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The economy of New South Wales represents a significant proportion of the Australian economy. The economy was valued at $557.9 billion in 2016-17,representing 33.0% of Australia's total GDP.
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.
The economy of Australia is a large mixed-market economy, with a GDP of A$1.69 trillion as of 2017. In 2018 Australia overtook Switzerland, and became the country with the largest median wealth per adult. Australia's total wealth was AUD$8.9 trillion as of June 2016. In 2016, Australia was the 14th-largest national economy by nominal GDP, 20th-largest by PPP-adjusted GDP, and was the 25th-largest goods exporter and 20th-largest goods importer. Australia took the record for the longest run of uninterrupted GDP growth in the developed world with the March 2017 financial quarter, the 103rd quarter and marked 26 years since the country had a technical recession.
|Currency||Australian Dollar (A$ or AUD)|
|1 July - 30 June|
|GDP||A$557.9 billion - 2016/17|
GDP per capita
|Unemployment||4.6% (December 2017)|
|Services, mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel|
|Exports||A$60.4 billion (2008-2009)|
|coal, Aluminium, Refined petroleum, Copper ores & concentrates, Medicaments (incl veterinary), iron ore, wheat, machinery and transport equipment|
Main export partners
|Imports||A$100.8 billion (2008-2009)|
|Medicaments (incl veterinary), Telecom equipment & parts, Passenger motor vehicles, Crude petroleum, Computers, Refined petroleum, Monitors, projectors & TVs, Office machines, Goods vehicles, Medical instruments (incl veterinary)|
Main import partners
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.
At the time of Federation, New South Wales was a free trading state (as opposed to protectionist) with a broad revenue base including income tax. The state earned more revenue than it needed to run its services. This situation was reversed during World War II when the Commonwealth took responsibility for the collection of income tax. Following the war, the states attempted to re-enter the income tax field but were rebuffed by High Court rulings (Income Tax decisions).
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia. It has both original and appellate jurisdiction, the power of judicial review over laws passed by the Parliament of Australia and the parliaments of the states, and the ability to interpret the Constitution of Australia and thereby shape the development of federalism in Australia.
The loss of income tax collection meant NSW became totally dependent on Federal Government funding in order to deliver the services it was constitutionally entitled to do (e.g. health, primary/secondary education, transport). It also forced a greater reliance on indirect taxations such as excise duty on cigarettes, alcohol, and gambling. This was challenged by an individual who argued the constitution forbade the states from collecting taxation in this way. The High Court upheld the complaint and the Commonwealth was forced to collect these excises on behalf of the states.[ citation needed ] Since NSW expends far more than it can ever earn, it has little choice but to comply with Commonwealth demands.[ citation needed ]
NSW has the largest economy in Australia, valued at $558 billion in 2016-17 or about 33% of Australia's GDP. This is one third larger than that of the next State and Sydney alone accounts for almost one quarter of Australia's GDP.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,131,326, and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.
The NSW economy is larger than each of the national economies of South Africa, Thailand, Malaysia, Colombia, the Philippines or Ukraine.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European (White), Asian (Indian), and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship.
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand in the north and maritime borders with Singapore in the south, Vietnam in the northeast, and Indonesia in the west. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species.
NSW has a diversified and knowledge intensive economy. In Australia it accounts for:
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty. Finance can also be defined as the art of money management. Participants in the market aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, and their expected rate of return. Finance can be split into three sub-categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management, primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent or uncertain loss.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing. In the context of this article, it is one or more components, whether physical or incorporeal, of a person's estate; or so belonging to, as in being owned by, a person or jointly a group of people or a legal entity like a corporation or even a society. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property has the right to consume, alter, share, redefine, rent, mortgage, pawn, sell, exchange, transfer, give away or destroy it, or to exclude others from doing these things, as well as to perhaps abandon it; whereas regardless of the nature of the property, the owner thereof has the right to properly use it, or at the very least exclusively keep it.
NSW has the largest manufacturing industry in Australia, contributing $31.4 billion in 2005-06 to the State's economy.[ citation needed ]
The NSW Government has triple-A credit ratings from both Moody's and Standard & Poor's.[ citation needed ]
NSW is home to more than 65% of all Asia Pacific regional headquarters located in Australia, which accounts to more than 600 companies.
About 600 contact centre companies operate 60,000 seats in NSW, 42% of the total for contact centres in Australia. Of all international multilingual contact centres in the Asia Pacific, 32% are in NSW.
Employment in the financial services industry in Sydney is now nearly half the size of London's and more than one-third the size of New York City's.
In Australia NSW is home to:
In 2005-06, just under 39,000 new companies registered in NSW, compared with 38,000 in Victoria and fewer than 25,000 in Queensland.
NSW also has many more companies overall than the other States. Over 510,000 companies are registered in NSW with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, almost 50,000 more than in Victoria and 269,000 more than Queensland.
Business investment in NSW reached $39.5 billion in the 2005-06 financial year, a rise of 9.2% compared with the previous year. Over the same period NSW represented 28% of Australia's total business investment.
Capital spending on machinery and equipment by NSW businesses rose by 8.3% to $20.5 billion, encouraged by high levels of capacity utilisation and strong profitability.
Engineering and commercial building construction reached $14.1 billion in the 2005-06 financial year, an increase of 12.4% over 2004-05.
Businesses in NSW also increased their spending on intangible fixed assets, mostly in computer software and mineral exploration, with an investment of $4.3 billion, up by 7.7% in 2005-06.
Since April 1999, the Department of State and Regional Development (DSRD) has facilitated over $10.1 billion in new private sector investment, and helped to create and retain more than 49,100 jobs. This includes 29,600 jobs and over $6.3 billion worth of investment in regional NSW.
In 2005-06 NSW recorded $17.4 billion or 42 per cent of Australia's total services exports.
In 2005-06, total goods and services exports from NSW amounted to more than $44 billion, with the five largest exports being:
NSW merchandise (goods) exports for 2005-06 were worth A$26.8 billion, up 16.5 per cent on 2004-05.
In 2005-06, manufactured exports from NSW totalled $10.6 billion and accounted for 40% of the State's merchandise exports. Total elaborately transformed manufactures amounted to $7.1 billion in 2005, with significant contributions from medicinal and pharmaceutical products, and professional, scientific and controlling instruments.
Agriculture is spread throughout the New South Wales state, except in the western third. Cattle, sheep and pigs are the predominant types of livestock produced in NSW and they have been present since their importation during the earliest days of European settlement. Economically the state is the most important state in Australia, with about a third of the country's sheep, a fifth of its cattle, and a third of its small number of pigs.
New South Wales produces a large share of Australia's hay, fruit, legumes, lucerne, maize, nuts, wool, wheat, oats, oilseeds (about 51%), poultry, rice (about 99%),vegetables, fishing including oyster farming, and forestry including wood chips. Bananas and sugar are grown chiefly in the Clarence, Richmond and Tweed River areas.
Wools are produced on the Northern Tablelands as well as lambs and beef cattle. The cotton industry is centred in the Namoi Valley in north western New South Wales. On the central slopes there are many orchards with the principal fruits grown being apples, cherries and pears.
Approximately 40,200 ha of vineyards lie across the eastern region of the state with wines produced in the Hunter Valley with the Riverina being the largest wine producer in New South Wales.Australia’s largest and most valuable Thoroughbred horse breeding area is centred on Scone in the Hunter Valley.
|Recent Economic Indicators||2004/05||2005/06||2006/07|
|Estimated Resident Population||6,768,941||6,888,014||6,967,199|
|Real Gross State Product growth (%)||0.8||1.9||2.8|
|Real GSP per head growth (%)||0.2||0.9||1.7|
|GSP (current prices) (A$m)||305,859||335,828||359,883|
|Proportion of Australian GDP (%)||34.1||32.1||31.8|
|Change in real final demand (%)||3.3||2.2||4.4|
|Unemployment rate (%)||5.3||5.0||4.6|
Source: dfat fact sheet
The Central African Republic (CAR) is classified as one of the world's least developed countries, with an estimated annual per capita income of $547 PPP (2014).
Chile is ranked as a high-income economy by the World Bank, and is considered as South America's most stable and prosperous nation, leading Latin American nations in competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. Although Chile has high economic inequality, as measured by the Gini index, it is close to the regional mean.
Hungary is an OECD high-income mixed economy with a very high human development index and a skilled labour force, with the 13th lowest income inequality in the world; furthermore it is the 14th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index. The Hungarian economy is the 57th-largest economy in the world with $265.037 billion annual output, and ranks 49th in the world in terms of GDP per capita measured by purchasing power parity. Hungary is an export-oriented market economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade; thus the country is the 35th largest export economy in the world. The country had more than $100 billion of exports in 2015, with a high trade surplus of $9.003 billion, of which 79% went to the EU and 21% was extra-EU trade. Hungary's productive capacity is more than 80% privately owned, with 39.1% overall taxation, which funds the country's welfare economy. On the expenditure side, household consumption is the main component of GDP and accounts for 50% of its total, followed by gross fixed capital formation with 22% and government expenditure with 20%.
Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country with a dominant agricultural sector. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. According to Healy Consultants, the economy relies heavily on the strength of industrial exports, with plentiful reserves of gold, mercury, uranium and natural gas. The economy also relies heavily on remittances from foreign workers. Following independence, Kyrgyzstan was progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. Much of the government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Kyrgyzstan's economic performance has been hindered by widespread corruption, low foreign investment and general regional instability. Despite political corruption and regional instability, Kyrgyzstan is ranked 70th on the ease of doing business index.
The economy of Malaysia is the 4th largest in Southeast Asia, and is the 38th largest economy in the world. Malaysian labour productivity is significantly higher than neighbouring Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines or Vietnam due to a high density of knowledge-based industries and adoption of cutting edge technology for manufacturing and digital economy. According to the Global Competitiveness Report 2017, the Malaysian economy is the 23rd most competitive country in the world in the period of 2017–18.
The economy of New Zealand is the 53rd-largest national economy in the world when measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and the 68th-largest in the world when measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). New Zealand has one of the most globalised economies and depends greatly on international trade – mainly with Australia, the European Union, the United States, China, South Korea, Japan and Canada. New Zealand's Closer Economic Relations agreement with Australia means that the economy aligns closely with that of Australia.
The economy of Pakistan is the 23rd largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), and 38th largest in terms of nominal gross domestic product. Pakistan has a population of over 207 million, giving it a nominal GDP per capita of $1,641 in 2018, which ranks 147th in the world and giving it s PPP GDP per capita of 5,709 in 2018, which ranks 130th in the world for 2018. However, Pakistan's undocumented economy is estimated to be 36% of its overall economy, which is not taken into consideration when calculating per capita income. Pakistan is a developing country and is one of the Next Eleven countries identified by Jim O'Neill in a research paper as having a high potential of becoming, along with the BRICS countries, among the world's largest economies in the 21st century. The economy is semi-industrialized, with centres of growth along the Indus River. Primary export commodities include textiles, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, carpets/rugs and medical instruments.
Paraguay has a market economy highly dependent on agriculture products. In recent years, the economy has grown as a result of increased agricultural exports, especially soybeans. Paraguay has the economic advantages of a young population and vast hydroelectric power but has few mineral resources, and political instability has undercut some of the economic advantages present. The government welcomes foreign investment.
At the time of unification, South Yemen and North Yemen had vastly different but equally struggling underdeveloped economic systems. Since unification, the economy has been forced to sustain the consequences of Yemen's support for Iraq during the 1990–91 Persian Gulf War: Saudi Arabia expelled almost 1 million Yemeni workers, and both Saudi Arabia and Kuwait significantly reduced economic aid to Yemen. The 1994 civil war further drained Yemen's economy. As a consequence, for the past 24 years Yemen has relied heavily on aid from multilateral agencies to sustain its economy. In return, it has pledged to implement significant economic reforms. In 1997 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved two programs to increase Yemen's credit significantly: the enhanced structural adjustment facility and the extended funding facility (EFF). In the ensuing years, Yemen's government attempted to implement recommended reforms—reducing the civil service payroll, eliminating diesel and other subsidies, lowering defense spending, introducing a general sales tax, and privatizing state-run industries. However, limited progress led the IMF to suspend funding between 1999 and 2001.
The economy of Singapore is a highly developed free-market economy. Singapore's economy has been ranked as the most open in the world, 7th least corrupt, most pro-business, with low tax rates and has the third highest per-capita GDP in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). APEC is headquartered in Singapore.
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits. The abbreviation "SME" is used by international organizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations and the World Trade Organization (WTO).
The economy of India is a developing mixed economy. It is the world's seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). The country ranks 139th in per capita GDP (nominal) with $2,134 and 122nd in per capita GDP (PPP) with $7,783 as of 2018. After the 1991 economic liberalisation, India achieved 6-7% average GDP growth annually. Since 2014 with the exception of 2017, India's economy has been the world's fastest growing major economy, surpassing China.
The economy of Wales is closely linked with the rest of the United Kingdom and the wider European Economic Area. In 2012, according to ONS provisional data, headline gross value added (GVA) in Wales was £47.3 billion, making the Welsh economy the tenth largest of the UK's twelve regions ahead of only Northern Ireland and the North East of England. The modern Welsh economy is dominated by the service sector. In 2000, services contributed 66% to GVA, the manufacturing sector contributed 32%, while agriculture, forestry and fishing together contributed 1.5%.
Income taxes are the most significant form of taxation in Australia, and collected by the federal government through the Australian Taxation Office. Australian GST revenue is collected by the Federal government, and then paid to the states under a distribution formula determined by the Commonwealth Grants Commission.
The Western Australian economy is a state economy dominated by its resources and services sector and largely driven by the export of iron-ore, gold, liquefied natural gas and agricultural commodities such as wheat. Covering an area of 2.5 million km2, the state is Australia's largest, accounting for almost one-third of the continent. Western Australia is the nation's fourth most populous state, with 2.6 million inhabitants.
The fiscal year begins on March 21 and ends on March 20 of the next year according to Iranian calendar. The Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs is the government agency authorized to levy and collect taxes. In 2008, about 55% of the government's budget came from oil and natural gas revenues, the rest from taxes and fees. An estimated 50% of Iran’s GDP was exempt from taxes in FY 2004. There are virtually millions of people who do not pay taxes in Iran and hence operate outside the formal economy.
Foreign direct investment in Iran (FDI) has been hindered by unfavorable or complex operating requirements and by international sanctions, although in the early 2000s the Iranian government liberalized investment regulations. Iran ranks 62nd in the World Economic Forum's 2011 analysis of the global competitiveness of 142 countries. In 2010, Iran ranked sixth globally in attracting foreign investments.
The socialist market economy of the People's Republic of China is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity. Until 2015, China was the world's fastest-growing major economy, with growth rates averaging 6% over 30 years. Due to historical and political facts of China's developing economy, China's public sector accounts for a bigger share of the national economy than the burgeoning private sector. According to the IMF, on a per capita income basis China ranked 71st by GDP (nominal) and 78th by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2016. The country has an estimated $23 trillion worth of natural resources, 90% of which are coal and rare earth metals. China also has the world's largest total banking sector assets of $39.9 trillion with $26.54 trillion in total deposits.