Illawarra

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Illawarra
New South Wales
Sunset lake illawarra.jpg
Sunset over Lake Illawarra.
Australia New South Wales location map blank.svg
Red pog.svg
Illawarra
Coordinates 34°30′S150°54′E / 34.5°S 150.9°E / -34.5; 150.9 Coordinates: 34°30′S150°54′E / 34.5°S 150.9°E / -34.5; 150.9
Population407,319[ citation needed ]
LGA(s) Kiama, Shellharbour, Wollongong
State electorate(s) Wollongong, Keira, Shellharbour, Heathcote, Kiama
Federal Division(s) Cunningham, Whitlam, Gilmore
Localities around Illawarra:
Macarthur Southern Sydney Tasman Sea
Southern Highlands Illawarra Tasman Sea
Southern Tablelands South Coast Tasman Sea
Lookout from the Illawarra escarpment above Wombarra over the northern Illawarra plain viewing Austinmer, Thirroul, Bulli, Wollongong up to Port Kembla in the far. Subpointlookout.jpg
Lookout from the Illawarra escarpment above Wombarra over the northern Illawarra plain viewing Austinmer, Thirroul, Bulli, Wollongong up to Port Kembla in the far.

Illawarra is a region in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a coastal region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of the Shoalhaven or South Coast region. It encompasses the cities of Wollongong, Shellharbour and the town of Kiama.

In the state of New South Wales, Australia, there are many areas which are commonly known by regional names. Regions are areas that share similar characteristics. These characteristics may be natural such as the Murray River, the coastline, or the Snowy Mountains. Alternatively, the characteristics may be cultural, such as a viticulture land use. New South Wales is divided by numerous regional boundaries, based on different characteristics. In many cases boundaries defined by different agencies are coterminous.

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Wollongong City in New South Wales, Australia

Wollongong, informally referred to as "The Gong", is a seaside city located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Wollongong lies on the narrow coastal strip between the Illawarra Escarpment and the Pacific Ocean, 68 kilometres (51 miles) south of central Sydney. Wollongong had an estimated urban population of 299,203 at June 2017, making it the third-largest city in New South Wales after Sydney and Newcastle, and the tenth-largest city in Australia. The city's current Lord Mayor is Gordon Bradbery AM who was elected in 2018.

Contents

The Illawarra region is characterised by three distinct districts: the north-central district, which is a contiguous urban sprawl centred on Lake Illawarra; the western district defined by the Illawarra escarpment, which leads up to the south-west fringe of Greater Metropolitan Sydney including the Macarthur and Southern Highlands regions; and the southern district, which is historically semi-rural (area undefined), yet now defined by increasing urbanisation.

Lake Illawarra lake in New South Wales, Australia

Lake Illawarra, an open and trained intermediate wave dominated barrier estuary or large coastal lagoon, is located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, situated about 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Sydney, Australia.

Illawarra escarpment

The Illawarra escarpment, or officially the Illawarra Range, is the fold-created cliffs and plateau-eroded outcrop mountain range west of the Illawarra coastal plain south of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The range encloses the Illawarra region which stretches from Stanwell Park in the north to Kiama, Gerringong and the Shoalhaven River in the south.

Sydney State capital of New South Wales and most populous city in Australia and Oceania

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.

Geography

Illawarra Escarpment above Austinmer, showing Hawkesbury sandstone, Rainforest and Eucalyptus forest. Illawarra Escarpment.jpg
Illawarra Escarpment above Austinmer, showing Hawkesbury sandstone, Rainforest and Eucalyptus forest.
A section of the Illawarra coastline, circa 1900 A bit of the Illawarra Coast from The Powerhouse Museum.jpg
A section of the Illawarra coastline, circa 1900

The region consists of a coastal plain, narrow in the north and wider in the south, bounded by the Tasman Sea on the east and the mountainous, almost impassable Illawarra escarpment (forming the eastern edge of the Southern Highlands plateau) to the west. In the middle of the region is Lake Illawarra, a shallow lake formed when sediment built up at the entrance to a bay. The district extends from the southern hills of the Royal National Park in the north to the Shoalhaven River in the south, and contains the city of Wollongong, the fourth largest urban area in New South Wales. North of Wollongong the plain narrows to a small strip of land between the coast and the escarpment. At Coalcliff and Stanwell Park small valleys are formed allowing further settlement. To the south it widens, and becomes increasingly hillier before reaching Stockyard Mountain, a long divide between the main plain and the Jamberoo Valley, which stretches until it reaches Kiama. South of Kiama is Saddleback Mountain and south of that the Shoalhaven plains and the outcrop of Coolangatta Mountain.

Tasman Sea A marginal sea of the South Pacific between Australia and New Zealand

The Tasman Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean, situated between Australia and New Zealand. It measures about 2,000 km (1,200 mi) across and about 2,800 km (1,700 mi) from north to south. The sea was named after the Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman, who was the first recorded European to encounter New Zealand and Tasmania. British explorer Captain James Cook later extensively navigated the Tasman Sea in the 1770s as part of his first voyage of exploration.

Royal National Park Protected area in New South Wales, Australia

The Royal National Park is a protected national park that is located in Sutherland Shire in the Australian state of New South Wales, just south of Sydney. The 151-square-kilometre (58 sq mi) national park is about 29 kilometres (18 mi) south of the Sydney central business district near the localities of Loftus, Otford, and Waterfall.

Shoalhaven River river in Australia

The Shoalhaven River is a perennial river that rises from the Southern Tablelands and flows into an open mature wave dominated barrier estuary near Nowra on the South Coast of New South Wales, Australia.

The main industries in the area have traditionally been farming, coal mining and steel making. Australia's largest steel-works, BlueScope, operates at Port Kembla. The area, especially around Port Kembla and Wollongong, was once known for its mainly industrial jobs, but since the 1990s commerce has played an increasing role in the city, overtaking industry in many areas.

BlueScope company

BlueScope Steel Limited is a flat product steel producer with resources coming in from, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, North America, and Asia. It was demerged from BHP Billiton on 22 July 2002 as BHP Steel and renamed BlueScope Steel on 17 November 2003.

Port Kembla, New South Wales Suburb of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia

Port Kembla is a suburb of Wollongong 8 km south of the CBD and part of the Illawarra region of New South Wales. The suburb comprises a seaport, industrial complex, a small harbour foreshore nature reserve, and a small commercial sector. It is situated on the tip of Red Point, first European sighting by Captain James Cook in 1770. The name "Kembla" is Aboriginal word meaning "plenty [of] wild fowl".

The Illawarra region is linked to Sydney by several passes and a motorway (Southern Freeway) and electric railway (see Illawarra railway line); to the west by the Illawarra Highway and Picton Road; and to the south by the Princes Highway. At Albion Park Rail the Illawarra Regional Airport serves the region.

The Illawarra Highway is a state highway in New South Wales, Australia. It connects Wollongong to the Southern Highlands and links the Princes Highway and Hume Highway.

Princes Highway highway in Australia

The Princes Highway is a major road in Australia, extending from Sydney to Adelaide via the coast through the states of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. It has a length of 1,941 kilometres (1,206 mi) or 1,898 kilometres (1,179 mi) via the former alignments of the highway, although these routes are slower and connections to the bypassed sections of the original route are poor in many cases.

Etymology

The word "illawarra" is derived from the Aboriginal Tharawal word "allowrie," also sometimes spelled as "elouera" or "eloura." According to A. W. Reed, the word is variously translated as "pleasant place near the sea" or "high place near the sea." [1] [2] The prefix of "illa" is also known to mean "white clay;" with the suffix "warra," sometimes spelled as "wurra," meaning "mountain" in the local indigenous language. [2] George Bass and Matthew Flinders were the first Europeans to visit the area, with Flinders recording that it 'was called "Allowrie" by the natives'. [1]

Australian Aboriginal languages language family

The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated 28 language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands. The relationships between these languages are not clear at present. Despite this uncertainty, the Indigenous Australian languages are collectively covered by the technical term "Australian languages", or the "Australian family".

Tharawal language language

The Tharawal language is an extinct Australian Aboriginal language of New South Wales.

Alexander Wyclif Reed, also known as Clif Reed and A. W. Reed, was a prolific New Zealand publisher and author.

For the period around 1806, the region was called "Five Islands"; referring to the group of five islands off Red Point. [1] [3] In 1817 Governor Macquarie, referring to region, wrote: 'part of the coast known generally by the name of the Five Islands, but called by the natives "Illawarra". [1]

Government administration

For the purposes of Australian federal elections for the House of Representatives, the Illawarra region is contained within the electoral Divisions of Cunningham, Whitlam and the northern tip of Gilmore. [4] [5] [6]

For the purposes of New South Wales elections for the NSW Legislative Assembly, the Illawarra region is contained within the electoral districts of Wollongong, Kiera, Shellharbour, Heathcote, and Kiama.

For the purposes of local government administration, the Illawarra region is contained within the cities of Wollongong, Shellharbour and the Municipality of Kiama.

Illawarra cattle

Illawarra cattle were originally bred in Illawarra and are now Australia's 3rd largest breed in population. They are large dark red cows sometimes with white patches. They produce large amounts of high butter fat and high protein milk and are suited to the Australian climate. [7]

Coal mining

Coal mining has been a key part to the Illawarra's economy for over 200 years.

Sport

Rugby League Football

The Illawarra Steelers Rugby league Football Club played in the NSWRL rugby league competition, then the NRL, from 1982 to 1998, and currently forms one half of the St George Illawarra Dragons joint venture, who play four of their twelve home games at WIN Stadium in Wollongong. The Illawarra Steelers still field teams in the lower rugby league divisions.

Many famous footballers, such as Bob Fulton, Graeme Langlands, Mick Cronin, Rod Wishart, Paul McGregor, Craig Fitzgibbon, Luke Bailey, Steve Roach, Garry Jack, Warren Ryan, and the Stewart brothers Brett and Glenn, have come from the Illawarra region.

Basketball

The Illawarra Hawks have represented the region (previously known as the Wollongong Hawks) since the foundation year of the NBL, 1979. They won the NBL championship in 2001 defeating the Townsville Crocs 2-1 in the best of 3 finals. They also finished as runners-up in 2005 and 2010 seasons. The team caught global attention when American teen sensation LaMelo Ball [8] [ circular reference ] announced on ESPN's show The Jump that he will be joining the Hawks through the NBL's Next Star program.

Association football

The Wollongong Wolves participated in the now defunct NSL, winning back to back premierships in 2000 and 2001. The Wolves were not selected for the NSL's replacement, the A-League, and instead chose to compete in the New South Wales Premier League under the name Wollongong FC. The Wolves organisation collapsed in 2008, and was taken over by Wollongong Community Football Club. The Wolves have continued to play in the New South Wales Premier League.

Rugby union

The Illawarriors are a Rugby Union club that have contested the Shute Shield since 2007.

Cricket

Cricket has also been played in the Illawarra for at least one hundred and fifty years with the Keira Cricket Club being founded in 1862.

Sambo

As of 2012 and 2014 the clubs Highland Sambo, based in Mittagong, and Southern Sambo, based in Woonona, have fielded athletes at the World Sambo Wrestling Championships.[ citation needed ]

See also

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Jamberoo Town in New South Wales, Australia

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Oak Flats railway station

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Illawarra Steam Navigation Company

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City of Shellharbour Local government area in New South Wales, Australia

The City of Shellharbour is a local government area in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. The City is located about 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Sydney and covers the southern suburbs of the Wollongong urban area centred on Shellharbour and it had an estimated population of 68,460 at the 2016 census.

Group 7 Rugby League

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Municipality of Kiama Local government area in New South Wales, Australia

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Saddleback Mountain (New South Wales) mountain in New South Wales, Australia

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Allowrie was an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales first created in 1904 and replacing Shoalhaven and part of Moruya. Its name appears to be Aboriginal, meaning "pleasant place near the sea" or "high place near the sea" and may be the source of the name Illawarra. In 1920, with the introduction of proportional representation, it was absorbed into Wollondilly, along with Wollongong.

Minnamurra River river in New South Wales, Australia

The Minnamurra River, an open mature wave dominated barrier estuary, is located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia.

South Coast Australian Football League

The South Coast Australian Football League (SCAFL) is an Australian rules football competition in the Shoalhaven and Illawarra regions of New South Wales.

South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra Area Health Service (SESIAHS) was formed in 2005 from the amalgamation of the Illawarra Area Health Service and South Eastern Sydney Area Health Service. It was disbanded on 1 January 2011 as part of the National Health Reform and creation of Local Hospital Networks. It was a statutory body of the New South Wales Government, operating under the NSW Department of Health, charged with the provision of public health services in eastern and southern Sydney, and regions to the south of Sydney. The area's Area Health Advisory Council was headed by Bob Farnsworth.

Shellharbour Sharks

The Shellharbour City Sharks are a Country Rugby League club founded in 1920 located on the South Coast of NSW that compete in the South Coast Group 7 competition.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Reed, A. W (1973). Place names of Australia. Sydney: Reed Books. p. 120.
  2. 1 2 "Illawarra Range". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales . Retrieved 29 December 2013. OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
  3. "Northern Illawarra". NorthernIllawarra.com.au. Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
  4. "Profile of the electoral division of Cunningham (NSW)". Current federal electoral divisions. Australian Electoral Commission. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  5. "Profile of the electoral division of Throsby (NSW)". Current federal electoral divisions. Australian Electoral Commission. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  6. "Profile of the electoral division of Gilmore (NSW)". Current federal electoral divisions. Australian Electoral Commission. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  7. "Information about Illawarra Cattle". Illawarras Australia. 2012. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  8. LaMelo Ball