Australian Government

Last updated

Australian Government
Government of the Commonwealth of Australia
Australian Government - Logo.svg
The monochrome logo and wordmark of the Australian Government, based on the coat of arms of Australia
Overview
Established1 January 1901;123 years ago (1901-01-01)
Country Australia
Leader Prime Minister: Anthony Albanese
Appointed by Governor-General: David Hurley
Main organ
Ministries 16 government departments
Responsible to Parliament of Australia
Annual budget$644.8 billion (2022–23) [1]
HeadquartersCanberra
Website https://www.directory.gov.au

The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The government consists of the parliamentary members of the party or coalition that currently has the support of a majority of members of the House of Representatives and in some contexts also includes the departments and other executive bodies ministers oversee. [2] The current government consists of Anthony Albanese and other Australian Labor Party parliamentarians, in place since the 2022 federal election.

Contents

The prime minister is the head of the government. [3] They are formally appointed to the role by the governor-general (the King's representative), however their decision is normally limited to selecting the parliamentary leader who has the support of a majority of members in the House of Representatives. [4] [5] By convention, the prime minister must also be a member of the House. [3]

Other key members of the government include cabinet ministers (who head government departments), junior ministers, parliamentary secretaries and government backbenchers. [2] The prime minister and cabinet ministers form the Cabinet, the key decision-making organ of the government that forms policy and decides the agenda of the government. [6] Members of the government can exercise both legislative power (through their control of the Parliament) and executive power (as ministers). However, in accordance with responsible government, this also requires the actions of the government in its executive capacity to be subject to scrutiny from non-government members of the Parliament. [6]

The government is based in the nation's capital, Canberra, in the Australian Capital Territory. The head offices of all sixteen federal departments lie in Canberra, along with Parliament House and the High Court. [7] [8] The government must act in accordance with law and the Australian Constitution.

In exercising executive power, government ministers formally exercise power on behalf of the King of Australia, in which the executive power is vested. [9] [10]

Name

The name of the government in the Constitution of Australia is the "Government of the Commonwealth". [11] This and terms such as "Commonwealth Government" were used by the government itself until the Whitlam government implemented a policy of using the term "Government of Australia" as a means of blurring the distinctions between state and Commonwealth governments in an attempt to increase federal power. [12] [13]

In other contexts, the term "government" refers to all public agencies that exercise the power of the State, whether legislative, executive or judicial. [14]

Executive power

The government's primary role, in its executive capacity, is to implement the laws passed by the Parliament. However, laws are frequently drafted according to the interests of the executive branch as the government often also controls the legislative branch.

Unlike the other two branches of government, however, membership of the executive is not clearly defined. One definition describes the executive as a pyramid, consisting of three layers. At the top stands The King, as the symbolic apex and formal repository of executive power. Below him lies a second layer made up of the prime minister, Cabinet and other ministers who in practice lead the executive. Finally, the bottom layer includes public servants, police, government departments and independent statutory bodies who directly implement policy and laws. [15] [16]

Executive power is also difficult to clearly define. In the British context, it was defined by John Locke as all government power not legislative or judicial in nature. [17] The key distinction is that while legislative power involves setting down rules of general application, executive power involves applying those rules to specific situations. In practice, however, this definition is difficult to apply as many actions by executive agencies are wide-ranging, binding and conducted independently of Parliament. The executive can also be delegated legislative power through provisions allowing for statutory instruments and Henry VIII clauses. [18] Ultimately whether power is executive or legislative is determined on a case-by-case basis, and involves the weighing up of various factors, rather than the application of a strict test. [19]

As most executive power is granted by statute, the executive power of the government is similarly limited to those areas in which the Commonwealth is granted the power to legislate under the Constitution (primarily under section 51). They also retain certain powers traditionally part of the royal prerogative, such as the power to declare war and enter into treaties. Finally, there exists certain "nationhood powers", implied from section 61 of the Constitution. [20] These were defined by High Court Justice Anthony Mason, as powers "peculiarly adapted to the government of a nation and which cannot otherwise be carried on for the benefit of the nation". [21] They have been found to include the power to provide financial stimulus payments to households during a financial crisis [22] and the power to prevent "unlawful non-citizens" from entering the country. [23]

There are times when the government acts in a caretaker capacity, principally in the period before and immediately following a general election. [24]

The role of the King and the governor-general

The King is not involved with the day-to-day operations of the government, [25] belonging (according to the Bagehot formulation) to the "dignified" rather than the "efficient" part of government. [26] [27] While the executive power of the Commonwealth is formally vested in the monarch, the Constitution requires those powers to be exercisable by a governor-general, appointed by the monarch as their representative [28] (but since the appointing of Sir Isaacs Isaacs in 1931, always appointed according to the advice of federal ministers, rather than British ministers). [29] Members of the government do not exercise executive power of their own accord but are instead appointed by the governor-general as ministers, formally as the "Queen's [or King's] Ministers of State". [30] As such, while government ministers make most major decisions in Cabinet, those decisions do not have legal force until approved by the Federal Executive Council, which is presided over by the governor-general.

Similarly, laws passed by both houses of parliament require royal assent before being enacted, as the monarch is a constituent part of the Parliament. [31]

However, in all these cases, except for certain reserve powers, the King and the governor-general must follow the advice of the prime minister or other ministers in the exercise of his powers. [32] Reserve powers are rarely exercised, with the most notable example of their use occurring in the Dismissal of 1975. In that case, the Governor-General Sir John Kerr dismissed the prime minister and government due to his conclusion that the government had failed to secure supply. [33] [34] The validity of the use of the powers during that event remain highly contested.

Executive council

The Federal Executive Council is a formal body that exists and meets to give legal effect to decisions made by the Cabinet and to carry out various other functions. All ministers are members of the council and are entitled to be styled The Honourable , a style which they retain for life. The governor-general usually presides at council meetings, but in his or her absence another minister nominated as the Vice-President of the Executive Council presides at the meeting of the council. [35] Since 1 June 2022, the vice-president of the Federal Executive Council has been Senator Katy Gallagher. [36]

Cabinet

The Cabinet of Australia is the de facto highest executive body of the government. It consists of the prime minister and senior ministers and makes most of the important policy decisions of the government. Members of the Cabinet are selected by the prime minister and may be added or removed at any time, usually through a cabinet reshuffle. [37] Cabinet meetings are strictly private and occur once a week where vital issues are discussed and policy formulated. Outside the cabinet there is an outer ministry and also several junior ministers, called Parliamentary Secretaries, responsible for a specific policy area and reporting directly to a senior Cabinet minister. [38]

The Constitution of Australia does not recognise the Cabinet as a legal entity; it exists solely by convention. Its decisions do not in and of themselves have legal force. However, it serves as the practical expression of the Federal Executive Council, which is Australia's highest formal governmental body. In practice, the Federal Executive Council meets solely to endorse and give legal force to decisions already made by the Cabinet. [39] All members of the Cabinet are members of the Executive Council. A senior member of the Cabinet holds the office of vice-president of the Executive Council and acts as presiding officer of the Executive Council in the absence of the governor-general. [40]

Until 1956 all members of the ministry were members of the Cabinet. The growth of the ministry in the 1940s and 1950s made this increasingly impractical, and in 1956 Robert Menzies created a two-tier ministry, with only senior ministers holding Cabinet rank, also known within parliament as the front bench. This practice has been continued by all governments except the Whitlam government. [38]

The prime minister makes all Cabinet and ministerial appointments at their discretion, although in practice they consult with senior colleagues in making appointments. When the Liberal Party and its predecessors (the Nationalist Party and the United Australia Party) have been in coalition with the National Party or its predecessor the Country Party, the leader of the junior Coalition party has had the right to nominate their party's members of the Coalition ministry, and to be consulted by the prime minister on the allocation of their portfolios. [37]

When Labor first held office under Chris Watson, Watson assumed the right to choose members of his Cabinet. In 1907, however, the party decided that future Labor Cabinets would be elected by the members of the Parliamentary Labor Party, the Caucus, and the prime minister would retain the right to allocate portfolios. This practice was followed until 2007. Between 1907 and 2007, Labor prime ministers exercised a predominant influence over who was elected to Labor ministries, although the leaders of the party factions also exercised considerable influence. [41] Prior to the 2007 general election, the then Leader of the Opposition, Kevin Rudd, said that he and he alone would choose the ministry should he become prime minister. His party won the election and he chose the ministry, as he said he would. [42]

The cabinet meets not only in Canberra but also in state capitals, most frequently Sydney and Melbourne. Kevin Rudd was in favour of the Cabinet meeting in other places, such as major regional cities. [43] There are Commonwealth Parliament Offices in each state capital, with those in Sydney located in 1 Bligh Street. [44]

Departments

As of 27 November 2023, there are 16 departments of the Australian Government. [45]

Additionally, there are four departments which support the Parliament of Australia: [46]

Publicly owned entities

Corporations prescribed by acts of parliament

The following corporations are prescribed by Acts of Parliament:

Government Business Enterprises

As of March 2021, the following Corporate Commonwealth entities are prescribed as Government Business Enterprises (GBEs) by section 5(1) of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (PGPA) Rule: [50] [51]

The following Commonwealth companies are prescribed as GBEs by section 5(2) of the PGPA Rule: [50]

Other public non-financial corporations

See also

    Related Research Articles

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Governor-General of Australia</span> Representative of the monarch of Australia

    The governor-general of Australia is the representative of the monarch of Australia, currently King Charles III, and performs many constitutional, ceremonial and community roles in the Australian political system. When performing these roles, the governor-general acts independently and is not the King's delegate or agent. The current governor-general is David Hurley, having been appointed on 1 July 2019.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Prime minister</span> Top minister of cabinet and government

    A prime minister or chief of cabinet is the head of the cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. Under those systems, a prime minister is not the head of state, but rather the head of government, serving as the principal administrator under either a monarch in a monarchy or a president in a republican form of government.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Prime Minister of Australia</span> Head of government of Australia

    The prime minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia. The prime minister heads the executive branch of the federal government of Australia and is accountable to federal parliament under the principles of responsible government. The prime minister is the chair of the federal cabinet and the national cabinet and a member of the federal executive council. The current prime minister is Anthony Albanese of the Australian Labor Party, who assumed the office on 23 May 2022.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Westminster system</span> Parliamentary system of government

    The Westminster system, or Westminster model, is a type of parliamentary government that incorporates a series of procedures for operating a legislature, first developed in England. Key aspects of the system include an executive branch made up of members of the legislature, and that is responsible to the legislature; the presence of parliamentary opposition parties; and a ceremonial head of state who is separate from the head of government. The term derives from the Palace of Westminster, which has been the seat of the Westminster Parliament in England and later the United Kingdom since the 13th century. The Westminster system is often contrasted with the presidential system that originated in the United States, or with the semi-presidential system, based on the government of France.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Australian House of Representatives</span> Lower house of the Parliament of Australia

    The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the upper house being the Senate. Its composition and powers are set down in Chapter I of the Constitution of Australia.

    In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power, also known as discretionary power, is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch or part of the government. Unlike in a presidential system of government, the head of state is generally constrained by the cabinet or the legislature in a parliamentary system, and most reserve powers are usable only in certain exceptional circumstances.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Parliament of Australia</span> Legislative branch of Australian government

    The Parliament of Australia is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Australia. It consists of three elements: the monarch, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The combination of two elected chambers, in which the members of the Senate represent the states and territories while the members of the House represent electoral divisions according to population, is modelled on the United States Congress. Through both chambers, however, there is a fused executive, drawn from the Westminster system.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Executive Council of New Zealand</span>

    The Executive Council of New Zealand is the full group of "responsible advisers" to the governor-general, who advise on state and constitutional affairs. All government ministers must be appointed as executive councillors before they are appointed as ministers; therefore all members of Cabinet are also executive councillors. The governor-general signs a warrant of appointment for each member of the Executive Council, and separate warrants for each ministerial portfolio.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly</span> Unicameral legislature of the Australian Capital Territory

    The Legislative Assembly for the Australian Capital Territory is the unicameral legislature of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). It sits in the Legislative Assembly Building on Civic Square, close to the centre of the city of Canberra.

    The Cabinet of Australia, also known as the Federal Cabinet, is the chief decision-making body of the executive branch of the federal government of Australia. The cabinet is appointed by the prime minister of Australia and is composed of senior government ministers who head the executive departments and ministries of the federal government, this often includes assistant ministers and a number of special envoys and other government advisors. The cabinet is separate to the federal Department of the Prime Ministers and Cabinet.

    The Government of Canada is the body responsible for the federal administration of Canada. The term Government of Canada refers specifically to the executive, which includes ministers of the Crown and the federal civil service ; it is alternatively known as His Majesty's Government and is corporately branded as the Government of Canada. There are over 100 departments and agencies, as well as over 300,000 persons employed in the Government of Canada. These institutions carry out the programs and enforce the laws established by the Parliament of Canada.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Federal Executive Council (Australia)</span> Formal body exercising executive authority of the Commonwealth of Australia

    The Federal Executive Council is a statutory body established by section 62 of the Australian Constitution to advise the Governor-General of Australia, on the matters of the federal government. The council comprises, at least notionally, all current and former Commonwealth ministers and assistant ministers. As the Governor-General is bound by convention to follow the advice of the Executive Council on almost all occasions, the Executive Council has de jure executive power. In practice, this power is used to legally enact the decisions already made by Federal Cabinet, due to the practices of the Westminster system making the cabinet a de jure authority in its own right.

    The Government of South Australia, also referred to as the South Australian Government or the SA Government is the executive branch of the state of South Australia. It is modelled on the Westminster system, meaning that the highest ranking members of the executive are drawn from an elected state parliament. Specifically the party or coalition which holds a majority of the House of Assembly.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Queensland Government</span> State Government of Queensland

    The Queensland Government or the Government of Queensland is the executive branch of the Australian state of Queensland. The executive is chosen from the party or coalition that has gained a majority in the Queensland Legislative Assembly and has been appointed by the governor to form a government. They govern the parliamentary constitutional monarchy of the Australian state of Queensland through passing laws in the Legislative Assembly and through executive actions taken as ministers. The first government of Queensland was formed in 1859 when Queensland separated from New South Wales under a new Constitution, which has now been amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Queensland has been a state of Australia, with the Constitution of Australia regulating the relationships between all state and territory governments and the Australian Government. Under the Australian Constitution, all states ceded powers relating to certain matters to the federal government.

    The Government of New South Wales, also known as the NSW Government, is the executive branch of the Australian state of New South Wales, and is empowered by the state Constitution. Since Federation in 1901, New South Wales has been a state of Australia, and the federal Constitution regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, all states ceded legislative and judicial supremacy, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth.

    The separation of powers in Australia is the division of the institutions of the Australian government into legislative, executive and judicial branches. This concept is where legislature makes the laws, the executive put the laws into operation, and the judiciary interprets the laws; all independently of each other. The term, and its occurrence in Australia, is due to the text and structure of the Australian Constitution, which derives its influences from democratic concepts embedded in the Westminster system, the doctrine of "responsible government" and the United States version of the separation of powers. However, due to the conventions of the Westminster system, a strict separation of powers is not always evident in the Australian political system, with little separation between the executive and the legislature, with the executive required to be drawn from, and maintain the confidence of, the legislature; a fusion.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Politics of Australia</span> Political system of Australia

    The politics of Australia operates under the written Australian Constitution, which sets out Australia as a constitutional monarchy, governed via a parliamentary democracy in the Westminster tradition. Australia is also a federation, where power is divided between the federal government and the states and territories. The monarch, currently King Charles III, is the head of state and is represented locally by the Governor-General of Australia, while the head of government is the Prime Minister of Australia, currently Anthony Albanese.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Monarchy of Australia</span> Key institution of the Commonwealth of Australia

    The monarchy of Australia is a key component of Australia's form of government, embodied by the Australian sovereign and head of state. The Australian monarchy is a constitutional one, modelled on the Westminster system of parliamentary government, while incorporating features unique to the constitution of Australia.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">New Zealand Government</span> Central government of New Zealand

    The New Zealand Government is the central government through which political authority is exercised in New Zealand. As in most other parliamentary democracies, the term "Government" refers chiefly to the executive branch, and more specifically to the collective ministry directing the executive. Based on the principle of responsible government, it operates within the framework that "the [King] reigns, but the government rules, so long as it has the support of the House of Representatives". The Cabinet Manual describes the main laws, rules and conventions affecting the conduct and operation of the Government.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitution of Australia</span> Supreme law of Australia

    The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law of Australia. It is a written constitution that sets down the political structure of Australia as a federation under a constitutional monarchy governed with a parliamentary system and outlines the structure and powers of the Commonwealth of Australia's three constituent parts: the executive, legislature, and judiciary.

    References

    1. Australian Government (May 2023). "Budget 2023-24: Stronger foundations for a better future" (PDF). p. 66.
    2. 1 2 "Government". Parliamentary Education Office. Australian Government. 13 October 2023.
    3. 1 2 "Prime Minister". Parliamentary Education Office. 31 October 2023.
    4. "About the House of Representatives". Parliament of Australia. Archived from the original on 12 March 2023. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
    5. "The role of the Governor-General". The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia . Archived from the original on 27 February 2023.
    6. 1 2 "Cabinet". Parliamentary Education Office. 10 November 2023.
    7. "Australian Capital Territory". Study Australia. Australian Trade and Investment Commission. Archived from the original on 26 May 2020.
    8. "Contact us". High Court of Australia. High Court of Australia. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020 via National Library of Australia.
    9. "Ministers and shadow ministers". Parliamentary Education Office. 10 November 2023.
    10. Constitution (Cth) s 61
    11. Constitution of Australia (Cth) s 4
    12. Twomey, Anne (2006). The Chameleon Crown. Sydney: Federation Press. p. 113 via Internet Archive.
    13. "The term "Australian Government"" . Australian Law Journal . 48 (1): 1. 1974 via Westlaw.
    14. Quick, John; Garran, Robert (1901). The Annotated Constitution of the Australian Commonwealth. Sydney: Angus & Robertson. p. 699 via Internet Archive.
    15. "Separation of powers: Parliament, Executive and Judiciary". Parliamentary Education Office. Archived from the original on 31 October 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
    16. Appleby, Gabrielle (14 September 2023). "Explainer: what is executive government and what does it have to do with the Voice to Parliament?". UNSW Newsroom. University of New South Wales . Retrieved 14 November 2023.
    17. Moore, Cameroon (2017). Crown and Sword: Executive Power and the Use of Force by the Australian Defence Force. Canberra: ANU Press. p. 10. doi: 10.22459/CS.11.2017 . ISBN   9781760461553. JSTOR   j.ctt1zgwk12.6.
    18. "Inappropriate Delegation of Legislative Power". Parliament of Australia. September 2008. ISBN   978-0-642-71951-5 . Retrieved 27 November 2023.
    19. Greentree, Catherine Dale (2020). "The Commonwealth Executive Power: Historical Constitutional Origins and the Future of the Prerogative" (PDF). University of New South Wales Law Journal. 43 (3). doi:10.53637/GJLF5868.
    20. Stephenson, Peta (2018). "Nationhood and Section 61 of the Constitution" (PDF). University of Western Australia Law Review. 43 (2) via Austlii.
    21. Victoria v Commonwealth [1975] HCA 52 at para 19 of Mason J's opinion, (1975) 134 CLR 338
    22. Pape v Commissioner of Taxation [2009] HCA 23 , (2009) 238 CLR 1
    23. Ruddock v Vadarlis [2001] FCA 1329 , (2001) 110 FCR 491(18 September 2001), Federal Court (Full Court) (Australia)
    24. "The Caretaker Conventions in Australia" (PDF). Australian Prime Ministers Centre: Prime Minister Facts. Museum of Australian Democracy (63).
    25. "Infosheet 20 - The Australian system of government". Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
    26. Bagehot, Walter (1895). The English constitution: and Other Political Essays. New York: Appleton & Company. OL   24399357M .
    27. Pyke, John (2020). Government powers under a Federal Constitution: Constitutional Law in Australia (2nd ed.). Pyrmont, NSW: Lawbook Co (Thomas Reuters). pp. 283–6. ISBN   978-0-455-24415-0.
    28. Constitution (Cth) s 62
    29. Wright, B. C.; Fowler, P. E., eds. (June 2018). "Governor-General". House of Representatives Practice (PDF) (7th ed.). Canberra, Australia: Department of the House of Representatives. p. 2. ISBN   978-1-74366-654-8.
    30. Constitution of Australia (Cth) s 64
    31. Constitution (Cth) s 1; Constitution (Cth) s 58
    32. "Who has more power, the Governor-General or the Prime Minister?". The Parliamentary Education Office (PEO). Archived from the original on 25 March 2023. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
    33. "What are reserve powers?". The Parliamentary Education Office (PEO). Archived from the original on 12 March 2023. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
    34. "Reserve Powers and the Whitlam dismissal". Rule of Law Education Centre. Archived from the original on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
    35. "Federal Executive Council Handbook 2021" (PDF). Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet of Australia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2023. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
    36. "Senator Katy Gallagher, ACT". OpenAustralia.org. OpenAustralia Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 March 2023. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
    37. 1 2 "Cabinet". House of Representatives Practice (7th edition). Parliament of Australia. June 2018. Archived from the original on 12 March 2023. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
    38. 1 2 York, Barry (24 September 2015). "The Cabinet". Museum of Australian Democracy at Old Parliament House. Archived from the original on 26 June 2023. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
    39. "Why is it that the Prime Minister and Cabinet are not mentioned in the Australian Constitution?". Parliamentary Education Office. Archived from the original on 26 June 2023. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
    40. "Federal Executive Council". House of Representatives Practice (7th edition). Parliament of Australia. June 2018. Archived from the original on 27 June 2023. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
    41. "The Ministry". House of Representatives Practice (7th edition). Parliament of Australia. June 2018. Archived from the original on 28 April 2023. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
    42. Worsley, Ben (11 September 2007). "Rudd seizes power from factions". ABC News . Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007.
    43. "Cutting bureaucracy won't hurt services: Rudd". ABC News . Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 21 November 2007. Archived from the original on 23 November 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
    44. "Commonwealth Parliament Offices (CPOs)". Ministerial and Parliamentary Services. 30 September 2020. Archived from the original on 26 June 2023. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
    45. "Administrative Arrangements Order". Federal Register of Legislation. 14 October 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
    46. "Parliamentary Departments". Parliament of Australia . Parliament of Australia. Archived from the original on 5 June 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021 via National Library of Australia.
    47. Federal Register of Legislation – Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 ' Archived 20 April 2021 at the Wayback Machine '
    48. Federal Register of Legislation – Clean Energy Finance Corporation Act 2012' Archived 26 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine '
    49. Federal Register of Legislation – Special Broadcasting Service Act 1991 ' Archived 20 April 2021 at the Wayback Machine '
    50. 1 2 "Government Business Enterprises | Department of Finance". Australian Government. Archived from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021 via National Library of Australia.
    51. "Paul Fletcher says NBN Co was free to award $77.5m in bonuses under the rules covering government-owned businesses. Is he correct?". ABC News . Gordon, Josh. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 23 March 2021. Archived from the original on 19 May 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)