Trove

Last updated

Trove
Trove (NLA website) logo.svg
Logo
Trove screenshot.jpg
Homepage (December 2014)
Type of site
Australian library database aggregator
Available inEnglish
Owner National Library of Australia
Website www.trove.nla.gov.au
Commercialno
RegistrationOptional
Launched2009;10 years ago (2009)
Current statusOnline

Trove is an Australian online library database aggregator; a free faceted-search engine hosted by the National Library of Australia, [1] in partnership with content providers including members of the National & State Libraries Australasia. [2] It is one of the most well-respected [3] and accessed GLAM services in Australia, with over 70,000 daily users. [4] [5]

Library Organized collection of books or other information resources

A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, selected by experts and made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical location or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range widely in size up to millions of items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē : derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque.

Faceted search is a technique which involves augmenting traditional search techniques with a faceted navigation system, allowing users to narrow down search results by applying multiple filters based on faceted classification of the items. A faceted classification system classifies each information element along multiple explicit dimensions, called facets, enabling the classifications to be accessed and ordered in multiple ways rather than in a single, pre-determined, taxonomic order.

National Library of Australia national reference library in Canberra, Australia

The National Library of Australia (NLA) is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, and an additional 15,506 metres (50,873 ft) of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT.

Contents

History

Trove's origins can be seen in the development of earlier services such as the Australian Bibliographic Network. [6] It was originally known as the Single Business Discovery Service, a project that was launched in August 2008. [7] The intention was to create a single point of entry for the public to the various online discovery services developed by the library between 1997 and 2008-2009 including Register of Australian Archives and Manuscripts, Picture Australia, Libraries Australia, Music Australia, Australia Dancing, PANDORA search service , ARROW Discovery Service and the Australian Newspapers Beta service. [7] [8]

Australian Bibliographic Network is a national shared library cataloguing network that commenced in 1981 in Australia.

The key features of the service were designed to create a faceted search system specifically for Australian content. Tight integration with the provider databases has allowed "Find and Get" functions (e.g. viewing digitally, borrowing, buying, copying). Important extra features include the provision of a "check copyright" tool and persistent identifiers (which enables stable URLs). [2]

Content

The scope of the project is to help "you find and use resources relating to Australia" and therefore the content is Australian-focused. [9] Much of the material may be difficult to retrieve with other search tools as it is part of the deep web, including records held in collection databases, [2] or in projects such as Picture Australia, Music Australia, the Register of Australian Archives and Manuscripts, Australia Dancing, Australian Research Online and the PANDORA web archive. [8] Trove includes content from many libraries, museums, archives and other organisations. [10]

The site's content is split into "zones" designating different forms of content which can be searched all together, or separately. [11]

<i>Australian Dictionary of Biography</i> biographical dictionary

The Australian Dictionary of Biography is a national co-operative enterprise founded and maintained by the Australian National University (ANU) to produce authoritative biographical articles on eminent people in Australia's history. Initially published in a series of twelve hard-copy volumes between 1966 and 2005, the dictionary has been published online since 2006.

Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of musical notation that uses musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece. Like its analogs – printed books or pamphlets in English, Arabic or other languages – the medium of sheet music typically is paper, although the access to musical notation since the 1980s has included the presentation of musical notation on computer screens and the development of scorewriter computer programs that can notate a song or piece electronically, and, in some cases, "play back" the notated music using a synthesizer or virtual instruments.

Flickr Image and video hosting website

Flickr is an image hosting service and video hosting service. It was created by Ludicorp in 2004. It has changed ownership several times and has been owned by SmugMug since April 20, 2018.

Books

The book zone provides access to books, audio books, theses, conference proceedings and pamphlets listed in Australia's National Bibliographic Database (ANBD), which is a union catalogue of items held in Australian libraries and a national bibliographic database of resources including Australian online publications. [14] Bibliographic records from the ANBD are also uploaded into the WorldCat global union catalogue. [15] The results can be filtered by format if searching for braille, audio books, theses or conference proceedings and also by decade and language of publication. [16] A filter for Australian content is also provided. [17] [18]

Newspapers

Front page of The Leader (Orange, New South Wales) 31 July 1915, the 10 millionth newspaper page to be made available through Trove. The Leader 1915.pdf
Front page of The Leader (Orange, New South Wales) 31 July 1915, the 10 millionth newspaper page to be made available through Trove.
Front cover of The Dawn Issue 1, 15 May 1888. The first feminist magazine in Australia. Front cover of the Dawn issue 1.jpg
Front cover of The Dawn Issue 1, 15 May 1888. The first feminist magazine in Australia.

Trove provides text-searchable access to over 700 historic Australian newspapers from each State and Territory. [20] By 2014, over 13.5 million digitised newspaper pages had been made available through Trove as part of the Australian Newspaper Plan (ANPlan), [21] a "collaborative program to collect and preserve every newspaper published in Australia, guaranteeing public access" to these important historical records. [22]

The extent of digitised newspaper archives is wide reaching and includes now defunct publications, such as the Australian Home Companion and Band of Hope Journal and The Barrier Miner in New South Wales and The Argus in Victoria. [note 1] [23] It includes the earliest published Australian newspaper, the Sydney Gazette (which dates to 1803), and some community language newspapers. [21] Also included is The Australian Women's Weekly . [24] [note 2]

The Canberra Times is the only major newspaper available beyond 1957. It allowed publication of its in-copyright archive up to 1995 as part of the "centenary of Canberra" in 2013, [26] and the digitisation costs were raised with a crowdfunding campaign. [27] Also crowdfunded, the Australian feminist magazine The Dawn was included on International Women's Day 2012. [28] [29]

Australian Newspapers Digitisation Project

On 25 July 2008 the "Australian Newspapers Beta" service was released to the public as a standalone website and a year later became a fully integrated part of the newly launched Trove. The service contains millions of articles from 1803 onwards, with more content being added regularly. [30] The website was the public face of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Project, a coordination of major libraries in Australia to convert historic newspapers to text-searchable digital files. The Australian Newspapers website allowed users to search the database of digitised newspapers from 1803 to 1954 which are now in the public domain.

The newspapers (frequently microfiche or other photographic facsimiles) were scanned and the text from the articles has been captured by optical character recognition (OCR) to facilitate easy searching, but it contains many OCR errors, often due to poor quality facsimiles. [31] [32] Since August 2008 the system has incorporated crowdsourced text-correction as a major feature, allowing the public to change the searchable text. Many users have contributed tens of thousands of corrected lines, and some have contributed millions. [33] This collaborative participation allows users to give back to the service and over time will improve the database's searchability. [34] [35] The text-correcting community and other Trove users have been referred to as "Trovites". [36]

Implementation

The National Library of Australia combined eight different online discovery tools that had been developed over a period of twelve years into a new single discovery interface that was released as a prototype in May 2009 for public comment before launching in November 2009 as Trove. [17] It is continually updated to expand its reach. [5] [37] With the notable exception of the newspaper "zone", none of the material that appears in Trove search results is hosted by Trove itself. Instead, it indexes the content of its content partners' collection metadata and displays the aggregated information in a relevance-ranked search result. [38]

The service is built using a variety of open source software. [39] [40]

API

Trove provides a free, public Application Programming Interface (API). [41] This allows developers to search across the records for books, images, maps, video, archives, music, sound, journal articles, newspaper articles and lists and to retrieve the associated metadata using XML and JSON encoding. [42] [43] The full text of digitised newspaper articles is also available. [44]

Several citation styles are automatically produced by the software, giving a stable URL to the edition, page or article-level for any newspaper. Wikipedia was closely integrated from the beginning of the project, making Trove the first GLAM website in the world to integrate the Wikipedia API into its product. [45]

Application

Impact

In a keynote address to the 14th National Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) Conference in Melbourne, Roly Keating, Chief Executive of the British Library described Trove as "exemplary" – a "both-end choice" of deep rich interconnected archive. [46]

Digital humanities researcher and Trove manager Tim Sherratt noted that in relation to the Trove API "delivery of cultural heritage resources in a machine-readable form, whether through a custom API or as Linked Open Data, provides more than just improved access or possibilities for aggregation. It opens those resources to transformation. It empowers us to move beyond ‘discovery’ as a mode of interaction to analyse, extract, visualise and play." [47]

The site has been described as "a model for collaborative digitization projects and serves to inform cultural heritage institutions building both large and small digital collections". [48]

The reach of the newspaper archives makes the service attractive to genealogists [49] [50] [51] and knitters. [5]

Awards

Trove received the 2011 Excellence in eGovernment Award and the 2011 Service Delivery Category Award. [52]

See also

Notes

  1. Published in Melbourne between 1846 and 1947
  2. Digitised between 1933 and 1982 – where the National Library acknowledges the use of newspapers and microfilm owned by the State Library of New South Wales and Australian Consolidated Press for the digitisation of the title. [25]

Related Research Articles

<i>The Sun-Herald</i>

The Sun-Herald is an Australian newspaper published in tabloid or compact format on Sundays in Sydney, New South Wales by Nine Publishing. It is the Sunday counterpart of The Sydney Morning Herald. In the 6 months to September 2005, The Sun-Herald had a circulation of 515,000. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, its circulation had dropped to 443,257 as of December 2009 and to 313,477 as of December 2010, from which its management inferred a readership of 868,000. Readership continued to tumble to 264,434 by the end of 2013, and has half the circulation of rival The Sunday Telegraph.

<i>The Queanbeyan Age</i>

The Queanbeyan Age is a weekly newspaper based in Queanbeyan, New South Wales, Australia. It has had a number of title changes throughout its publication history. First published on 15 September 1860 by John Gale and his brother, Peter Francis Gale, The Golden Age, as it was known at the time, was the first newspaper of the small township on the banks of the Queanbeyan River. It was named due to the short-lived Kiandra goldrush, which generated large amounts of gold-based traffic through the region.

<i>The Sunday Mail</i> (Brisbane)

The Sunday Mail is Brisbane's only Sunday newspaper. The Sunday Mail is published in tabloid format, comprising several sections that can be extracted and read separately. It is available for purchase throughout Queensland, most regions of Northern New South Wales and parts of the Northern Territory.

Woroni is the student newspaper of the Australian National University (ANU), based in Canberra, ACT, Australia. The name ‘Woroni’ derives from an Indigenous Australian word meaning ‘mouthpiece’. Woroni is published fortnightly in full colour tabloid format, and features broad coverage of university and local news, opinion, features, arts and culture, sports, and leisure. It was formerly published as Student Notes: Canberra University College Students Association.

<i>The Sun</i> (Sydney) afternoon tabloid newspaper

The Sun was an afternoon tabloid newspaper, first published under this name in 1910. It was acquired from Associated Newspapers by Fairfax Holdings in Sydney, Australia in 1953, as the afternoon companion to The Sydney Morning Herald. The former Sunday edition, the Sunday Sun was discontinued and merged with the Sunday Herald into the tabloid Sun-Herald at the same time. The Sunday Sun, which later became The Sun: Sunday edition, was first published on 5 April 1903, and continued under its former name until 11 December 1910. According to its claim on page 1 of this issue, it had a "circulation larger than that of any other Sunday paper in Australia".

Warwick Scott Cathro was pivotal in the development of Trove, an Australian online library database aggregator hosted by the National Library of Australia. The Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) says of him; "His extraordinary work in developing and implementing standards; advancing innovative solutions; championing national sectoral infrastructure and encouraging communication and debate in the profession, place Warwick Cathro among the most important Australian library and information practitioners of our time."

<i>The Biz</i> (newspaper) newspaper in Fairfield, NSW, Australia, active 1928 - 1972

The Biz was a weekly English language tabloid newspaper published in Fairfield, New South Wales Australia. The paper was first published in 1917 by Albert Henry Johnson. For forty years the publishing house was located in Cabramatta, New South Wales, before being moved to Smart Street, Fairfield. It ceased publication in January 1980. The Biz was digitised in 2012.

<i>Illustrated Sydney News</i>

The Illustrated Sydney News was a monthly English language newspaper published in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

<i>Kiama Examiner</i>

The Kiama Examiner, later published as The Examiner, was a weekly English language newspaper published in Kiama, New South Wales, Australia between 1858 and 1862. It was first published on 24 April 1858, more than forty years before the federation of Australia.

<i>The Newcastle Argus and District Advertiser</i>

The Newcastle Argus and District Advertiser was an English language newspaper published in Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia in the early 20th century. It later became The Toiler and then The Industrialist.

The Murrurundi Times and Liverpool Plains Gazette, also published as The Murrurundi and Quirindi Times and Liverpool Plains Gazette, was an English language newspaper published in Murrurundi, New South Wales, Australia from 1871 to 1933.

The Shoalhaven and Nowra News is an English language newspaper published in Nowra, New South Wales, Australia. It has previously been titled the Shoalhaven News and The Shoalhaven News and South Coast Districts Advertiser.

The West Wyalong Advocate is an English language newspaper published in West Wyalong, New South Wales, Australia. It has previously been titled The Wyalong Advocate and Mining, Agricultural and Pastoral Gazette.

<i>The Newcastle Sun</i>

The Newcastle Sun was a newspaper published in Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. It had previously been published as The Northern Times.

<i>Western Champion</i>

The Western Champion was a weekly English language newspaper published in Parkes, New South Wales, Australia.

<i>The People: Official Organ of the Australian Socialist League</i>

The People: Official Organ of the Australian Socialist League, also known as The People and the Collectivist, was a weekly English language newspaper published in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

<i>Canberra Community News</i>

Canberra Community News was a newspaper published in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory from 1925 until 1927.

<i>Moree Champion</i>

The Moree Champion, previously published as the North West Champion, is a bi-weekly English language newspaper published in the Shire of Moree, New South Wales, Australia. The newspaper was first published in 1912. It is published each Tuesday and Thursday and is distributed throughout the north west region of New South Wales.

International Image Interoperability Framework application programming interfaces designed to operate with the storage and presentation of digitized objects via a web-based interface

The International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) defines several application programming interfaces that provide a standardised method of describing and delivering images over the web, as well as "presentation based metadata" about structured sequences of images. If institutions holding artworks, books, newspapers, manuscripts, maps, scrolls, single sheet collections, and archival materials provide IIIF endpoints for their content, any IIIF-compliant viewer or application can consume and display both the images and their structural and presentation metadata.

Innisfail Advocate

The Innisfail Advocate is a newspaper published in Innisfail, Queensland, Australia.

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