide has the highest passenger vehicle travel to work (84%) and the second lowest proportion of people walking to work (2.9%)–something that is being combated by the South Australian government in an effort to increase citizen ridership and use of public transport.

Rail gauge in Australia

Rail gauges in Australia display significant variations, which has presented an extremely difficult problem for rail transport on the Australian continent for over 150 years. As of 2014, there is 11,801 kilometres (7,333 mi) of narrow-gauge railways, 17,381 kilometres (10,800 mi) of standard gauge railways and 3,221 kilometres (2,001 mi) of broad gauge railways.

Rail transport in Queensland

The Queensland rail network, the first in the world to adopt 1,067 mm narrow gauge for a main line, and now the second largest narrow gauge network in the world, consists of:

High-speed rail in Australia

High-speed rail in Australia has been under investigation since the early 1980s. Every Federal Government since this time has investigated the feasibility of constructing high speed rail, but to date nothing has ever gone beyond the detailed planning stage. The most commonly suggested route is between Australia's two largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne, which is the world's second busiest air corridor. Various corridors have been proposed for a potential high-speed line.

Trams in Australia

The earliest trams in Australia operated in the latter decades of the 19th century, hauled by horses or "steam tram motors". At the turn of the 20th century, propulsion almost universally turned to electrification, although cable trams lingered in Melbourne. In cities and towns that had trams, they were a major part of public transport assets.

Freight railways in Melbourne

The city of Melbourne, Australia, has an extensive network of railway lines and yards to serve freight traffic. The lines are of two gauges—5 ft 3 in broad gauge and 4 ft 8 12 in standard gauge—and are unelectrified. In the inner western suburbs of the city, freight trains have their own lines to operate upon, but in other areas trains are required to share the tracks with Metro Trains Melbourne and V/Line passenger services.

Public transport in Canberra is provided by bus, while rail, air, and long-distance coach services operate for travel beyond Canberra. A light rail network is also under construction.

Transport in South Australia is provided by a mix of road, rail, sea and air transport. The capital city of Adelaide is the centre to transport in the state. With its population of 1.4 million people, it has the majority of the state's 1.7 million inhabitants. Adelaide has the state's major airport and sea port.

References

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  2. "Where are we now?". Australian Automobile Association . Retrieved 3 February 2007.
  3. Urban Australia: Where most of us live. CSIRO. Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  4. CIA world fact book.
  5. Light rail in Newcastle opening from Monday 18 February Transport for NSW 3 February 2019
  6. "Capital Metro Light Rail Project to be delivered through Canberra's first large-scale private partnership". Katy Gallagher, ACT Chief Minister. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
  7. includes modern tram networks
  8. includes public ferry and Water taxi services
  9. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 April 2003. Retrieved 1 April 2003.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. "Sugarloaf Pipeline Project". Melbourne Water. Archived from the original on 8 April 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  11. "Wimmera Mallee Pipeline". GWMWater. Archived from the original on 6 May 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  12. "Melbourne to Geelong Pipeline". Barwon Water. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  13. Ian Mudie Riverboats Sun Books, Melbourne, Victoria 1965
  14. Australian Shipowners Association. "Industry Policy". www.asa.com.au. Archived from the original on 4 December 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
  15. 1 2 Paul Robinson (26 March 2002). "Maritime unions slam use of 'cheap' foreign labour". The Age. www.theage.com.au. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  16. 1 2 Martin Byrne (22 October 2009). "A new tanker ship for Australia" (PDF). Letter from the Australian Institute of Marine and Power Engineers to the Federal Minister. www.aimpe.asn.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
  17. Liz Porter (14 July 2002). "Shipping out, and definitely not shaping up". The Age. www.theage.com.au. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  18. Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (2010). Australian national greenhouse gas accounts (PDF) (Report).

Sources