Illawarra

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Illawarra Sunset

Illawarra
New South Wales
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Sunset over Lake Illawarra.
Australia New South Wales location map blank.svg
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Illawarra
Coordinates 34°30′S150°54′E / 34.5°S 150.9°E / -34.5; 150.9 Coordinates: 34°30′S150°54′E / 34.5°S 150.9°E / -34.5; 150.9
Population311,317[ citation needed ]
LGA(s) Kiama with a population of 9000, Shellharbour,with a population of 70000Wollongong nsw 3rd largest city with a population of 465000 .this area is also known as the Wollongong coast. .these three cities Wollongong shellharbour and kiama have their own suburbs. The Illawarra region is nestled between The mountains the sea. It's a sub tropical climate region
State electorate(s) Wollongong, the city of Wollongong nsw 3rd largest city with a population of 465000. It's boundaries stretch from Otford in the north to windang in the south. This area forms part of the Wollongong local govt area Keira, Shellharbour, Heathcote, Kiama
Federal Division(s) Cunningham, Whitlam, Gilmore
Localities around Illawarra:
Macarthur Southern Sydney Tasman Sea
Southern Highlands Illawarra Tasman Sea
Southern Tablelands South Coast Tasman Sea

Illawarra is a region in the Australian state of New South Wales. The Illawarra is nestled between the mountains and the sea. It is a coastal region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of the Shoalhaven or South Coast region. It encompasses the three cities of Wollongong, Shellharbour and the town of Kiama. Wollongong being the capital of the Illawarra with a population of 465000, then Shellharbour with a population of 70000 and the city of Kiama with a population of 10000. These three cities have their own suburbs. Wollongong stretches from Otford in the north to Windang in the south, with Maddens Plains and Cordeaux in the west. It is also known as the Wollongong LGA.

Contents

The Illawarra region is characterised by three distinct districts: the north-central district, which is a contiguous urban sprawl centred on Lake Illawarra, the western district defined by the Illawarra escarpment, which leads up to the south-west fringe of Greater Metropolitan Sydney including the Macarthur and Southern Highlands regions and the southern district, which is historically semi-rural (area undefined), yet now defined by increasing urbanisation.

Etymology

The word "illawarra" is derived from the Aboriginal Tharawal word "allowrie," also sometimes spelled as "elouera" or "eloura." According to A. W. Reed, the word is variously translated as "pleasant place near the sea" or "high place near the sea." [1] [2] The prefix of "illa" is also known to mean "white clay;" with the suffix "warra," sometimes spelled as "wurra," meaning "mountain" in the local indigenous language. [2] George Bass and Matthew Flinders were the first Europeans to visit the area, with Flinders recording that it 'was called "Allowrie" by the natives'. [1]

For the period around 1806, the region was called "Five Islands"; referring to the group of five islands off Red Point. [1] [3] [ failed verification ] In 1817 Governor Macquarie, referring to region, wrote: 'part of the coast known generally by the name of the Five Islands, but called by the natives "Illawarra". [1]

Geography

Lookout from the Illawarra escarpment above Wombarra over the northern Illawarra plain viewing Austinmer, Thirroul, Bulli, Wollongong up to Port Kembla in the far. Subpointlookout.jpg
Lookout from the Illawarra escarpment above Wombarra over the northern Illawarra plain viewing Austinmer, Thirroul, Bulli, Wollongong up to Port Kembla in the far.
Illawarra Escarpment above Austinmer, showing Hawkesbury sandstone, Rainforest and Eucalyptus forest. Illawarra Escarpment.jpg
Illawarra Escarpment above Austinmer, showing Hawkesbury sandstone, Rainforest and Eucalyptus forest.
A section of the Illawarra coastline, circa 1900 A bit of the Illawarra Coast from The Powerhouse Museum.jpg
A section of the Illawarra coastline, circa 1900

The region consists of a grassy coastal plain, narrow in the north and wider in the south, bounded by the Tasman Sea on the east and the mountainous, almost impassable Illawarra escarpment (forming the eastern edge of the Southern Highlands plateau) to the west. In the middle of the region is Lake Illawarra, a shallow lake formed when sediment built up at the entrance to a bay. The district extends from the southern hills of the Royal National Park in the north to the Shoalhaven River in the south, and contains the city of Wollongong, the fourth largest urban area in New South Wales.

North of Wollongong the plain narrows to a small strip of land between the coast and the escarpment. At Coalcliff and Stanwell Park small valleys are formed allowing further settlement. To the south it widens, and becomes increasingly hillier before reaching Stockyard Mountain, a long divide between the main plain and the Jamberoo Valley, which stretches until it reaches Kiama. South of Kiama is Saddleback Mountain and south of that the Shoalhaven plains and the outcrop of Coolangatta Mountain.

Ecology

Ecologically, the coastal grassy region of the Illawarra is within the Illawarra Lowlands Grassy Woodland biome. Characteristic tree species in the region include Eucalyptus tereticornis , Eucalyptus eugenioides , Eucalyptus longifolia , Eucalyptus bosistoana and Melaleuca decora . Shrub species include Acacia mearnsii , Dodonaea viscosa and as well as the endangered orchard Pterostylis gibbosa . [4]

The wet elevated areas of the Illawarra, where rainfall exceeds 1300mm, are within the Southern Lowland Wet Sclerophyll Forests and Southern Escarpment Wet Sclerophyll Forests biomes which generally feature tall, compact eucalyptus forests 30m-60m tall and understorey that include moist shrubs, tree ferns, a few vines and a uninterrupted herbaceous groundcover. [5] [6]

Government administration

For the purposes of Australian federal elections for the House of Representatives, the Illawarra region is contained within the electoral Divisions of Cunningham, Whitlam and the northern tip of Gilmore. [7] [8] [9]

For the purposes of New South Wales elections for the NSW Legislative Assembly, the Illawarra region is contained within the electoral districts of Wollongong, Kiera, Shellharbour, Heathcote, and Kiama.

For the purposes of local government administration, the Illawarra region is contained within the cities of Wollongong, Shellharbour and the Municipality of Kiama.

Economy

The main industries in the area have traditionally been farming, coal mining and steel making. Australia's largest steel-works, BlueScope, operates at Port Kembla. The area, especially around Port Kembla and Wollongong, was once known for its mainly industrial jobs, but since the 1990s commerce has played an increasing role in the city, overtaking industry in many areas.

Illawarra cattle were originally bred in Illawarra and are now Australia's 3rd largest breed in population. They are large dark red cows sometimes with white patches. They produce large amounts of high butter fat and high protein milk and are suited to the Australian climate. [10]

Coal mining has been a key part to the Illawarra's economy for over 200 years. [11]

Transport

The Illawarra region is linked to Sydney by several passes and a motorway (Southern Freeway) and electric railway (see Illawarra railway line); to the west by the Illawarra Highway and Picton Road; and to the south by the Princes Highway. At Albion Park Rail the Illawarra Regional Airport serves the region.

Sport

Rugby League Football

The Illawarra Steelers Rugby league Football Club played in the NSWRL rugby league competition, then the NRL, from 1982 to 1998, and currently forms one half of the St George Illawarra Dragons joint venture, who play four of their twelve home games at WIN Stadium in Wollongong. The Illawarra Steelers still field teams in the lower rugby league divisions.

Many famous footballers, such as Bob Fulton, Graeme Langlands, Mick Cronin, Rod Wishart, Paul McGregor, Craig Fitzgibbon, Luke Bailey, Steve Roach, Garry Jack, Warren Ryan, and the Stewart brothers Brett and Glenn, have come from the Illawarra region.

Basketball

The Hawks have represented the region (previously known as the Illawarra Hawks and the Wollongong Hawks) since the foundation year of the NBL, 1979. They won the NBL championship in 2001 defeating the Townsville Crocs 2-1 in the best of 3 finals. They also finished as runners-up in 2005 and 2010 seasons. The team caught global attention when American teen sensation LaMelo Ball announced on ESPN's show The Jump that he will be joining the Hawks through the NBL's Next Star program. In April 2020, LaMelo Ball and his business manager, Jermaine Jackson announced they had bought the Hawks. [12]

Association football

The Wollongong Wolves participated in the now defunct NSL, winning back to back premierships in 2000 and 2001. The Wolves were not selected for the NSL's replacement, the A-League, and instead chose to compete in the New South Wales Premier League under the name Wollongong FC. The Wolves organisation collapsed in 2008, and was taken over by Wollongong Community Football Club. The Wolves have continued to play in the New South Wales Premier League.

Rugby union

The Illawarriors are a Rugby Union club that have contested the Shute Shield since 2007.

Cricket

Cricket has also been played in the Illawarra for at least one hundred and fifty years with the Keira Cricket Club being founded in 1862.

See also

Related Research Articles

Wollongong City in New South Wales, Australia

Wollongong, informally referred to as "The Gong", is a city located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Wollongong lies on the narrow coastal strip between the Illawarra Escarpment and the Pacific Ocean, 68 kilometres south of central Sydney. Wollongong had an estimated urban population of 302,739 at June 2018, making it the third-largest city in New South Wales after Sydney and Newcastle and the tenth-largest city in Australia by population. The city's current Lord Mayor is Gordon Bradbery AM who was elected in 2018.

Kiama, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Kiama is a coastal town 120 kilometres south of Sydney in the Illawarra. One of the main tourist attractions is the Kiama Blowhole. Kiama features several popular surfing beaches and caravan parks, and numerous alfresco cafes and restaurants. Its proximity to the south of Sydney makes it an attractive destination for many day-trippers and weekenders.

Gerringong, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Gerringong is a town located about ten minutes drive south of Kiama in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia in the Municipality of Kiama. At the 2016 census, Gerringong had a population of 3,966. One theory says that the name derives from an Aboriginal word meaning "fearful place".

Gareth James Ward, an Australian politician, was the New South Wales Minister for Families, Communities and Disability Services in the second Berejiklian ministry from 2019 to 2021. Ward is also a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly representing Kiama since 2011.

Oak Flats railway station

Oak Flats is a single-platform intercity train station located in Oak Flats, New South Wales, Australia, on the South Coast railway line. The station serves NSW TrainLink trains travelling south to Kiama and north to Wollongong and Sydney. Together with the Dunmore and later Shellharbour Junction stations, Oak Flats has long served as the rail connection for the coastal suburbs of the City of Shellharbour.

Dapto railway station

Dapto railway station is located on the South Coast railway line in the Wollongong suburb of Dapto, New South Wales, Australia.

Unanderra railway station

Unanderra railway station is located on the South Coast railway line in the Wollongong suburb of Unanderra, New South Wales, Australia.

Illawarra escarpment

The Illawarra escarpment, or officially the Illawarra Range, is the fold-created cliffs and plateau-eroded outcrop mountain range west of the Illawarra coastal plain south of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The range encloses the Illawarra region which stretches from Stanwell Park in the north to Kiama, Gerringong and the Shoalhaven River in the south.

Electoral district of Kiama

Kiama is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is currently represented by Gareth Ward. Originally elected as a member of the Liberal Party, Ward stood down from the party in May 2021 following allegations of sexual misconduct.

Illawarra Steam Navigation Company

The Illawarra Steam Navigation Company was a shipping company that serviced the south coast of New South Wales, Australia from 1858 to the early 1950s. It was formed through the amalgamation of the General Steam Navigation Company, the Kiama Steam Navigation Company and the Shoalhaven Steam Navigation Company, each of whom serviced parts of the south coast with their respective vessels. After merging, the new company held a near monopoly in regard to shipping on the south coast, and their fleet visited every significant port between Sydney and the border of Victoria. The company transported both passengers and a range of produce, including livestock, and hence it became known as the 'Pig and Whistle Line': it was said that ships would wait an hour for a pig but not a minute for a passenger.

City of Wollongong Local government area in New South Wales, Australia

The City of Wollongong is a local government area in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. The area is situated adjacent to the Tasman Sea, the Southern Freeway and the South Coast railway line.

City of Shellharbour Local government area in New South Wales, Australia

The City of Shellharbour is a local government area in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. The City is located about 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Sydney and covers the southern suburbs of the Wollongong urban area centred on Shellharbour and it had an estimated population of 68,460 at the 2016 census.

Group 7 Rugby League

South Coast Group 7 Rugby League is the divisional boundary drawn from the Southern Illawarra and South Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia and is governed by the NSWCRL. The main semi-professional competition,, comprises ten (10) teams from across the region. Group 7 Rugby League also administers Reserve Grade, Third Grade and Under-18's competitions, Ladies League Tag, as well as looking over many junior competitions.

Saddleback Mountain (New South Wales)

Saddleback Mountain is a mountain near Kiama in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. The mountain rises to about 600 metres (2,000 ft) above sea level on the Illawarra escarpment and has views of Noorinan Mountain, 662 metres (2,172 ft) above sea level, and Barren Grounds Plateau to the west and south to Coolangatta Mountain and Pigeon House Mountain to Ulladulla, and north over Lake Illawarra, the Illawarra escarpment and to the Cronulla Sandhills and Kurnell Oil Refinery on a clear day.

AFL South Coast

The AFL South Coast is an Australian rules football competition in the Shoalhaven and Illawarra regions of New South Wales. The AFLSC has three divisions of senior men's football and two divisions of senior women's football. In 2012 The South Coast AFL became "AFL South Coast" incorporating the three leagues of South Coast AFL Seniors, Shoalhaven Juniors and Illawarra Juniors.

South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra Area Health Service (SESIAHS) was formed in 2005 from the amalgamation of the Illawarra Area Health Service and South Eastern Sydney Area Health Service. It was disbanded on 1 January 2011 as part of the National Health Reform and creation of Local Hospital Networks. It was a statutory body of the New South Wales Government, operating under the NSW Department of Health, charged with the provision of public health services in eastern and southern Sydney, and regions to the south of Sydney. The area's Area Health Advisory Council was headed by Bob Farnsworth.

Eastern Australian temperate forests

The Eastern Australian temperate forests is a broad ecoregion of open forest on uplands starting from the east coast of New South Wales in the South Coast to southern Queensland, Australia. Although dry sclerophyll and wet sclerophyll eucalyptus forests predominate within this ecoregion, a number of distinguishable rainforest communities are present as well.

Premier Transport Group

Premier Transport Group is an Australian operator of bus and coach services in New South Wales and Queensland. Its origins can be traced back to December 1987 when John King purchased Nowra Coaches. It has since expanded through a number of acquisitions.

Ecology of Sydney

The ecology of Sydney, located in the state of New South Wales, Australia, is diverse for its size, where it would mainly feature biomes such as grassy woodlands and some sclerophyll forests, with a few pockets of mallee shrublands, subtropical and temperate rainforests (evergreen), heathlands, and wetlands. The combination of climate, topography, moisture, and soil influence the dispersion of these ecological communities across a height gradient from 0 to 200 metres. There are many hiking trails, paved and unpaved roads for exploring the many different biomes and ecosystems.

The Stone Fleet was the colloquial name for the small coastal ships that carried crushed-stone construction aggregate to Sydney from the Illawarra ports of Kiama and Shellharbour and the nearby ocean jetties at Bombo and Bass Point. The coastal shipping trade carried on by these ships was known colloquially as the 'Stone Trade' or 'Blue Diamond Trade'. The trade ended finally in 2011.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Reed, A. W (1973). Place names of Australia. Sydney: Reed Books. p. 120.
  2. 1 2 "Illawarra Range". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales . Retrieved 29 December 2013. OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
  3. "Northern Illawarra". NorthernIllawarra.com.au. Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
  4. "Illawarra Lowlands Grassy Woodland in the Sydney Basin Bioregion - profile". NSW Environment, Energy and Science. Archived from the original on 19 June 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  5. "Southern Lowland Wet Sclerophyll Forests". NSW Government – Office of Environment and Heritage (New South Wales) . Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  6. "Southern Escarpment Wet Sclerophyll Forests". NSW Government – Office of Environment and Heritage (New South Wales) . Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  7. "Profile of the electoral division of Cunningham (NSW)". Australian Electoral Commission . 26 September 2013. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  8. "Profile of the electoral division of Whitlam (NSW)". Australian Electoral Commission . 19 November 2019. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  9. "Profile of the electoral division of Gilmore (NSW)". Australian Electoral Commission . 26 September 2013. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  10. "Information about Illawarra Cattle". Illawarras Australia. 2012. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  11. Spillett, Emma; Langford, Ben (23 May 2014). "Gloomy times for mining in the Illawarra". Illawarra Mercury. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017.
  12. "LaMelo Ball buys struggling Illawarra Hawks: report". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.