Sydney central business district

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Sydney City Centre
Sydney,  New South Wales
Sydney City Business District.jpg
Sydney City Centre
Australia New South Wales location map blank.svg
Red pog.svg
Sydney City Centre
Coordinates 33°52′5″S151°12′44″E / 33.86806°S 151.21222°E / -33.86806; 151.21222 Coordinates: 33°52′5″S151°12′44″E / 33.86806°S 151.21222°E / -33.86806; 151.21222
Population17,252 (2016) [1]
 • Density6,160/km2 (15,960/sq mi)
Postcode(s) 2000
Area2.8 km2 (1.1 sq mi)
LGA(s) City of Sydney
State electorate(s) Sydney
Federal Division(s) Sydney
Suburbs around Sydney City Centre:
Barangaroo Millers Point
The Rocks
Port Jackson
Pyrmont Sydney City Centre Woolloomooloo
Darlinghurst
Ultimo Haymarket
Ultimo
Surry Hills

The Sydney City Centre (also Sydney Central Business District, Sydney CBD, and often referred to simply as "Town" or "the City") is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km (2 mi) from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was initially established. Due to its pivotal role in Australia's early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country.

Sydney State capital of New South Wales and most populous city in Australia and Oceania

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Contents

Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south. Its east–west axis runs from a chain of parkland that includes Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Farm Cove on Sydney Harbour in the east; to Darling Harbour and the Western Distributor in the west. At the 2016 Australian Census, the City recorded a population of 17,252. [1] "Sydney City" is very occasionally used to refer not only to the City proper, but also its nearby inner suburbs such as Pyrmont, Haymarket, Ultimo and Woolloomooloo.

Circular Quay locality in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Circular Quay is a harbour, former working port and now international passenger shipping port, public piazza and tourism precinct, heritage area, and transport node located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia on the northern edge of the Sydney central business district on Sydney Cove, between Bennelong Point and The Rocks. It is part of the local government area of the City of Sydney.

Central railway station, Sydney railway station in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

The Central railway station is a heritage-listed railway station located at the southern end of the Sydney central business district in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The station is the largest and busiest railway station in New South Wales and serves as a major transport interchange for NSW TrainLink inter-city rail services, Sydney Trains commuter rail services, Sydney light rail services, State Transit bus services, and private coach transport services. Often abbreviated as Central or Central station, the station is also known as Sydney Terminal and Central Railway Stations Group and Central Railway; Central Station; Underbridges. The property is owned by RailCorp, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. It recorded 11.35 million passenger movements in 2013.

Hyde Park, Sydney park in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Hyde Park is a heritage-listed 16.2-hectare (40-acre) urban park located in the central business district of Sydney, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia, Hyde Park is the oldest public parkland in Australia. Hyde Park is on the eastern fringe of the Sydney city centre and is approximately rectangular in shape, being squared at the southern end and rounded at the northern end. It is bordered on the west by Elizabeth Street, on the east by College Street, on the north by St. James Road and Prince Albert Road and on the south by Liverpool Street.

The Sydney City is Australia's main financial and economic centre, as well as a leading hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region. The city centre and areas immediately around it employ approximately 22% of the Sydney region's workforce. The City has the largest gathering of workers in the whole of Sydney. Most of them are white collar office workers in the finance and professional service industries. In 2012, the number of workers operating in City was 226,972. [2] Based on industry mix and relative occupational wage levels it is estimated that economic activity ( GDP ) generated in the city in 2015/16 was approximately $118 billion. [3] Culturally, the city centre is Sydney's focal point for nightlife and entertainment. It is also home to some of the city's most significant buildings and structures.

Nightlife entertainment occurring at night

Nightlife is a collective term for entertainment that is available and generally more popular from the late evening into the early hours of the morning. It may include pubs, bars, nightclubs, parties, live music, concerts, cabarets, theatre, cinemas, and shows. These venues often require a cover charge for admission. Nightlife entertainment is often more adult-oriented than daytime entertainment. People who prefer to be active during the night-time are called night owls.

Geography and urban structure

The Sydney CBD is an area of very densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by several parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Wynyard Park. George Street is the Sydney CBD's main north–south thoroughfare. The streets run on a slightly warped grid pattern in the southern CBD, but in the older northern CBD the streets form several intersecting grids, reflecting their placement in relation to the prevailing breeze and orientation to Circular Quay in early settlement.

The Domain, Sydney park in Sydney, Australia

The Domain is a heritage-listed 34-hectare (84-acre) area of open space located on the eastern fringe of the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. Separating the central business district from Woolloomooloo, The Domain adjoins the Royal Botanic Gardens and is managed by the Royal Botanic Gardens Trust, a division of the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. The Domain is a popular venue for outdoor concerts, open-air events, large political gatherings and rallies and is used daily by the people of Sydney for exercise and relaxation. Along with the Royal Botanic Gardens, The Domain was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Wynyard Park, Sydney Park in Sydney, Australia

Wynyard Park is a small park in the city of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Wynyard Park is located in the Sydney central business district and is bounded by York, Carrington, Margaret and Barrack Streets. Surrounded by modern high-rise buildings it is one of the most densely built-up and intensively used parks in Sydney. Entrances to Wynyard railway station are located on the north-eastern and north-western corners of the park.

George Street, Sydney street in Sydney

George Street is a street in the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia.

The CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie Street and York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream (now tunnelled). Bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east–west that once crossed this stream. Pitt Street is the retail heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall and the Sydney Tower. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House and the Supreme Court of New South Wales.

Tank Stream stream in New South Wales, Australia

The Tank Stream is a heritage-listed former fresh water tributary of Sydney Cove and now tunnel and watercourse located in the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The Tank Stream was the fresh water supply for the fledgling colony of New South Wales in the late 18th century. Today it is little more than a storm water drain. It originated from a swamp to the west of present-day Hyde Park and at high tide entered Sydney Cove at what is now the intersection of Bridge and Pitt Streets in the Sydney central business district. The catchment was 65 hectares, corresponding roughly the size of the Sydney central business district. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Bridge Street, Sydney street in Sydney

Bridge Street is a street in the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Bridge Street runs for 500 metres (1,600 ft) in a west–east direction with traffic flowing in both directions. It is situated in the northern portion of the central business district. The western terminus of Bridge Street is at George Street, with the eastern terminus at Macquarie Street, adjacent to the Chief Secretary's Building.

Pitt Street Mall thoroughfare in New South Wales, Australia

Pitt Street Mall is the pedestrianised section of Pitt Street in the Sydney central business district, in the Australian state of New South Wales. Running for approximately 200 metres between Market Street and King Street, it is one block long and one of Australia's busiest and most cosmopolitan shopping precincts. Floorspace rents are the highest in Australia, in part due to other cities' shopping precincts being longer. In 2015, its rents were the fifth-highest in the world in terms of city streets.

The skyline of the central business district as viewed from Tasman Sea. Sydneycityscape.jpg
The skyline of the central business district as viewed from Tasman Sea.

Urban structure and boundaries

History

A tram passes through a crowd of people during lunch hour, Pitt Street, 1937. K. Davis - Tramwoman at work (and other tram photographs), 1933-1942 (15806644966) (2).jpg
A tram passes through a crowd of people during lunch hour, Pitt Street, 1937.

Prior to European settlement in New South Wales, the area around Sydney was home to the Gadigal tribes of Indigenous Australians. The colony of New South Wales founded Sydney at the Rocks in 1788 and established a city in 1842.

In the midst of World War 1, on Valentine's day, riots racked the CBD, in what has come to be known as the Central Station Riots of 1916. A substantial segment of the violence was concentrated in the Central area. These riots involved five thousand military recruits who refused to comply with extraneous parade orders. During the riots they caused significant damage to buildings. People with "foreign" names were especially targeted. The recruits clashed with soldiers, resulting in the death of Private Ernest William Keefe. A number of eight people sustained injuries. Because this incident occurred in the middle of the Great War the state discouraged media coverage. Only a fifth of the rioters were court-marshalled. These riots spurred the introduction of lockout laws for pubs after 6pm. This law was only lifted in 1955. [4]

Heritage listings

The Sydney central business district has many heritage-listed buildings including:

Governance

Administratively, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. [125] The New South Wales state government also has authority over some aspects of the CBD, in particular through the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority. Independent Alex Greenwich has represented the Sydney seat since the 2012 by-election, triggered by the resignation of previous independent Clover Moore, who was the Lord Mayor of Sydney, due to introduced state laws preventing dual membership of state parliament and local council.

Commercial area

The northwestern end of the Sydney CBD as viewed from Sydney Tower SydneyCBDfromTower.jpg
The northwestern end of the Sydney CBD as viewed from Sydney Tower

The Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies. The financial services industry in particular occupies much of the available office space, with companies such as the Westpac, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Citibank, Deutsche Bank, Macquarie Bank, AMP Limited, Insurance Australia Group, AON, Marsh, Allianz, HSBC, AXA, ABN Amro, [126] , RBC and Bloomsbury Publishing all having offices. [127]

Church Hill

Church Hill is a northerly district in the Central Business district of Sydney, Australia. [128] It is so named because the earliest churches in Australia were formed on this site, including St Patrick's (Roman Catholic), [129] St Philip's (Anglican) [130] and Scots Church (Presbyterian) [131]

The significance of Church Hill dates back to the time of Governor Arthur Phillip, who mandated compulsory Sunday church attendance for all convicts, until they rebelled and burned down the area’s first church in 1798. [132]

The area gained greater prominence as Church Hill on Wednesday 1 October 1800, when incoming Governor Philip Gidley King had the foundation stone laid for St Philip’s Church, which subsequently he proclaimed one of Australia’s first two parishes in 1802 (the other being St John’s in Parramatta). [133]

The site where St Patrick’s Church currently stands is where the Roman Catholic Eucharist was first preserved in Australia, in May 1818. Celebrations for the bicentenary of this occasion were held in St Patrick’s Church on Sunday 6 May 2018. [134]

A proposed stop on the tram network under construction on George Street may be named Church Hill.

Transport

George Street, the main CBD thoroughfare 2015-04-02 George Street, Sydney.jpg
George Street, the main CBD thoroughfare

Sydney's CBD is serviced by commuter rail, light rail, buses and ferry transport. In addition, an underground rapid transit system known as the Sydney Metro is being developed: its first stage will link the central business district to the North Western suburbs of Sydney [135] and a second stage that will link the North Shore to Bankstown via a tunnel underneath Sydney Harbour and the CBD is proposed. [136] [137]

Commuter rail's main hub is Central Railway Station ("Central"), located in the southern part of the CBD in Haymarket: it connects services for almost all of the lines in the Sydney Trains network, as well as being the terminus for NSW TrainLink country and inter-urban rail services. There is a largely-underground CBD rail loop, accessed in both directions via Central, which services five additional CBD stations, plus an underground spur line to Bondi Junction which services two. This is known as the City Circle. The Dulwich Hill Line, the only currently operating light rail line in Sydney (another is under construction) links the southern part of the CBD and Central to nearby suburbs of Sydney's Inner-west. Buses, both government-run and privately owned, service the CBD along several dozen routes to both inner and more remote suburbs. NightRide is an after-hours bus service that operates between midnight and 5:00 am, with most services running from George Street outside the Sydney Town Hall. [138] Sydney Ferries operate largely from Circular Quay, on the northern edge of the CBD. There are several wharves (directly beneath the elevated Circular Quay commuter rail station), with Wharf 3 operating exclusively to Manly. There are also ferries at the western edge of the CBD at King Street Wharf, just to the south of Barangaroo.

Culture

Sydney's culture is compacted within its central business district and inner city ring, due to its nightlife, pedestrian traffic and centrality of notable attractions. There is a large concentration of cultural institutions within the CBD including: the Museum of Sydney, the State Library of New South Wales, the Customs House branch of the City of Sydney Library, the Theatre Royal, the City Recital Hall and the Japan Foundation. There are a total of 19 churches located in the Sydney city centre. [139]

Many other cultural institutions are located at the surrounds of the CBD, such as: the Sydney Opera House and the Museum of Contemporary Art to the north, the Australian Museum and the Art Gallery of New South Wales to the east, the Powerhouse Museum to the west, White Rabbit Gallery and the Haymarket branch of the City of Sydney Library to the south.

Every January during the summer, the city celebrates with the Sydney Festival. There are art, music and dance exhibitions at indoor and outdoor venues. Australian and International theatre during the month is also featured, including Aboriginal, and Contemporary. Many of these events are free.

The Sydney Film Festival is an international event organised every year in June at various venues across the CBD. The festival opened on 11 June 1954 and was held over four days, with screenings at Sydney University. Attendance was at full capacity with 1,200 tickets sold at one guinea each. [140]

Sydney boasts a lively café culture, as well as a club and bar scene distributed throughout the CBD and concentrated in a couple of locations such as Darling Harbour. [141] Although Kings Cross is not technically located within the Sydney CBD, it is accessible via William Street, which runs through Hyde Park and is part of the inner-city region. Oxford Street hosts Sydney's gay scene.[ citation needed ]

Panoramic view of the Sydney Town Hall Sydney Town Hall - Panorama.jpg
Panoramic view of the Sydney Town Hall

Architecture

Podium of the MLC Centre. MLC 2012.jpg
Podium of the MLC Centre.

The Sydney CBD contains many of Australia's tallest skyscrapers, including Governor Phillip Tower, MLC Centre and World Tower, the latter consisting predominantly of apartments. It is also home to Australia's earliest skyscraper, the Australia Square building on George Street. As of 2017, the tallest structure is Centrepoint Tower at 309 m (1,014 ft) which has dominated the city skyline since it was topped out in 1981. Recently,[ when? ] height limits for buildings were lifted from 235 m (771 ft) to 310 m (1,017 ft).

Sydney's CBD features a juxtaposition of old and new architecture. The old architecture dates back to Sydney's earliest days as a colony, down to the more grandiose Victorian architecture from the Gold rush erathe most substantial examples are the Queen Victoria Building and the Sydney Town Hall. Modern architectures take form as high rises and skyscrapers, which are prolific among all of Sydney's city streets. The earliest skyscraper constructed in Sydney was Culwulla Chambers, which stands at a height of 50 m (164 ft) and was completed in 1912. Designed by Spain, Cosh and Minnett, the building consisted of 14 floors and cost £100,000 to build, equivalent of approximately $1 million in today's money. [142]

Demographics

Intersection of George Street and Park Street near Town Hall George Street Sydney1.jpg
Intersection of George Street and Park Street near Town Hall

See also

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