The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to Australia .
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.
Aquaculture in Australia, Australia, Australian archaeology, Australian birds, Australian Book of Memories, Australian Capital Territory, Australian Constitutional history, Australian cuisine, Australian Dollar, Australian electoral system, Australian English, Australian fauna, Australian Fellowship of Faith Churches and Ministers International, Australian flora, Australian Football League, Australian hardcore, Australian House of Representatives, Australian Labor Party, Australian literature, Australian nationality law, Australian public holidays, Australian rules football, Australian Senate, States and territories of Australia, Assange, Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Aquaculture in Australia is the country's fastest growing primary industry, accounting for 34% of the total gross value of production of seafood. 10 species of fish are farmed in Australia, and production is dominated by southern bluefin tuna, Atlantic salmon and barramundi. Mud crabs have also been cultivated in Australia for many years, sometimes leading to over-exploitation. Traditionally, this aquaculture was limited to pearls, but since the early 1970s, there has been significant research and commercial development of other forms of aquaculture, including finfish, crustaceans, and molluscs.
Australian archaeology is a large sub-field in the discipline of archaeology. Archaeology in Australia takes three main forms, Aboriginal archaeology, historical archaeology and maritime archaeology. Bridging these sub-disciplines is the important concept of cultural heritage management which encompasses Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander sites, historical sites and maritime sites.
The Australian Book of Memories aims to preserve the memories of people who have died who have been part of Australia. Entries in the Australian Book of Memories are written by the family and friends who want to ensure that there is an enduring record of that person. The entries include so-called ordinary people as well as well-known individuals. The entries can include personal histories or biographies but they can also capture the spirit of what those people meant to the people left behind.
Banksia, Belfast Coastal Reserve, Belinda (film), Bill Hayden, Black Saturday bushfires (February 2009 in Victoria), Bland Oak, Bob Hawke, Brisbane, Brisbane Internet Exchange, Mosie Burton
Banksia is a genus of around 170 species in the plant family Proteaceae. These Australian wildflowers and popular garden plants are easily recognised by their characteristic flower spikes and fruiting "cones" and heads. Banksias range in size from prostrate woody shrubs to trees up to 30 metres tall. They are found in a wide variety of landscapes; sclerophyll forest, (occasionally) rainforest, shrubland, and some more arid landscapes, though not in Australia's deserts.
Belfast Coastal Reserve is a narrow belt of public land on the Shipwreck Coast about 300 kilometres south-west of Melbourne in the State of Victoria, Australia. Stretching 22 kilometres from Levys Point Reserve at Warrnambool in the east, to Belfast Lough at Port Fairy in the west, it comprises rocky reefs, sandy beaches, coastal dunes, salt marshes and estuaries.
William George Hayden is a former Australian politician who served as the 21st Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1989 to 1996. He had earlier been leader of the Labor Party from 1977 to 1983, as well as serving as a cabinet minister in the Whitlam and Hawke Governments.
Campdrafting, Canberra, Carbon capture and storage in Australia, Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, Chain Valley Colliery, Cinema of Australia, City West Housing, Climate change in Australia, Coal in Australia, Coal mining in Australia, Commonwealth Heritage, Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, Communications in Australia, Contribution to global warming by Australia, Council of Australian Humanist Societies, Convicts, Culture of Australia,
Campdrafting is a unique Australian sport involving a horse and rider working cattle. The riding style is Australian stock, somewhat akin to American Western riding and the event is similar to the American stock horse events such as cutting, working cow horse, team penning, and ranch sorting.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 410,301, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory, 280 km (170 mi) south-west of Sydney, and 660 km (410 mi) north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran. Although Canberra is the capital and seat of government, many federal government ministries have secondary seats in state capital cities, as do the Governor-General and the Prime Minister.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an approach to try to mitigate global warming by capturing carbon dioxide CO
2 from large point sources such as fossil fuel power plants and storing it instead of releasing it into the atmosphere. Carbon capture and storage is also used to sequester CO
2 filtered out of natural gas from certain from natural gas fields. While typically the CO
2 has no value after being stored, Enhanced Oil Recovery uses CO
2 to increase yield from declining oil fields.
Demographics of Australia, Deserts of Australia, Don Bradman, Drought in Australia
Named deserts of Australia cover 1,371,000 square kilometres (529,000 sq mi), or 18% of the Australian mainland. However, approximately 35% of the Australian continent receives so little rain it is effectively desert. The deserts in Australia are primarily distributed throughout the western plateau and interior lowlands of the country.
Sir Donald George Bradman, AC, often referred to as "The Don", was an Australian international cricketer, widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman of all time. Bradman's career Test batting average of 99.94 has been cited as the greatest achievement by any sportsman in any major sport.
Drought in Australia is defined by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology as rainfall over a three-month period being in the lowest decile of what has been recorded for that region in the past. This definition takes into account that drought is a relative term and rainfall deficiencies need to be compared to typical rainfall patterns including seasonal variations. Specifically, drought in Australia is defined in relation to a rainfall deficiency of pastoral leases and is determined by decile analysis applied to a certain area. Note that this definition uses rainfall only because long-term records are widely available across most of Australia. However, it does not take into account other variables that might be important for establishing surface water balance, such as evaporation and condensation.
Economy of Australia, Effects of global warming on Australia, Electoral systems of the Australian states and territories, Energy policy of Australia, Energy Sources in Victoria, Environment of Australia, Eucalyptus
Fairfield Showground, Feed-in tariffs in Australia, Foreign relations of Australia, Forests of Australia
Garnaut Climate Change Review, Gender inequality in Australia, Geography of Australia, Geology of Australia, Geothermal energy exploration in Central Australia, Governor-General of Australia, Grand Final, Great Barrier Reef
High Court of Australia, Histology Group of Victoria, History of Australia, History of Australia before 1901, History of Australia since 1901, History of Western Australia, Hospitals, Hobart, Human rights in Australia
IDS Enterprise Systems, Indigenous Australians, List of Australian inventions, Indonesia Project (ANU), ITCRA.
John Howard, John Kerin, John Dawkins, John Dawkins (South Australian politician), Julia Gillard
Kangaroo, Kangaroo paw, Kevin Rudd
Australian Labor Party, Liberal Party of Australia, List of Australians in international prisons, List of cities in Australia, List of people who have walked across Australia, List of political parties in Australia, List of proposed coal-fired power stations in Australia, list of cities and towns in South Australia, List of Western Australian towns, List of wind farms in Australia, List of wettest known tropical cyclones in Australia
Major Street-basketball Foundation, Melaleuca, Melbourne, Melocco and Moore, Metrication in Australia, Michael Jeffery, Military of Australia, Mining in Australia, Mitigation of global warming in Australia, Monkey Mia, Music of Australia
National Party of Australia, Native Plants, Newcastle, New South Wales, North Australia, Northern Territory, NSW Minerals Council
One Nation Party
Paul Keating, Pauline Hanson's One Nation, Parliament of Australia, Perth, Photovoltaic engineering in Australia, Pipeline Authority Act, Plants, Politics of Australia, Prime Minister of Australia, Prisons, Prospect Hill, Protected areas of Australia
Queensland, Queensland Telugu Association
Renewable energy commercialization in Australia, Renewable energy in Australia, Republicanism in Australia, Revenue stamps of Australia, Revenue stamps of the Australian Capital Territory, Revenue stamps of New South Wales, Revenue stamps of the Northern Territory, Revenue stamps of Queensland, Revenue stamps of South Australia, Revenue stamps of Tasmania, Revenue stamps of Victoria, Revenue stamps of Western Australia, Road transport in Australia
SAFTAG, Site of Ficus superba var. henneana tree, South Australia, Sydney, Sydney Central Courier, Schapelle Corby, Solar Cities in Australia, Solar hot water in Australia, Solar power in Australia, Solar power plants in Central Australia, Solar power station in Victoria, Solar thermal energy in Australia, Seafood in Australia
Taronga Zoo, Tasmania, Television in Australia, Time in Australia, Thomas Keneally, Transportation in Australia, Tent boxing
Victoria, Visa policy of Australia, Visa requirements for Australian citizens
Water security in Australia, Western Australia, Whaling in Australia, Wind power in Australia, Wind power in South Australia, Wollongong
Wind power is one of the main renewable energy sources in Australia. In 2018, wind power accounted for 7.1% of Australia's total electricity demand and 33.5% of total renewable energy supply. As of December 2018, there were 5,679 megawatt (MW) of installed wind power capacity and a further 19,602 MW of capacity was proposed or committed to the electricity sector in Australia. At the end of 2018 there were 94 wind farms in Australia, most of which had turbines from 1.5 to 3 MW. In addition, 24 projects with a combined installed capacity of 6,130 MW are either under construction or committed to be built in 2019 having reached financial closure. Australian wind power to grid peaked at 4 GW in February 2019.
AGL Energy Ltd is an Australian listed public company involved in both the generation and retailing of electricity and gas for residential and commercial use.
Solar power in Australia is a growing industry. As of January 2019, Australia had over 11,085 MW of installed photovoltaic (PV) solar power, of which 3,871 MW were installed in the preceding 12 months. In 2017, 23 solar PV projects with a combined installed capacity of 2,034 MW were either under construction, constructed or due to start construction having reached financial closure. PV accounted for 3.8% of Australia's electrical energy production in 2017.
The energy policy of Australia is subject to the regulatory and fiscal influence of all three levels of government in Australia, although only the State and Federal levels determine policy for primary industries such as coal.
Renewable energy in Australia deals with efforts that have been and continue to be made in Australia to quantify and expand the use of renewable energy in the generation of electricity, as fuel in transport and in thermal energy. Renewable energy is created through electricity generation using renewable sources, such as wind, hydro, landfill gas, geothermal, solar PV and solar thermal.
Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years. First-generation technologies, which are already mature and economically competitive, include biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal power and heat. Second-generation technologies are market-ready and are being deployed at the present time; they include solar heating, photovoltaics, wind power, solar thermal power stations, and modern forms of bioenergy. Third-generation technologies require continued R&D efforts in order to make large contributions on a global scale and include advanced biomass gasification, hot-dry-rock geothermal power, and ocean energy. As of 2012, renewable energy accounts for about half of new nameplate electrical capacity installed and costs are continuing to fall.
The merit order is a way of ranking available sources of energy, especially electrical generation, based on ascending order of price together with amount of energy that will be generated. In a centralized management, the ranking is so that those with the lowest marginal costs are the first ones to be brought online to meet demand, and the plants with the highest marginal costs are the last to be brought on line. Dispatching generation in this way minimizes the cost of production of electricity. Sometimes generating units must be started out of merit order, due to transmission congestion, system reliability or other reasons.
Fossil fuel phase out refers to the discontinuation of the use of fossil fuels, through the decommissioning of operating fossil fuel-fired power plants, the prevention of the construction of new ones, and the use of alternative energy to replace the role of fossil fuels.
Climate change in Australia has been a critical issue since the beginning of the 21st century. In 2013, the CSIRO released a report stating that Australia is becoming hotter, and that it will experience more extreme heat and longer fire seasons because of climate change. In 2014, the Bureau of Meteorology released a report on the state of Australia's climate that highlighted several key points, including the significant increase in Australia's temperatures and the increasing frequency of bush fires, droughts and floods, which have all been linked to climate change.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Australia:
Queensland's energy policy is based on the year 2000 document called the Queensland Energy Policy: A Cleaner Energy Strategy. The Queensland Government assists energy development through the Department of Energy and Water Supply. The state is noted for its significant contribution to coal mining in Australia. The primary fuel for electricity generation in the state is coal with coal seam gas becoming a significant fuel source. Queensland has 98% of Australia's reserves of coal seam gas. An expansion of energy-intensive industries such as mining, economic growth and population growth have created increased demand for energy in Queensland.
Mitigation of global warming involves taking actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to enhance sinks aimed at reducing the extent of global warming. This is in distinction to adaptation to global warming, which involves taking action to minimise the effects of global warming. Scientific consensus on global warming, together with the precautionary principle and the fear of non-linear climate transitions, is leading to increased effort to develop new technologies and sciences and carefully manage others in an attempt to mitigate global warming.
The Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) performs an array of gas and electricity market, operational, development and planning functions. It manages the National Electricity Market (NEM) and the Victorian gas transmission network. AEMO also facilitates electricity and gas full retail contestability, overseeing these retail markets in eastern and southern Australia. It is additionally responsible for national transmission planning for electricity and the establishment of a Short Term Trading Market (STTM) for gas.
Energy in Australia is the production in Australia of energy and electricity, for consumption or export. Energy policy of Australia describes the politics of Australia as it relates to energy.
The distinct ways of electricity generation can incur significantly different costs. Calculations of these costs can be made at the point of connection to a load or to the electricity grid. The cost is typically given per kilowatt-hour or megawatt-hour. It includes the initial capital, discount rate, as well as the costs of continuous operation, fuel, and maintenance. This type of calculation assists policymakers, researchers and others to guide discussions and decision making.
Solar power in South Africa includes photovoltaics (PV) as well as concentrated solar power (CSP). In 2016, South Africa had 1,329 MW of installed solar power capacity. Installed capacity is expected to reach 8,400 MW by 2030.
The electricity sector in Australia is historically dominated by coal-fired power stations, but renewables are forming a rapidly growing fraction of supply.