Advance Australia Fair

Last updated

Advance Australia Fair
Advance Australia Fair.png

National anthem of Australia
Lyrics Peter Dodds McCormick, November 1878
MusicPeter Dodds McCormick, November 1878
Adopted19 April 1984
Audio sample
"Advance Australia Fair" (instrumental)

"Advance Australia Fair" is the national anthem of Australia. Created by the Scottish-born composer Peter Dodds McCormick, the song was first performed in 1878 and sung in Australia as a patriotic song. It replaced "God Save the Queen" as the official national anthem in 1984, following a plebiscite to choose the national song in 1977.




"Advance Australia Fair" was published in early December 1878 by Peter Dodds McCormick under the pen-name "Amicus" (which means "friend" in Latin). [1] It was first sung by Andrew Fairfax, accompanied by a concert band conducted by McCormick, at a function of the Highland Society of New South Wales in Sydney on 30 November 1878 (Saint Andrew's Day). [2] [3] The song gained popularity and an amended version was sung by a choir of around 10,000 at the inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. In 1907 the Australian Government awarded McCormick £100 for his composition. [4]

In a letter to R.B. Fuller dated 1 August 1913, McCormick described the circumstances that inspired him to write "Advance Australia Fair":

One night I attended a great concert in the Exhibition Building, when all the National Anthems of the world were to be sung by a large choir with band accompaniment. This was very nicely done, but I felt very aggravated that there was not one note for Australia. On the way home in a bus, I concocted the first verse of my song & when I got home I set it to music. I first wrote it in the Tonic Sol-fa notation, then transcribed it into the Old Notation, & I tried it over on an instrument next morning, & found it correct. Strange to say there has not been a note of it altered since. Some alteration has been made in the wording, but the sense is the same. It seemed to me to be like an inspiration, & I wrote the words & music with the greatest ease. [5]

The earliest known sound recording of "Advance Australia Fair" appears in The Landing of the Australian Troops in Egypt (circa 1916), a short commercial recording dramatising the arrival of Australian troops in Egypt en route to Gallipoli. [6]

Before its adoption as Australia's national anthem, "Advance Australia Fair" had considerable use elsewhere. For example, Australia's national broadcaster, the Australian Broadcasting Commission, used it to announce its news bulletins until 1952. [7] It was also frequently played at the start or end of official functions. Towards the end of World War II it was one of three songs played in certain picture theatres, along with "God Save the King" and the US national anthem. [8]


Other songs and marches have been influenced by "Advance Australia Fair", such as the Australian vice-regal salute. [9]

Competitions, plebiscite and adoption

In 1973 the Whitlam government decided that the country needed an anthem that could represent Australia with "distinction" and started a competition to find one that could replace the existing anthem, "God Save the Queen". This decision by Whitlam was driven by the desire to forge a new nationalism separate from the United Kingdom. In January of that year, Gough Whitlam dedicated an entire Australia Day speech to the search for a new anthem, referring to it as a "symbolic expression of our national pride and dignity." [10] The Australia Council for the Arts organised the contest, which was dubbed the "Australian National Anthem Quest". The contest was held in two stages, the first seeking lyrics and the second music, each having a A$5,000 prize for the winning entry. On the recommendation of the Council for the Arts, none of the new entries was felt worthy enough, so the contest ended with suggestions for "Advance Australia Fair", "Waltzing Matilda" and "The Song of Australia". [11]

In 1974 the Whitlam government then performed a nationwide opinion survey to determine the song to be sung on occasions of national significance. Conducted through the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the survey polled 60,000 people nationally. [1] "Advance Australia Fair" was chosen by 51.4% of respondents and, on 9 April of that year, Whitlam announced in parliament that it was the national anthem. [1] It was to be used on all occasions excepting those of a specifically regal nature. [1] A spokesman for Whitlam later stated that the Government regarded the tune primarily as the national anthem. During the 1975 election campaign following the dismissal of Whitlam by Sir John Kerr, David Combe proposed that the song be played at the start of the Labor Party's official campaign launch on 24 November 1975 at Festival Hall, Melbourne. Whitlam's speechwriter Graham Freudenberg rejected this idea because, among other reasons, the status of the anthem at that point was still tentative. [12]

On 22 January 1976 the Fraser government reinstated "God Save the Queen" as the national anthem for use at royal, vice-regal, defence and loyal toast occasions. [1] Fraser stated that "Advance Australia Fair", "Song of Australia" or "Waltzing Matilda" could be used for non-regal occasions. [1] His government made plans to conduct a national poll to find a song for use on ceremonial occasions when it was desired to mark a separate Australian identity. This was conducted as a plebiscite to choose the National Song, held as an optional additional question in the 1977 referendum on various issues. On 23 May the government announced the results, "Advance Australia Fair" received 43.29% of the vote, defeating the three alternatives, "Waltzing Matilda" (28.28%), "The Song of Australia" (9.65%) and the existing national anthem, "God Save the Queen" (18.78%). [1] [13]

"Advance Australia Fair", with modified lyrics and reduced to two verses (see development of lyrics), was adopted as the Australian national anthem by the Labor government of Bob Hawke, [1] coming into effect on 19 April 1984. [14] At the same time, "God Save the Queen" became known as the royal anthem, and continues to be played alongside the Australian national anthem at public engagements in Australia that are attended by the Queen or members of the Royal Family. [11] [15]

Even though any copyright of Peter Dodds McCormick's original lyrics has expired, as he died in 1916, the Commonwealth of Australia claims copyright on the official lyrics and particular arrangements of music. Non-commercial use of the anthem is permitted without case-by-case permission, but the Commonwealth government requires permission for commercial use. [16]

The orchestral arrangement of "Advance Australia Fair" that is now regularly played for Australian victories at international sporting medal ceremonies, and at the openings of major domestic sporting, cultural and community events, is by Tommy Tycho, an immigrant from Hungary. It was commissioned by ABC Records in 1984 and then televised by Channel 10 in 1986 in their Australia Day broadcast, featuring Julie Anthony as the soloist. [17] [18]

Legislative basis

The national anthem was changed on 1 January 2021 [19] by proclamation of the Governor-General on the advice of the Federal Executive Council. The change prior to that was on 19 April 1984.


The lyrics of "Advance Australia Fair", as modified by the National Australia Day Council, were officially adopted in April 1984. [20] The lyrics were updated as of 1 January 2021 [19] in an attempt to recognise Indigenous Australians, with the word "one" in the second line replacing the previous "young". [21] The lyrics are now as follows: [19]

Australians all let us rejoice,
For we are one and free;
We've golden soil and wealth for toil;
Our home is girt by sea;
Our land abounds in nature's gifts
Of beauty rich and rare;
In history's page, let every stage
Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
Advance Australia Fair.

Beneath our radiant Southern Cross
We'll toil with hearts and hands;
To make this Commonwealth of ours
Renowned of all the lands;
For those who've come across the seas
We've boundless plains to share;
With courage let us all combine
To Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
Advance Australia Fair.

Development of lyrics

Since the original lyrics were written in 1878, there have been several changes, in some cases with the intent of increasing the anthem's inclusiveness and gender neutrality. Some of these were minor while others have significantly altered the song. The original song was four verses long. For its adoption as the national anthem, the song was cut from four verses to two. The first verse was kept largely as the 1878 original, except for the change in the first line from "Australia's sons let us rejoice" to "Australians all let us rejoice". [20] The second, third and fourth verses of the original were dropped, in favour of a modified version of the new third verse which was sung at Federation in 1901. [22]

The lyrics published in the second edition (1879) were as follows: [23]

Australia's sons, let us rejoice,
For we are young and free;
We've golden soil and wealth for toil,
Our home is girt by sea;
Our land abounds in nature's gifts
Of beauty rich and rare;
In history's page, let every stage
Advance Australia fair.
In joyful strains let us sing,
Advance, Australia fair.

When gallant Cook from Albion sail'd,
To trace wide oceans o'er,
True British courage bore him on,
Til he landed on our shore.
Then here he raised Old England's flag,
The standard of the brave;
"With all her faults we love her still"
"Britannia rules the wave."
In joyful strains then let us sing,
Advance, Australia fair.

While other nations of the globe
Behold us from afar,
We'll rise to high renown and shine
Like our glorious southern star;
From England soil and Fatherland,
Scotia and Erin fair,
Let all combine with heart and hand
To advance Australia fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing
Advance, Australia fair.

Should foreign foe e'er sight our coast,
Or dare a foot to land,
We'll rouse to arms like sires of yore,
To guard our native strand;
Britannia then shall surely know,
Though oceans roll between,
Her sons in fair Australia's land
Still keep their courage green.
In joyful strains then let us sing
Advance Australia fair.

The 1901 Federation version of the third verse was originally sung as:

Beneath our radiant Southern Cross,
We'll toil with hearts and hands;
To make our youthful Commonwealth,
Renowned of all the lands;
For loyal sons beyond the seas
We've boundless plains to share;
With courage let us all combine
To advance Australia fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing
Advance Australia fair!

The lyrics of "Advance Australia Fair", as modified by the National Australia Day Council and officially adopted on 19 April 1984, were as follows:

Australians all let us rejoice,
For we are young and free;
We've golden soil and wealth for toil;
Our home is girt by sea;
Our land abounds in nature's gifts
Of beauty rich and rare;
In history's page, let every stage
Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
Advance Australia Fair.

Beneath our radiant Southern Cross
We'll toil with hearts and hands;
To make this Commonwealth of ours
Renowned of all the lands;
For those who've come across the seas
We've boundless plains to share;
With courage let us all combine
To Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
Advance Australia Fair.

These lyrics were updated on 1 January 2021 to the current version, in which "young" in the second line is replaced with "one".


General criticism

The fourth line of the anthem, "our home is girt by sea", has been criticised for using the so-called archaic word "girt". [24] Additionally, the lyrics and melody of the Australian national anthem have been criticised in some quarters as being dull and unendearing to the Australian people. National Party senator Sandy Macdonald said in 2001 that "Advance Australia Fair" is so boring that the nation risks singing itself to sleep, with boring music and words impossible to understand. [25]

Political sentiment is divided. Craig Emerson of the Australian Labor Party has critiqued the anthem, [26] former MP Peter Slipper has said that Australia should consider another anthem, [27] in 2011 former Victorian Premier Jeff Kennett suggested "I Am Australian", [28] while former Australian Labor Party leader Kim Beazley defended it. [29]

Recognition of indigenous Australians

The song has been criticised for failing to represent or acknowledge Australia's Indigenous peoples and the country's colonial history. The lyrics have been accused of celebrating British colonisation and perpetuating the concept of terra nullius , with the second line of the anthem ("for we are young and free") criticised in particular for ignoring the long history of Indigenous Australians. [30] It has also been suggested that the word "fair" celebrates the "civilising" mission of British colonists. [31]

Since about 2015, public debate about the anthem has increased. Boxer Anthony Mundine stated in 2013, 2017 and 2018 that he would not stand for the anthem, prompting organisers not to play it before his fights. [32] In September 2018 a 9-year-old Brisbane girl was disciplined by her school after refusing to stand for the national anthem; [33] her actions were applauded by some public commentators, and criticised by others. [34] [35] In 2019, several National Rugby League football players decided not to sing the anthem before the first match of the State of Origin series [36] [37] and before the Indigenous All-Stars series with New Zealand; [38] NRL coach and celebrated former player Mal Meninga supported the protesting players and called for a referendum on the subject. [38]

Several alternative versions of "Advance Australia Fair" have been proposed to address the alleged exclusion of Indigenous Australians. Judith Durham of The Seekers and Mutti Mutti musician Kutcha Edwards released their alternative lyrics in 2009, replacing "for we are young and free" with the opening lines "Australians let us stand as one, upon this sacred land". [39] In 2015, Aboriginal Australian soprano Deborah Cheetham declined an invitation to sing the anthem at the 2015 AFL grand final after the AFL turned down her request to replace the words "for we are young and free" with "in peace and harmony". She has advocated for the lyrics be rewritten and endorsed Durham and Edwards' alternative version. [40]

In 2017 the Recognition in Anthem Project [41] was established and began work on a new version, with lyrics written by poet and former Victorian Supreme Court judge Peter Vickery following consultation with Indigenous communities and others. [42] Vickery's proposed lyrics replaced "we are young and free" with "we are one and free" in the first verse, deleted the second verse, and added two new verses; the second verse acknowledging Indigenous history, immigration and calls for unity and respect, and the third verse adapting lines from the official second verse. It was debuted at the Desert Song Festival in Alice Springs by an Aboriginal choir. [43] Former prime minister Bob Hawke endorsed Vickery's alternative lyrics in 2018. [44] In 2017, the federal government under then prime minister Malcolm Turnbull granted permission for Vickery's lyrics to be sung at certain occasions as a "patriotic song", but said that before making any official change to the anthem, "The Government would need to be convinced of a sufficient groundswell of support in the wider community". [45]

In November 2020, NSW Premier Gladys Berejiklian proposed changing one word in the opening couplet, from "we are young and free" to "we are one and free", to acknowledge Australia's Indigenous history. [46] The proposal was supported by the federal Minister for Indigenous Australians, Ken Wyatt, [47] [48] and in December 2020 Prime Minister Scott Morrison announced that this change would be adopted from 1 January 2021, having received approval from Governor-General David Hurley. [49] [50]

Dharawal lyrics

Lyrics for the anthem have been written twice in the Dharug language, an Australian Aboriginal language spoken around Sydney by the Dharawal people. [51]

This version was first performed in July 2010, at a Rugby League State of Origin match in Sydney, though there was some opposition: [52]

nyini Australiagal bugjari garibara
nyini budjari buriga
bugjari bamul yararaga mari walaba
balmulga mari walanmirang
bamul merong mari kaban walaba
badjajarang waratah
yanamuru Australiagal yanumauru Australiagal  
yana budjari Australiagal
nyini bayala gawuwi bayala gawuwi
yana budjari Australiagal

We Australian mob are going to have a good dance
We good young fellows
Good earth and speared a lot of wallabies
a lot of water associated with this earth
earth having a lot of animals and waratahs
go along the path Australians
Australian mob go together
we say and sing out
Australian mob go together.

In December 2020, the following lyrics were sung in the Dharug language, followed by the anthem in English, before a Rugby Union international between Australia and Argentina: [53] [54]

Australiagal ya'nga yabun
Eora budgeri
Yarragal Bamal Yarrabuni
Ngurra garrigarrang
Nura mari guwing bayabuba
Guwugu yago ngabay burrabagur
Yirribana Australiagal
Garraburra ngayiri yabun
Yirribana Australiagal

Other unofficial variants

In 2011, about fifty different Christian schools from different denominations came under criticism for singing a version of the song written by Sri Lankan immigrant Ruth Ponniah in 1988. The song replaced the official second verse of Advance Australia Fair, with lyrics that were Christian in nature.

The alternative verse reads:

With Christ our head and cornerstone, we'll build our nation's might;

Whose way and truth and light alone, can guide our path aright;

Our lives a sacrifice of love, reflect our master's care;

With faces turned to heav'n above, Advance Australia Fair;

In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia Fair.

Minister for School Education, Early Childhood and Youth Peter Garrett and chief executive of the National Australia Day Council Warren Pearson admonished the schools for modifying the lyrics of the anthem, and the Australian Parents Council and the Federation of Parents and Citizens' Association of NSW called for a ban on the modified song. Stephen O'Doherty, chief executive of Christian Schools Australia, defended the use of the lyrics in response. [55] [56]

Related Research Articles

God Save the Queen National anthem of the United Kingdom

"God Save the Queen" is the national or royal anthem in most Commonwealth realms, their territories and the British Crown dependencies. Members of the Commonwealth of Nations which are not a Commonwealth realm either do not have a royal anthem or have a different one, e.g. Malaysia. The author of the tune is unknown, and it may originate in plainchant; but an attribution to the composer John Bull is sometimes made.

"O Canada" is the national anthem of Canada. The song was originally commissioned by Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Théodore Robitaille for the 1880 Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony; Calixa Lavallée composed the music, after which, words were written by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The original lyrics were in French; an English translation was published in 1906. Multiple English versions ensued, with Robert Stanley Weir's version in 1908 gaining the most popularity, eventually serving as the basis for the official lyrics enacted by Parliament. Weir's lyrics have been revised three times, most recently when An Act to amend the National Anthem Act (gender) was enacted in 2018. The French lyrics remain unaltered. "O Canada" had served as a de facto national anthem since 1939, officially becoming the country's national anthem in 1980 when Canada's National Anthem Act received royal assent and became effective on July 1 as part of that year's Dominion Day celebrations.

The Star-Spangled Banner National anthem of the United States

"The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem of the United States. The lyrics come from the "Defence of Fort M'Henry", a poem written on September 14, 1814, by 35-year-old lawyer and amateur poet Francis Scott Key after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by British ships of the Royal Navy in Baltimore Harbor during the Battle of Baltimore in the War of 1812. Key was inspired by the large U.S. flag, with 15 stars and 15 stripes, known as the Star-Spangled Banner, flying triumphantly above the fort during the U.S. victory.

Waltzing Matilda Australian bush ballad

"Waltzing Matilda" is Australia's best-known bush ballad, and has been described as the country's "unofficial national anthem".

America (My Country, Tis of Thee) American patriotic song

"America " is an American patriotic song, the lyrics of which were written by Samuel Francis Smith. The melody used is the same as that of the national anthem of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen". The song served as one of the de facto national anthems of the United States before the adoption of "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the official U.S. national anthem in 1931.

Virgin Islands March

The "Virgin Islands March" is the regional anthem of the United States Virgin Islands.

Peter Dodds McCormick

Peter Dodds McCormick was an Australian composer, known for composing the Australian national anthem "Advance Australia Fair", publishing under the pseudonym of Amicus, Latin for "Friend".

Aegukka National anthem of North Korea

"Aegukka", officially translated as the "Patriotic Song", is the national anthem of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, more commonly known as North Korea. It was composed in 1945 as a patriotic song celebrating independence from Japanese occupation and was adopted as the state anthem in 1947.

This Land Is Your Land Folk song by Woody Guthrie

"This Land Is Your Land" is one of the United States' most famous folk songs. Its lyrics were written by American folk singer Woody Guthrie in 1940, based on an existing melody, a Carter Family tune called "When the World's on Fire", in critical response to Irving Berlin's "God Bless America". When Guthrie was tired of hearing Kate Smith sing "God Bless America" on the radio in the late 1930s, he sarcastically called his song "God Blessed America for Me" before renaming it "This Land Is Your Land".

The Wave Hill walk-off, also known as the Gurindji strike, was a walk-off and strike by 200 Gurindji stockmen, house servants and their families, starting on 23 August 1966 and lasting for about nine years. It took place at Wave Hill, a cattle station in Kalkarindji, Northern Territory, Australia, and was led by Gurindji man Vincent Lingiari.

Common metre or common measure—abbreviated as C. M. or CM—is a poetic metre consisting of four lines that alternate between iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter, with each foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. The metre is denoted by the syllable count of each line, i.e., 86.86, or 86 86, depending on style, or by its shorthand abbreviation "CM".

"I Am Australian" is a popular Australian song written in 1987 by Bruce Woodley of the Seekers and Dobe Newton of the Bushwackers. Its lyrics are filled with many historic and cultural references, such as to the "digger", Albert Namatjira and Ned Kelly, among others. Its popularity has allowed it to join the ranks of other patriotic songs considered as alternatives to the Australian national anthem, "Advance Australia Fair". It is commonly taught in primary schools. In the years since the song's release, there have been calls for it to become Australia's national anthem, notably in 2011 by former Victorian Premier Jeff Kennett.

"Sussex by the Sea" is a patriotic song written in 1907 by William Ward-Higgs, often considered to be the unofficial county anthem of Sussex. It became well known throughout Sussex and is regularly sung at celebrations throughout the county. It can be heard during many sporting events in the county, during the Sussex bonfire celebrations and it is played by marching bands and Morris dancers across Sussex. It is the adopted song of Brighton & Hove Albion Football Club, Sussex Division Royal Naval Reserve, Sussex Association of Naval Officers and Sussex County Cricket Club.

<i>Torch the Moon</i> 2002 studio album by The Whitlams

Torch the Moon is the fifth studio album by Australian band The Whitlams, released by Black Yak through Warner in 2002. It peaked at number one on the ARIA Albums Chart. It received platinum album certification from ARIA.

<i>2000 Summer Olympics opening ceremony</i>

The opening ceremony of the 2000 Summer Olympics took place on the evening of Friday 15 September 2000 in Stadium Australia, Sydney, during which the Games were formally opened by Governor-General Sir William Deane. As mandated by the Olympic Charter, the proceedings combined the formal and ceremonial opening of this international sporting event, including welcoming speeches, hoisting of the flags and the parade of athletes, with an artistic spectacle to showcase the host nation's culture and history. Veteran ceremonies director Ric Birch was the Director of Ceremonies while David Atkins was the Artistic Director and Producer. Its artistic section highlighted several aspects of Australian culture and history, showing Australia's flora and fauna, technology, multiculturalism, and the hopeful moment of reconciliation towards Aboriginal Australians. The ceremony had a cast of 12,687 performers, seen by a stadium audience of around 110,000.

Psalm 95

Psalm 95 is the 95th psalm of the Book of Psalms, beginning in English in the King James Version: "O come, let us sing unto the LORD: let us make a joyful noise to the rock of our salvation.". The Book of Psalms starts the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and, as such, is a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the slightly different numbering system in the Greek Septuagint version of the Bible, and in the Latin Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 94. In Latin, it is known as "Venite exultemus". The psalm is a hymn psalm, one of the Royal psalms, praising God as the King of His people. Psalm 95 identifies no author, but Hebrews 4:7 attributes it to David. The Vulgate also names David as the author.

God Defend New Zealand One of two national anthems of New Zealand

"God Defend New Zealand" is one of two national anthems of New Zealand, the other being "God Save the Queen". Legally the two have equal status, but "God Defend New Zealand" is more commonly used. Originally written as a poem, it was set to music as part of a competition in 1876. Over the years its popularity increased, and it was eventually named the second national anthem in 1977. It has English and Māori lyrics, with slightly different meanings. Since the late 1990s, the usual practice when performed in public is to perform the first verse of the national anthem twice, first in Māori and then in English.

Deborah Joy Cheetham, is an Aboriginal Australian soprano, actor, composer and playwright.

The Red Flag Socialist song

"The Red Flag" is a socialist song, emphasising the sacrifices and solidarity of the international labour movement. It is the anthem of the British Labour Party, Irish nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party, and Irish Labour Party. The song is traditionally sung at the close of each party's national conference.

Christians, awake, salute the happy morn English Christmas hymn

"Christians, awake, salute the happy morn" is an English Christmas hymn on a text by John Byrom. It is usually sung to the tune "Yorkshire" by John Wainright.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Australia Through Time (5th ed.). Random House Australia. 1997. pp. 56–57, 439, 446, 451, 479. ISBN   978-0-09-183581-1.
  2. "News of the Day". The Sydney Morning Herald . 5 December 1878. p. 5. Retrieved 30 May 2020 via Trove (National Library of Australia).
  3. "Advertising". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 November 1878. p. 2. Retrieved 30 May 2020 via Trove (National Library of Australia).
  4. Fletcher, Jim (1986). "McCormick, Peter Dodds (1834–1916)". Australian Dictionary of Biography . 10. Melbourne University Press. ISSN   1833-7538 . Retrieved 17 April 2018 via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  5. "Letters [manuscript]". National Library of Australia . Retrieved 26 October 2008. Letter to R.B. Fuller Esq. dated 1 August 1913
  6. The Landing of the Australian Troops in Egypt from National Film and Sound Archive, at australianscreen online
  7. "Media Resources – Images and Audio files for Download". National Film and Sound Archive. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007. (1943 – The Majestic Fanfare by Charles Williams, the ABC radio news theme)
  8. "Song and Two Anthems". The Sydney Morning Herald. 30 November 1943. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  9. "Australian National Anthem". Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  10. Whitlam, G 1973, 'National Anthem', Australia Day Broadcast
  11. 1 2 "Australian National Anthem – History". Australian Government. 10 July 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
  12. Graham Freudenberg, "We've been sacked", The Sunday Age, 6 November 2005, p. 13
  13. "Plebiscite results: National Song Poll". Parliament of Australia. 30 June 2002. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2008.
  14. "Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia – National Symbols". Parliament of Australia. 21 September 2005. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007. (proclamation by Governor-General dated 19 April 1984)
  15. "Australian National Anthem". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Australian Government. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  16. "Australian National Anthem – Commercial use". Australian Government. 10 July 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
  17. "Tommy Tycho—Arranger". Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.[ better source needed ]
  18. "Australian composer Tommy Tycho dies". ABC News. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  19. 1 2 3 "Australian National Anthem – Proclamation of Amended Words". Federal Register of Legislation. Australian Government. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  20. 1 2 "The Australian National Anthem". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
  21. Hurst, Daniel (31 December 2020). "'We are one and free': Australia's national anthem to change in attempt to recognise Indigenous history". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  22. "Digital Collections – Advance Australia Fair (1901–1919)". National Library of Australia . Retrieved 3 May 2008.
  23. "'Advance, Australia Fair'". Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser . XX (1472). 13 September 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 29 November 2020 via National Library of Australia.
  24. Campbell, David (22 April 2008). "Time girt went down the gurgler". Herald Sun. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  25. Barbie Dutter (27 June 2001). "Call to scrap Australia's 'dull' anthem". The Daily Telegraph (Sydney) . Retrieved 20 December 2007.
  26. "Advance Australia Fair strikes a sour note". The Australian. 2 January 2001. Retrieved 20 December 2007.[ dead link ]
  27. "Senator reignites debate over national anthem". ABC News . 21 June 2001. Archived from the original on 19 July 2001. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
  28. Grant McArthur (11 February 2011). "Jeff Kennett wants national anthem change". The Advertiser . Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  29. "Kim Beazley – Doorstop Interview (transcript)". Australian Labor Party. 21 June 2001. Archived from the original on 18 July 2001. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
  30. "New version of national anthem cuts 'offensive' lyrics". The West Australian . 22 May 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  31. Kelen, Christopher (July 2002). "How fair is fair? The colour of justice in Australia's official anthem". M/C: A Journal of Media and Culture. 5 (4). Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  32. "Anthony Mundine won't stand for anthem". SBS News. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  33. Siganto, Talissa (12 September 2018). "9yo refuses to stand for national anthem because it's for 'white people of Australia'". ABC News. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  34. McFadyen, Warwick (16 September 2018). "Advance Australia Fair is an anthem that is racist at so many levels". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  35. "Australian lawmakers attack 9-year-old girl who refused to stand during their national anthem". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  36. "'This song sucks': Rapper slams anthem". 5 June 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  37. Pengilly, Christian Nicolussi, Adam (28 May 2019). "Cody Walker to remain silent during Advance Australia Fair". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  38. 1 2 Meninga, Mal (16 February 2019). "Australia needs referendum on national anthem". National Rugby League. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  39. "Judith Durham's new anthem: 'Lyric For Contemporary Australia'". NITV. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  40. Cheetham, Deborah. "Young and free? Why I declined to sing the national anthem at the 2015 AFL Grand Final". The Conversation.
  41. Recognition in Anthem Project
  42. "New call to update the National Anthem". NITV. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  43. Power, Julie (13 September 2019). "We are 'one', not 'young': Change to national anthem proposed". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  44. "Milestones". Recognition in Anthem. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  45. "New version of national anthem cuts 'offensive' lyrics". The West Australian. 22 May 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  46. "A small change can make Advance Australia Fair a better anthem". The Sydney Morning Herald. 11 November 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  47. Young, Evan (7 December 2020). "Anthony Mundine and Latrell Mitchell speak out on Indigenous-language national anthem". SBS News. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  48. Wyatt, Ken (1 January 2021). "'Changing the national anthem is real reconciliation'". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  49. Khan, Biwa. "Australia's national anthem changed to reflect 'stories of the many First Nations peoples'". SBS News. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  50. Curtis, Katina (31 December 2020). "Not forever young: Australia now a nation that is 'one and free'". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  51. Troy, Jacqueline. "Advance Australia Fair in Dharawal". Dharug and Dharawal Resources. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  52. Lewis, Daniel; Woods, Paddy (9 July 2010). "Origin anthem mends some hearts and breaks others". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  53. FitzSimons, Peter (4 December 2020). "Indigenous lyrics to supercharge Australian anthem". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  54. Kemp, Emma (5 December 2020). "Wallabies sing Indigenous language Australian anthem before Tri-Nations draw with Argentina". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  55. "Schools under fire for 'Christian' national anthem". ABC News. 23 September 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  56. "Christian schools re-write Australian national anthem". The Daily Telegraph . Sydney. 2 October 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2017.