Manufacturing in Australia peaked in the 1960s at 25% of the country's gross domestic product, and has since dropped below 10%.
The contribution of manufacturing to Australia's gross domestic product peaked in the 1960s at 25%, and had dropped to 13% by 2001–2 million, and employed 1.1 million people.and 10.5% by 2005–6. In 2004–05, the manufacturing industry exported products worth $67,400
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a period of time, often annually. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations.
In 2000–2001, $3.3 billion was spent on assistance to the manufacturing industry, with 40% going to the textile, clothing and footwear industry and the passenger motor vehicle industry.At that time, manufacturing accounted for 48% of exports, and 45% of Australian research and development.
Research and development, known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products. Research and development constitutes the first stage of development of a potential new service or the production process.
In 2007, the breakdown of manufacturing by state, and the fraction of gross state product (GSP) which it contributed, were as follows:
|State||Percentage of national manufacturing||Percentage of GSP|
|New South Wales||32||10|
|Australian Capital Territory||0.5||2|
Between 2001 and 2007, the approximate breakdown by industry changed as follows:
|Industry||Percent in 2001||Percent in 2007|
|Food, beverages and tobacco||19||19|
|Textile, clothing and footwear||5||3|
|Wood and paper products||7||6|
|Printing, publishing and recorded media||10||10|
|Petroleum, coal and chemical products||15||14|
|Non-metal mineral products||4||5|
|Machinery and equipment||17||19|
The food and beverage manufacturing industry is the largest in Australia. The sectors include the following:
|Meat and meat products||17,836|
|Beverage and malt manufacturing||13,289|
|Sugar and confectionery manufacturing||6,456|
|Fruit and vegetable processing||4,672|
|Flour mill and cereal food manufacturing||3,692|
|Oil and fat manufacturing||1,547|
|Seafood processing||1,330 *|
|Other food manufacturing||8,554|
* Before the 2010 closure of the Port Lincoln Tuna cannery
Until trade liberalisation in the mid 1980s, Australia had a large textile industry[ citation needed ]. This decline continued through the first decade of the 21st century. Since the 1980s, tariffs have steadily been reduced; in early 2010, the tariffs were reduced from 17.5 percent to 10 percent on clothing, and 7.5–10% to 5% for footwear and other textiles. As of 2010, most textile manufacturing, even by Australian companies, is performed in Asia.
Free trade is a trade policy that does not restrict imports or exports; it can also be understood as the free market idea applied to international trade. In government, free trade is predominantly advocated by political parties that hold liberal economic positions while economically left-wing and nationalist political parties generally support protectionism, the opposite of free trade.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting or tatting, felting, or braiding.
As of 2008, four companies mass produced cars in Australia.Mitsubishi ceased production in March 2008, followed by Ford in 2016, and Holden and Toyota in 2017.
Holden bodyworks are manufactured at Elizabeth, South Australia and engines are produced at the Fishermens Bend plant in Port Melbourne, Victoria. In 2006, Holden's export revenue was just under A$ 1.3 billion. In March 2012, Holden was given a $270 million lifeline by the Australian government. In return, Holden planned to inject over $1 billion into car manufacturing in Australia. They estimated the new investment package would return around $4 billion to the Australian economy and see GM Holden continue making cars in Australia until at least 2022. However, Holden announced on 11 December 2013 that Holden cars would no longer be manufactured in Australia from the end of 2017.
Ford has two main factories, both in Victoria: located in the Geelong suburb of Norlane and the northern Melbourne suburb of Broadmeadows. Both plants were closed down in October 2016.
Until 2006, Toyota had factories in Port Melbourne and Altona, Victoria. Since then, all manufacturing has been at Altona. In 2008, Toyota exported 101,668 vehicles worth $1,900 million. In 2011 the figures were "59,949 units worth $1,004 million". On 10 February 2014 it was announced that by the end of 2017 Toyota would cease manufacturing vehicles and engines in Australia.
In March 2012, a new Australian auto maker, Tomcar, announced they are to build a new factory in Melbourne.
|Ford Australia||Geelong VIC||Cars||Example||2016 TBC|
|Ford Australia||Broadmeadows VIC||Example||Example||Example|
|Holden||Port Melbourne VIC||Engines||Example||2016 TBC|
|Holden||Elizabeth SA||Cars||Example||2017 TBC|
Australia has a chemical industry, including the manufacture of many petrochemicals.
Many mining companies, such as BHP and Comalco, perform initial processing of raw materials.Similarly, Australia's agriculture feeds into the chemical industry. Tasmania produces 40% of the world's raw narcotic materials; some of this is locally converted into codeine and other pharmaceuticals in Tasmania by Tasmanian Alkaloids, owned by Johnson and Johnson, while GlaxoSmithKline processes some of the resulting poppy straw in Victoria.
A partial list of companies operating manufacturing facilities in Australia, with their most important products.
Companies that closed down, or moved manufacturing offshore.
Holden, formerly known as General Motors-Holden, is an Australian automobile brand and former automobile manufacturer which imports manufactured cars and badge engineered them under Holden brand. It is headquartered in Port Melbourne, Victoria.
GM Korea Company is South Korea's third largest automobile manufacturer and a subsidiary of General Motors. GM Korea's roots go back to the former Daewoo which was split from its parent company, Daewoo Group, in 2001. It has 3 manufacturing facilities in South Korea as well as a vehicle assembly facility in Vietnam. In addition, GM Korea provides region and brand-specific vehicle assembly kits for assembly by GM affiliates in the United States, Australia, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, and Mexico. In 2008, GM Korea built more than 1.9 million vehicles, including CKD products. It now produces vehicles and kits for Chevrolet, Holden and Buick that are offered in more than 150 markets on six continents. GM Korea also has design, engineering, research & development facilities that are involved in development for various GM products, above all small-size cars.
Isuzu Motors Ltd., trading as Isuzu, is a Japanese commercial vehicle and diesel engine manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo. Its principal activity is the production, marketing and sale of Isuzu commercial vehicles and diesel engines.
New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI) was an automobile manufacturing company in Fremont, California, jointly owned by General Motors and Toyota that opened in 1984 and closed in 2010. On October 27, 2010, its former plant reopened as a 100% Tesla Motors-owned production facility, known as the Tesla Factory. The plant is located in the East Industrial area of Fremont between Interstate 880 and Interstate 680.
The Holden Apollo is a compact and later mid-size car that was distributed from 1989 to 1997 in Australia by Holden. As a successor to the GM-engineered Holden Camira, the Apollo was a rebadged version of the Toyota Camry, also sold in Australia. In paralleling two generations of the Camry—the V20 coded as the JK and facelifted JL series Apollo—and the XV10 recoded as the JM and updated JP—there were minor cosmetic differences in the grille, lights and trim.
The Button car plan, also known as the Button plan was the informal name given to the Motor Industry Development Plan, an Australian federal (Labor) government initiative intended to rationalise the Australian motor vehicle industry and transition it to lower levels of protection. It took its name from Senator John Button, the then federal Minister for Commerce, Trade and Industry.
Toyota Tsusho Corporation is a sōgō shōsha, a member of the Toyota Group. Toyota Tsusho has a worldwide presence through its many subsidiaries and operating divisions, including over 150 offices, and 900 subsidiaries and affiliates around the world. Its main business is supporting Toyota Motor's automobile business and other Toyota Group companies, but Toyota Tsusho's business is very diverse, spanning industrial, commercial, and consumer sectors. Business areas run the gamut, including industrial raw materials, agricultural products, and high technology.
The economic history of Australia traces the economic history of Australia since European settlement in 1788.
Japan's major export industries include automobiles, consumer electronics, computers, semiconductors, copper, iron and steel.
The Toyota Camry (XV10) is a mid-size car that was produced by Toyota between 1991 and 1996 in Japan and North America, and 1993 and 1997 in Australia. The XV10 series represented the third generation of the Toyota Camry in all markets outside Japan, which followed a different generational lineage. The XV10 Camry range is split into different model codes indicative of the engine. Four-cylinder models use the SXV10/SDV10 codes, with VCV10 designating the six-cylinder versions, and MCV10 the later six-cylinder cars in North America only.
Toyota Australia is a subsidiary of Toyota Motor Corporation, which is based in Japan. It markets Toyota products and manages motorsport, advertising and business operations for Toyota in Australia. It is also responsible for Lexus vehicles in Australia.
United Australian Automobile Industries (UAAI) was an automobile model sharing firm that operated in Australia between 1987 and 1996 as the result of an agreement between Holden and Toyota Australia. The joint venture resulted in the two companies sharing production of locally produced automobiles by selling their models under both brands.
Industry in Ghana accounts for about 25.3% of total GDP. However, Ghana's industrial production is rising at a 7.8% rate, giving it the 38th fastest growing industrial production in the world due to government industrialization policies.
A substantial car industry was created in Australia in the 20th century through the opening of Australian plants by international manufacturers. The first major carmaker was Ford Australia and the first Australian-designed mass production car was manufactured by Holden in 1948. Australian manufacture of cars rose to a maximum of almost half a million in the 1970s and still exceeded 400,000 in 2004. Australia was best known for the design and production of 'large' sized passenger vehicles. By 2009 total production had fallen to around 175,000 and the Australian market was dominated by cars imported from Asia and Europe.
The automotive industry in South Korea is the sixth-largest in the world measured by automobile unit production and the fifth-largest by automobile export volume.
The automotive industry in Japan is one of the most prominent and largest industries in the world. Japan has been in the top three of the countries with most cars manufactured since the 1960s, surpassing Germany. The automotive industry in Japan rapidly increased from the 1970s to the 1990s and in the 1980s and 1990s, overtook the U.S. as the production leader with up to 13 million cars per year manufactured and significant exports. After massive ramp-up by China in the 2000s and fluctuating U.S. output, Japan is now currently the third largest automotive producer in the world with an annual production of 9.9 million automobiles in 2012. Japanese investments helped grow the auto industry in many countries throughout the last few decades.
The share of the industry of Colombia in the country's gross domestic product (GDP) has shifted significantly in the last few decades. Data from the World Bank show that between 1965 and 1989 the share of industry—including construction, manufacturing, and mining—increased from 27 percent to 38 percent of GDP. However, since then the share has fallen considerably, down to approximately 29 percent of GDP in 2007. This pattern is about the average for middle-income countries.
As of 2017, the Thailand automotive industry was the largest in Southeast Asia and the 12th largest in the world. The Thailand industry has an annual output of near two million vehicles, more than countries such as Belgium, the United Kingdom, Italy, Czech Republic, and Turkey.
Industry of Croatia plays an important role in the country's economy. It has a longstanding tradition based since the 19th century on agriculture, forestry and mining. Many industrial branches developed at that time, like wood industry, food manufacturing, potash production, shipbuilding, leather and footwear production, textile industry, and others. Today, the industrial sectors in Croatia are food and beverage industry, metal processing and machine industry, including vehicles (20%), coke and refined petroleum production (17%), chemical, pharmaceutical, rubber and plastics industry (11%), wood, furniture and paper manufacturing (9%), electrical equipment, electronics and optics fabrication (9%), textile, clothing and footwear industry (5%) as well as construction and building materials production (5%).