Outline of Australia

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Location of Australia Australia (orthographic projection).svg
Location of Australia
An enlargeable map of the Commonwealth of Australia Map of Australia.png
An enlargeable map of the Commonwealth of Australia
Continent of Australia showing the continental shelf (light blue) around the mainland extending to the islands of New Guinea and Tasmania Australia New Guinea continent.jpg
Continent of Australia showing the continental shelf (light blue) around the mainland extending to the islands of New Guinea and Tasmania

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Australia:

An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure. An outline is used to present the main points or topics (terms) of a given subject. Each item in an outline may be divided into additional sub-items. If an organizational level in an outline is to be sub-divided, it shall have at least two subcategories, as advised by major style manuals in current use. An outline may be used as a drafting tool of a document, or as a summary of the content of a document or of the knowledge in an entire field. It is not to be confused with the general context of the term "outline", which a summary or overview of a subject, presented verbally or written in prose. The outlines described in this article are lists, and come in several varieties.

Contents

Australia refers to both the continent of Australia and to the Commonwealth of Australia , the sovereign country. Australia, the world's smallest continent, is in the Southern Hemisphere and borders both the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

Australia (continent) Continent on the Earths Southern and Eastern hemispheres

The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental plate. This includes mainland Australia, Tasmania, and the island of New Guinea. Situated in the geographical region of Oceania, it is the smallest of the seven traditional continents in the English conception.

Continent Very large landmass identified by convention

A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in area to smallest, they are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.

The Commonwealth of Australia comprises the mainland of the Australian continent, plus the major island of Tasmania, and other nearby islands. [1] The neighbouring countries are Indonesia, East Timor, and Papua New Guinea to the north, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east.

Tasmania island state of Australia

Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait. The state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, and the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart.

Indonesia Republic in Southeast Asia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

East Timor Country in Maritime Southeast Asia

East Timor or Timor-Leste, officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, is a country in Maritime Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island surrounded by Indonesian West Timor. Australia is the country's southern neighbour, separated by the Timor Sea. The country's size is about 15,410 km2.

The Australian mainland has been inhabited for more than 60,000 years by Indigenous Australians. [2] After sporadic visits by fishermen from the north and then European discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606, [3] the eastern half of Australia was later claimed by the British in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation as part of the colony of New South Wales, commencing on 26 January 1788. As the population grew and new areas were explored, another five largely self-governing Crown colonies were established during the 19th century.

Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers. The earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP.

Dutch people or the Dutch are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a common culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Aruba, Suriname, Guyana, Curaçao, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United States. The Low Countries were situated around the border of France and the Holy Roman Empire, forming a part of their respective peripheries, and the various territories of which they consisted had become virtually autonomous by the 13th century. Under the Habsburgs, the Netherlands were organised into a single administrative unit, and in the 16th and 17th centuries the Northern Netherlands gained independence from Spain as the Dutch Republic. The high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at a relatively early date. During the Republic the first series of large-scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place.

Kingdom of Great Britain constitutional monarchy in Western Europe between 1707–1801

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover.

General reference

An enlargeable basic map of Australia As-map.png
An enlargeable basic map of Australia

Australians are citizens of the Commonwealth of Australia.

Etymology Study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time

Etymology is the study of the history of words. By extension, the term "the etymology " means the origin of the particular word and for place names, there is a specific term, toponymy.

Name of Australia

The name Australia is derived from the Latin australis, meaning "southern", and specifically from the hypothetical Terra Australis postulated in pre-modern geography. The name was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders from 1804, and it has been in official use since 1817, replacing "New Holland" as the name for the continent.

Geography

An enlargeable topographic map of Australia Topography of australia.jpg
An enlargeable topographic map of Australia
Climatic zones in Australia, based on Koppen classification. Australia-climate-map MJC01.png
Climatic zones in Australia, based on Köppen classification.
Extreme points of mainland Australia Australian Map Extremities.svg
Extreme points of mainland Australia

Geography of Australia

Country distinct region in geography; a broad term that can include political divisions or regions associated with distinct political characteristics

A country is a region that is identified as a distinct entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or part of a larger state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. Regardless of the physical geography, in the modern internationally accepted legal definition as defined by the League of Nations in 1937 and reaffirmed by the United Nations in 1945, a resident of a country is subject to the independent exercise of legal jurisdiction. There is no hard and fast definition of what regions are countries and which are not.

Nation state Political term for a state that is based around a nation

A nation state is a state in which the great majority shares the same culture and is conscious of it. The nation state is an ideal in which cultural boundaries match up with political ones. According to one definition, "a nation state is a sovereign state of which most of its subjects are united also by factors which defined a nation such as language or common descent." It is a more precise concept than "country", since a country does not need to have a predominant ethnic group.

Commonwealth realm sovereign state within the Commonwealth of Nations that has Elizabeth II or her successors as its monarch

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in which Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning constitutional monarch and head of state. Each realm is independent from the other realms. As of 2019, there are 16 Commonwealth realms: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and the United Kingdom. All 16 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states. Elizabeth II is Head of the Commonwealth.

Environment

An enlargeable satellite image of Australia Australia.jpg
An enlargeable satellite image of Australia

Environment of Australia

Regions

Multi-state regions

Administrative divisions

Australian external territories Australian external territories.png
Australian external territories

States and territories of Australia

States
Territories
Mainland territories
External territories
Municipalities

Local government in Australia

Demography

Demographics of Australia

State/territoryLand area (km²)RankPopulation (2012) [4] RankPopulation density (/km²)Rank% of population in capitalRank
Flag of New South Wales.svg   New South Wales 800,6425th7,348,9001st9.183rd63.5%5th
Flag of Victoria (Australia).svg   Victoria 227,4166th5,679,6002nd24.972nd74.8%4th
Flag of Queensland.svg   Queensland 1,730,6482nd4,610,9003rd2.665th47.5%7th
Flag of Western Australia.svg   Western Australia 2,529,8751st2,472,7004th0.987th76.7%3rd
Flag of South Australia.svg   South Australia 983,4824th1,662,2005th1.696th76.8%2nd
Flag of Tasmania.svg   Tasmania 68,4017th512,4006th7.494th42.3%8th
Flag of the Australian Capital Territory.svg   Australian Capital Territory 2,3588th379,6007th160.981st98.7%1st
Flag of the Northern Territory.svg   Northern Territory 1,349,1293rd236,9008th0.188th55.6%6th

Government and politics

Political parties in government in 1945.
Labor
Liberal
National/Country
Other Coalition
Other
No government Australian states political.gif
Political parties in government in 1945.
  Labor
  Liberal
  National/Country
  Other Coalition
  Other
  No government

Federal government

Government of Australia

Branches of the government

Separation of powers in Australia

Executive branch
Legislative branch
Judicial branch

Judiciary of Australia

Military

Australian Defence Force

Foreign relations

International organisation membership

The Commonwealth of Australia is a member of the: [1]

Law and order

Law of Australia

State and territory governments

Local government

Local government in Australia

History

Map showing the creation of the colonies/states and mainland territories. Australia history.gif
Map showing the creation of the colonies/states and mainland territories.

History of states

Culture

Culture of Australia

Art

Religion and belief systems in Australia

Sport

Sport in Australia

Economy and infrastructure

Economy of Australia

State economies

Education

States education

See also

Australia

Related Research Articles

Protected areas of Australia

Protected areas of Australia include Commonwealth and off-shore protected areas managed by the Australian government, as well as protected areas within each of the six states of Australia and two self-governing territories, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, which are managed by the eight state and territory governments.

Public holidays in Australia are declared on a state and territory basis.

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to Australia.

Parliaments of the Australian states and territories

The Parliaments of the Australian states and territories are legislative bodies within the federal framework of the Commonwealth of Australia.

Australian vehicle registration plates or number plates are issued by state, territory, and Commonwealth governments, and the armed forces of Australia. The plates are associated with a vehicle and are generally intended to last for the time the vehicle remains registered in the state, though as they become unreadable they may be recalled or replaced with newer ones. Motor vehicle registration in Australia requires to be renewed annually with the payment of the registration fee.

UTC+10:00 Identifier for a time offset from UTC of +10

UTC+10:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +10. This time is used in:

Eastern states of Australia

The eastern states of Australia are the states adjoining the east coast of Australia. These are the mainland states of Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales; the Australian Capital Territory and Jervis Bay Territory, while not states, are also included. The term usually includes the island state of Tasmania. On some occasions, the state of South Australia is included in this grouping.

Time in Australia country with three main time zones

Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, and Australian Eastern Standard Time. Time is regulated by the individual state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones.

States and territories of Australia first-level subdivision of Australia

The states and territories are the first-level administrative divisions of the Commonwealth of Australia. They are the second level of government in Australia, located between the federal and local government tiers.

Territorial evolution of Australia

The first colonies of the British Empire on the continent of Australia were the penal colony of New South Wales, founded in 1787, and the Swan River Colony, founded in 1829. Over the next few decades, the colonies of New Zealand, Queensland, South Australia, Van Diemen's Land, and Victoria were created from New South Wales, as well as an aborted Colony of North Australia. On 1 January 1901, these colonies, excepting New Zealand, became states in the Commonwealth of Australia. Since federation, the internal borders have remained mostly stable, except for the creation of some territories with limited self-government: the Northern Territory from South Australia, to govern the vast, sparsely populated center of the country; the split of the Northern Territory into Central Australia and North Australia, and then the quick merger of those back into the Northern Territory; and the Australian Capital Territory, a federal district ceded from New South Wales.

A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting. The area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia.

Outline of Canada Overview of and topical guide to Canada

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Canada:

Geography of Australia Es el lugar con potencia sexual

The geography of Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic regions being the world's smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in the world. The population of Australia is concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts. The geography of the country is extremely diverse, ranging from the snow-capped mountains of the Australian Alps and Tasmania to large deserts, tropical and temperate forests.

High Commission of Canada in Australia diplomatic mission of Canada to Australia

The High Commission of Canada in Australia is the diplomatic mission of Canada to Australia. It is located on Commonwealth Avenue, near State Circle, in the Australian capital city of Canberra. In addition to responsibility for bilateral relations between Canada and Australia, it is also responsible for relations with several Pacific Island nations, including the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.

Daylight saving time in Australia

The choice of whether to use daylight saving time (DST) in Australia is a matter for the individual states and territories. However, during World War I and World War II all states and territories had daylight saving. In 1968 Tasmania became the first state since the war to practise daylight saving. In 1971, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, and the Australian Capital Territory followed Tasmania by observing daylight saving. Western Australia and the Northern Territory did not. Queensland abandoned daylight saving time in 1972. Queensland and Western Australia have observed daylight saving over the past 40 years from time to time on trial bases.

The Queen's Birthday Honours 2009 were appointments Australian honours system to recognise and reward good works by citizens of Australia and other nations that contribute to Australia. The Birthday Honours are awarded as part of the Queen's Official Birthday celebrations and were announced on 8 June 2009 in Australia.

Mainland Australia Largest island of Australia

Mainland Australia is the main land mass of the Commonwealth of Australia excluding Tasmania and other offshore islands and external territories. The land mass also constitutes the mainland of the Australian continent, and the term, along with continental Australia, can be used in a geographic sense to exclude surrounding continental islands. Generally, the term is applied to the states of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, and South Australia, as well as the Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory, and Jervis Bay Territory.

References

  1. 1 2 "Australia". The World Factbook . United States Central Intelligence Agency. 2 July 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  2. Both Australian Aborigines and Europeans Rooted in Africa – 50,000 years ago
  3. MacKnight, CC (1976).The Voyage to Marege: Macassan Trepangers in Northern Australia. Melbourne University Press
  4. 1 2 "Australian Demographic Statistics September 2009" . Retrieved 3 May 2010.

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