|29th Prime Minister of Australia|
15 September 2015 –24 August 2018
|Governor-General||Sir Peter Cosgrove|
|Deputy|| Warren Truss |
|Preceded by||Tony Abbott|
|Succeeded by||Scott Morrison|
|Leader of the Liberal Party|
14 September 2015 –24 August 2018
|Preceded by||Tony Abbott|
|Succeeded by||Scott Morrison|
16 September 2008 –1 December 2009
|Preceded by||Brendan Nelson|
|Succeeded by||Tony Abbott|
|Minister for Communications|
18 September 2013 –14 September 2015
|Prime Minister||Tony Abbott|
|Preceded by||Anthony Albanese|
|Succeeded by||Mitch Fifield|
|Leader of the Opposition|
16 September 2008 –1 December 2009
|Prime Minister||Kevin Rudd|
|Preceded by||Brendan Nelson|
|Succeeded by||Tony Abbott|
|Minister for the Environment and Water|
30 January 2007 –3 December 2007
|Prime Minister||John Howard|
|Preceded by||Ian Campbell|
|Succeeded by||Peter Garrett|
|Member of the Australian Parliament |
9 October 2004 –31 August 2018
|Preceded by||Peter King|
|Succeeded by||Kerryn Phelps|
Malcolm Bligh Turnbull
24 October 1954
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Lucy Hughes (m. 1980)
|Education|| Vaucluse Public School |
Sydney Grammar St Ives Preparatory School
Sydney Grammar School
|Alma mater|| Sydney Law School |
Brasenose College, Oxford
|Profession|| Barrister |
Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is an Australian former politician who was the 29th Prime Minister of Australia from 2015 to 2018. He served twice as Leader of the Liberal Party, firstly from 2008 to 2009 when he was also Leader of the Opposition, and a second time from 2015 to 2018. He was the MP for Wentworth in the House of Representatives from 2004 to 2018.
The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of Australia. The individual who holds the office is the most senior Minister of State, the leader of the Federal Cabinet. The Prime Minister also has the responsibility of administering the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, and is the chair of the National Security Committee and the Council of Australian Governments. The office of Prime Minister is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia but exists through Westminster political convention. The individual who holds the office is commissioned by the Governor-General of Australia and at the Governor-General's pleasure subject to the Constitution of Australia and constitutional conventions.
The Liberal Party of Australia is a major centre-right political party in Australia, one of the two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-left Australian Labor Party (ALP). It was founded in 1944 as the successor to the United Australia Party (UAP).
The Division of Wentworth is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. It was proclaimed in 1900 and was one of the original 65 divisions contested at the first federal election. The division is named after William Charles Wentworth (1790–1872), an Australian explorer and statesman. In 1813 he accompanied Blaxland and Lawson on their crossing of the Blue Mountains.
Turnbull graduated from the University of Sydney with a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Laws, before attending Brasenose College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, earning a Bachelor of Civil Law. For over two decades prior to entering politics, he worked as a journalist, lawyer, merchant banker, and venture capitalist. He served as Chair of the Australian Republican Movement from 1993 to 2000, and was one of the leaders of the unsuccessful "Yes" campaign in the 1999 republic referendum. He was first elected to the Australian House of Representatives for the Division of Wentworth in New South Wales at the 2004 federal election, and was Minister for the Environment and Water from January 2007 until December 2007.
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it was Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. The university is colloquially known as one of Australia's sandstone universities. Its campus is ranked in the top 10 of the world's most beautiful universities by the British Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post, spreading across the inner-city suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington. The university comprises 9 faculties and university schools, through which it offers bachelor, master and doctoral degrees. In 2014 it had 33,505 undergraduate and 19,284 graduate students.
The Bachelor of Laws is an undergraduate degree in law originating in England and offered in Japan and most common law jurisdictions—except the United States and Canada—as the degree which allows a person to become a lawyer. It historically served this purpose in the U.S. as well, but was phased out in the mid-1960s in favor of the Juris Doctor degree, and Canada followed suit.
Brasenose College (BNC), officially The King's Hall and College of Brasenose, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1509, with the college library and current chapel added in the mid-17th century. The College's New Quadrangle was completed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with additional residence areas completed in the 1960s and 1970s.
After coming second in the 2007 leadership election, Turnbull won the leadership of the Liberal Party in September 2008 and became Leader of the Opposition. However, his support of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme proposed by the Rudd Government in December 2009 led to a leadership challenge by Tony Abbott, who defeated Turnbull by a single vote. Though initially planning to leave politics after this, Turnbull chose to stay and was later appointed Minister for Communications in the Abbott Government following the 2013 federal election.
The Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme was a cap-and-trade emissions trading scheme for anthropogenic greenhouse gases proposed by the Rudd government, as part of its climate change policy, which had been due to commence in Australia in 2010. It marked a major change in the energy policy of Australia. The policy began to be formulated in April 2007, when the federal Labor Party was in Opposition and the six Labor-controlled states commissioned an independent review on energy policy, the Garnaut Climate Change Review, which published a number of reports. After Labor won the 2007 federal election and formed government, it published a Green Paper on climate change for discussion and comment. The Federal Treasury then modelled some of the financial and economic impacts of the proposed CPRS scheme.
Anthony John Abbott is an Australian politician who served as the 28th Prime Minister of Australia from 2013 to 2015 and Leader of the Liberal Party from 2009 to 2015. He served as Leader of the Opposition from 2009 to 2013. Abbott was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Warringah in 1994.
The Australian Minister for Communications has overall responsibility for broadcasting, the information and communications technology industry, the information economy, and telecommunications within Australia.
Citing consistently poor opinion polling for the government, Turnbull resigned from the Cabinet on 14 September 2015 and challenged Abbott, reclaiming the leadership of the Liberal Party by ten votes. He was sworn in as Prime Minister of Australia the following day. At the 2016 federal election, Turnbull led the Coalition to victory by a single seat, the smallest majority since the 1961 federal election.In August 2018, a challenge by Peter Dutton led to two Liberal leadership spills. When the second spill motion passed on 24 August 2018, Turnbull did not contest the ballot and subsequently resigned as Prime Minister. Treasurer Scott Morrison defeated Dutton in the contest. Turnbull resigned from parliament on 31 August 2018, triggering a by-election in his former seat of Wentworth. The Liberal Party lost the by-election to independent candidate Kerryn Phelps, which resulted in the Coalition losing its majority in the House of Representatives.
Peter Craig Dutton is an Australian Liberal Party politician serving as Home Affairs Minister in the Morrison Government, and has served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Dickson since 2001. Dutton served as Minister for Health and Sport from 2013 to 2014, and Immigration Minister from 2014 to 2017 in the Abbott and Turnbull Government.
Scott John Morrison is an Australian politician serving as the 30th and current Prime Minister of Australia and leader of the Liberal Party since 24 August 2018. He has been a member of the House of Representatives since 2007, representing the Division of Cook in New South Wales.
Kerryn Lyndel Phelps is an Australian medical practitioner and politician. She was the first woman to be elected president of the Australian Medical Association (AMA). In 2003, she was awarded the Centenary Medal for services to health and medicine. In 2011 she was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia for her service to medicine, particularly through leadership roles with the AMA, education and community health, and as a general practitioner. She is Conjoint Professor in the National Institute of Complementary Medicine at the Western Sydney University.
Malcolm Bligh Turnbull was born in Sydney, New South Wales on 24 October 1954, the only child of Bruce Bligh Turnbull and Coral Magnolia Lansbury. His father was a hotel broker, while his mother was a radio actor, writer, and academic, and a second cousin of the British film and television actress Angela Lansbury.His maternal grandmother, May Lansbury (née Morle), was born in England, while his other grandparents were Australian-born. He is also of Scottish descent; his great-great-great grandfather John Turnbull (1751–1834) arrived on the Coromandel in 1802 in New South Wales and became a tailor. In an interview in 2015, Turnbull said that his middle name "Bligh" has been a family tradition for generations, originally given in honour of Governor William Bligh. Turnbull's parents married in December 1955, fourteen months after his birth. They separated when he was nine, with his mother leaving first for New Zealand and then the United States. Turnbull was from then raised solely by his father. Turnbull suffered from asthma as a young child.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,131,326, and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In March 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 7.9 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.
Coral Magnolia Lansbury was an Australian-born writer and academic. She was the mother of Malcolm Turnbull, the 29th Prime Minister of Australia.
Turnbull spent his first three years of school at Vaucluse Public School. He then boarded at Sydney Grammar Preparatory School in St Ives, before attending Grammar's high school campus on College Street on a partial scholarship.During this time he lived at the school's former Randwick boarding facilities. He was made senior school co-captain in 1972, as well as winning the Lawrence Campbell Oratory Competition, excelling particularly in the literary subjects such as English and history. However, contrary to certain sources, Turnbull was not the dux of his graduating year at Sydney Grammar. In 1987, in memory of his late father, he set up the Bruce Turnbull means-tested scholarship at Sydney Grammar, which offers full remission of fees to a student unable to afford them.
Vaucluse Public School is a school located in Vaucluse, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is a co-educational public school operated by the New South Wales Department of Education and Training with students from years K to 6. The school was established in 1858.
Sydney Grammar School is an independent, fee-paying, non-denominational, day school for boys, located in Darlinghurst, Edgecliff and St Ives, which are all suburbs of Sydney, Australia.
College Street is a 700-metre (2,300 ft) major street in the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. From north to south, it runs from east of Queens Square and St James station to start at the junction of the Prince Albert, St Marys, and Art Gallery roads and runs to Whitlam Square, at Liverpool Street. The street gets its name from a college on the street, St. Mary’s Cathedral College. The street runs beside the eastern border of Hyde Park, and is lined by the Australian Museum, Sydney Grammar School, Cook and Phillip Park Aquatic and Fitness Centre, and St Mary's Cathedral.
In 1973, Turnbull attended the University of Sydney, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts in political science in 1977 and a Bachelor of Laws in 1978.During his studies, he was involved in student politics, serving as board director of the University of Sydney Union. He also worked part-time as a political journalist for Nation Review , Radio 2SM and Channel 9, covering state politics.
In 1978, Turnbull won a Rhodes Scholarship and attended Brasenose College, Oxford, where he studied for a Bachelor of Civil Law from 1978 to 1980, graduating with honours.While at Oxford, he worked for The Sunday Times and contributed to newspapers and magazines in both the United States and Australia. During Turnbull's time at Oxford, a university don wrote of him that he was "always going to enter life's rooms without knocking".
After graduating from Oxford, Turnbull returned to Australia and began working as a barrister. He was general counsel and secretary for Australian Consolidated Press Holdings Group from 1983 to 1985. During this time, he defended Kerry Packer against the "Goanna" allegations made by the Costigan Commission. Turnbull attempted to use the press to goad the counsel assisting the commission, Douglas Meagher QC, into suing him and Packer for the withering public attack both undertook to sully Meagher's and Costigan's names. Turnbull accused Meagher and Costigan of being "unjust, capricious, dishonest and malicious". Turnbull later advised Packer to sue Meagher for defamation, an action that was struck down by Justice David Hunt as being an abuse of process, saying that Turnbull had managed "to poison the fountain of justice". These tactics made Turnbull enemies within the NSW Bar Association, leading to Turnbull's departure from that organisation.
In partnership with Bruce McWilliam, he established his own law firm, Turnbull McWilliam. During 1986, Turnbull defended Peter Wright, a former MI5 official who wrote the book Spycatcher , successfully stopping the British government's attempts to suppress the book's publication in Australia. The case was widely reported, making Turnbull a public figure in Australia and the United Kingdom; Turnbull later wrote a book on the trial.
"The fact of the matter is that nothing is achieved in this world, particularly politically, other than with persistence, and persistence involves repetition and it involves argument and re-argument... The public interest in free speech is not just in truthful speech, in correct speech, in fair speech... The interest is in the debate. You see, every person who has ultimately changed the course of history has started off being unpopular." Turnbull's closing submissions, 18 December 1986
In 1987, Turnbull established an investment banking firm, Whitlam Turnbull & Co Ltd, in partnership with Neville Wran, the former Labor Premier of New South Wales, and Nicholas Whitlam, the former Chief Executive of the State Bank of New South Wales and the son of former Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam. Whitlam parted company with the firm in 1990; it operated as Turnbull & Partners Ltd until 1997.
Turnbull left the firm he co-founded in 1997 to become a managing director of Goldman Sachs Australia, eventually becoming a partner in Goldman Sachs and Co. Additionally, he worked as a director of Star Technology Systems from 1993 to 1995. During this time Turnbull was also the chairman of Axiom Forest Resources, which conducted logging in the Solomon Islands under the trading name Silvania Forest Products. The latter's work was described by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau as a "clear-felling operation", and the then Solomon Islands Prime Minister Solomon Mamaloni reportedly threatened to close it down for "constant breaches of logging practices", according to a critical article in the Solomon Times.
Turnbull purchased a stake in the internet service provider Ozemail in 1994 for $500,000. He sold this stake several months before the dot com bubble burst in 1999 for $57 million to then-telecommunications giant MCI Worldcom. In the same year, Turnbull the software and investment company FTR Holdings Ltd to take positions in a number of internet businesses, including WebCentral and Chaos.com.
In May 2002, Turnbull appeared before the HIH Insurance royal commission to be questioned on Goldman Sachs's involvement in the possible privatisation of one of the acquisitions of the collapsed insurance company. The Royal Commissioner's report made no adverse findings against him or Goldman Sachs,however, Turnbull was one of nine defendants who settled later litigation over the collapse in undisclosed payments, thought to be worth as much as $500m.
In 1981, Turnbull stood for Liberal Party preselection in the Division of Wentworth prior to the 1981 Wentworth by-election. He was defeated by Peter Coleman, who went on to win the seat. [ citation needed ]In 1982, following his retirement from politics, former prime minister William McMahon nominated Turnbull as his preferred successor in Lowe; the Liberals chose another candidate, and lost the by-election to Labor. Turnbull later attempted preselection in the safe state seat of Mosman in 1983, losing to Phillip Smiles. He let his membership of the Liberal Party lapse in 1986, before rejoining in 2000. Turnbull was made Federal Treasurer of the Liberal Party in 2000, and was a member of the party's federal and New South Wales executives from 2002 to 2003. He also spent time as a director of the Menzies Research Centre, the Liberal Party's research centre.
In 1993, Turnbull was appointed by Prime Minister Paul Keating as Chair of the Republic Advisory Committee, charged with exploring ways of moving Australia to a republican form of government by replacing the Queen of Australia with an elected Australian head of state. Later that year, Turnbull became Chair of the Australian Republican Movement, a position he would hold until 2000. He was an elected delegate at the Australian Constitutional Convention of 1998 in Canberra.At the Convention, Turnbull cautioned against mixing the roles of President and Prime Minister, advocating a parliamentary republic, and supported the bi-partisan appointment republican model adopted by the convention.
Turnbull was an active campaigner in the unsuccessful 1999 referendum to establish an Australian republic, serving as Chair of the Yes Committee. He published a book on the campaign, titled Fighting for the Republic. When the referendum failed, he accused incumbent Prime Minister and monarchist John Howard of "breaking the nation's heart".Turnbull retired from the Australian Republican Movement in 2000, having already left the board of Ausflag in 1994; he joined the Australian National Flag Association in 2004.
Turnbull has had a long affiliation with the Liberal Party of Australia throughout his career. During his time in the Australian Republican Movement however, he considered running for preselection for the Australian Labor Party. In 2015, it was revealed that Turnbull had held talks with Labor state politician John Della Bosca during the 1990s on a possible party switch, and that he had harboured aspirations in his youth to head the Australian Workers' Union, which is linked with the Labor Party.The accusation, made by former Labor Foreign Minister Bob Carr, was cited by Labor Leader Bill Shorten during the Royal Commission into trade union governance and corruption.
In 2000, Turnbull intended to seek Liberal preselection for Wentworth but did not eventually contest after concluding that preselection hopeful Peter King had the numbers in the branches.In 2003, Turnbull announced that he would challenge King for the seat and successfully defeated him to become the Liberal candidate. During what was a bitter preselection campaign, King accused Turnbull of branch stacking, by having local members transferring their membership to a branch that would decide the pre-selection, what King referred to as "branch stripping".
Following his preselection loss, King stood against Turnbull at the 2004 federal election as an independent candidate. As a result, the traditionally safe Liberal seat became an electoral wildcard, the contest becoming a three-person race between Turnbull, King and the Labor candidate David Patch. During the campaign, Turnbull spent over A$600,000 on his campaign. While the Liberal primary vote eventually fell by 10.3% to a total 41.8%, King received only 18% of the primary vote with a 57%/43% Liberal/Labor preference split which meant Turnbull was elected, albeit on a reduced 55.5% two-party vote after a 2.4% swing. The result meant that Wentworth was classified as a marginal seat for the first time since the 1993 federal election.
Announcing a cabinet reshuffle on 24 January 2006, Prime Minister John Howard promoted Turnbull from the backbench to the role of parliamentary secretary, giving him special responsibility for water at the height of the 2000s Australian drought.On 26 September 2006, Howard announced the creation of a new Office of Water Resources, sitting within the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, to address the problem of drought in Australia; Turnbull was given responsibility for this office.
In January 2007, Howard promoted Turnbull to the Cabinet as Minister for the Environment and Water. In this position, Turnbull approved a proposed A$1.7 billion Bell Bay Pulp Mill in north Tasmania, near Launceston. Turnbull's approval of the Bell Bay Pulp Mill project of Gunns Ltd came on 4 October 2007 and followed a report by the Government's chief scientist Jim Peacock on the project's potential environmental impact, which required the project to meet 48 "strict environmental" conditions.
In February 2007, Turnbull was criticised for claiming a government allowance of A$175 a night and paying it to his wife as rent while living in a townhouse owned by her in Canberra.
During the 2007 federal election campaign, Turnbull announced that if re-elected the Government would contribute A$10 million to the investigation of an untried Russian technology that aims to trigger rainfall from the atmosphere, even when there are no clouds. The Australian Rain Corporation presented research documents written in Russian, explained by a Russian researcher who spoke to local experts in Russian. Although Turnbull claimed that the Australian Rain Corporation was Australian-based, investigations revealed that it was 75% Swiss-owned. It was also revealed that a prominent stakeholder in the Australian Rain Corporation, Matt Handbury, is a nephew of Rupert Murdoch. Turnbull refused to answer questions regarding Handbury's contribution to the Wentworth Forum, the main fund-raising organisation for Turnbull's 2007 election campaign.
Turnbull retained his seat at the 2007 federal election with a two-party vote 1.3% swing in Wentworth, despite a 5.6% swing away from the Coalition in the state, and a 5.4% swing against them nationwide.After John Howard lost his seat of Bennelong, on 25 November 2007 Peter Costello, who Howard stated publicly should succeed him, announced he would not seek the party leadership. Turnbull declared his candidacy later that same day, and was considered by the media as a favourite.
On 29 November he narrowly lost the leadership vote to Brendan Nelson by three votes; Nelson quickly appointed Turnbull Shadow Treasurer.Shortly after the vote, fellow Shadow Cabinet Minister Nick Minchin publicly suggested that Turnbull's failure to consult with party colleagues before declaring his opinion to the media on issues such as an apology to the Stolen Generations was what had cost him the leadership. This led to a disagreement between the two and culminated in Minchin privately telling Turnbull that he was "too fucking sensitive." In May 2008, Turnbull led the Coalition response to the 2008 Australian federal budget, criticising the increased taxes on luxury cars and certain alcoholic drinks, citing a possible increase in inflation as a concern.
After months of consistently poor opinion polling, Turnbull challenged Brendan Nelson for the leadership on 16 September 2008. He won the ballot by four votes and became Leader of the Opposition. Later that month, Turnbull confessed that he had smoked marijuana in his younger days, becoming the first Liberal Leader to make such an admission.In early 2009, Turnbull appointed Chris Kenny, a former staffer to Alexander Downer and an Advertiser journalist, as his chief of staff. In May 2009, Turnbull attacked the 2009 Australian federal budget which came amidst the fallout from the global financial crisis.
In June 2009, Godwin Grech, a Treasury civil servant, privately contacted Turnbull, alleging that a car dealer with links to the Labor Party had received preferential treatment under the OzCar program, sparking the 'OzCar affair'. Turnbull later repeated these allegations in Parliament, stating that Prime Minister Kevin Rudd and Treasurer Wayne Swan had "used their offices and taxpayers' resources to seek advantage for one of their mates and then lied about it to the Parliament" and that they needed to "either explain their actions or resign".On 22 June, the email Grech had secretly provided to Turnbull supporting allegation was alleged to have been faked by Grech. Grech subsequently admitted the forgery, with an Australian National Audit Office inquiry on 4 August clearing both Rudd and Swan of any wrongdoing. The resulting embarrassment of having repeated false allegations, as well as Turnbull's demeanour throughout OzCar affair, was judged as the cause of a subsequent significant decline in his approval ratings in opinion polls.
On 24 November 2009, Liberal and National MPs and Senators met to discuss the Rudd Government's proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS). Turnbull announced that his policy would be to support the CPRS, despite significant disagreement among his colleagues.In response, Liberal MPs Wilson Tuckey and Dennis Jensen looked to move a leadership spill motion, intending to nominate Kevin Andrews as a challenger to Turnbull. While this attempt failed, increasing numbers of MPs and Senators publicly criticised the position, with several resigning from the Shadow Cabinet, including Tony Abbott.
On 1 December 2009, just one week after Turnbull announced the policy on the CPRS, Abbott announced he would challenge Turnbull for the leadership. Though initially regarded as having little chance of success, with Turnbull stating in public that Abbott did not have the numbers to win, Abbott defeated Turnbull in the ballot by a single vote.After the shock result, Turnbull returned to the backbench and said he would serve out the remainder of his term as Member for Wentworth. On 6 April 2010, he announced he would not seek re-election to the Australian Parliament. However, on 1 May 2010 he reversed this decision saying that he had been convinced by former Prime Minister John Howard to not give up his political career.
At the 2010 federal election, Turnbull was re-elected with an 11.01% two-party swing towards him.After discussing the possibility of a return to the Shadow Cabinet with Tony Abbott, Turnbull was made Shadow Minister for Communications. In his first policy announcement in the role, Turnbull stated that a Coalition Government would "demolish" the recently introduced National Broadband Network.
Delivering the 2012 Alfred Deakin Lecture on digital liberty, he spoke out strongly against the Gillard Government's proposed two-year data retention law.In July 2012, Turnbull was criticised by some Liberal MPs for saying that civil unions should be introduced as a first step towards establishing same-sex marriage in Australia. Tony Abbott rejected Turnbull's suggestion of holding a conscience vote on the issue.
On 9 April 2013, Turnbull and Tony Abbott presented their party's alternative National Broadband Network (NBN) plan.The plan prioritised a modified and scaled-down NBN with "fibre to the node" (FTTN) and last-mile by copper cable. The new policy contrasted with the previous position which had called for the dismantling of the entire NBN.
After the Coalition victory in the 2013 federal election, Turnbull was appointed Minister for Communications and began implementing the alternative NBN strategy. In 2014, Turnbull announced that the Vertigan Report, a cost-benefit analysis of providing fast broadband to regional and rural Australia through wireless and satellite services, revealed that continuing the plan would cost nearly A$5 billion and was expected to produce only A$600 million in economic benefits – a return of just 10%. In spite of the economic cost, Turnbull stated that whilst subsidising broadband to regional areas is "fiendishly expensive", there was no other option.
In December 2014, Turnbull brokered a deal between the Australian Government, NBN Co and Telstra whereby NBN Co acquired Telstra's copper network and hybrid-fibre coaxial (HFC) to deliver the NBN. Telstra and NBN Co agreed to work together on the FTTN trial involving 200,000 premises. billion, with NBN Co likely to take on the additional expenditure as debt. Though still cheaper than the original Labor Party NBN policy, which aimed to deliver much faster connection speeds, the peak funding requirement under the Liberal model ran to between $46 billion and $56 billion.In August 2015, Turnbull revealed that the overall end cost of the network build would likely expand up to an additional $15
Following persistent leadership tensions amidst poor opinion polling, a leadership spill motion was moved against Tony Abbott on 9 February 2015. Although the spill motion was defeated 61 votes to 39, Turnbull had been reported as considering a run for the leadership if the spill motion had succeeded. Before the motion Turnbull had told reporters that "if, for whatever reason, the leadership of a political party is vacant then anyone, any member of the party can stand, whether they be a minister or a backbencher, without any disloyalty to the person whose leadership has been declared vacant."
Despite the defeat of the February 2015 spill motion, questions over Abbott's leadership did not abate, with the Government consistently performing poorly in opinion polls. On 14 September 2015, after 30 consecutive Newspolls had put the Liberals far behind Labor, Turnbull resigned from the Cabinet and announced he would challenge Abbott for the leadership of the Liberal Party. capable of providing the economic leadership we need" and that the Liberal Party needs a "style of leadership that respects the people's intelligence." Turnbull defeated Abbott by 54 votes to 44 at the subsequent leadership ballot. He was sworn in as the 29th Prime Minister of Australia the following day.Turnbull stated that Abbott "was not
Turnbull announced an extensive reshuffle of the Cabinet on 20 September 2015 to form the First Turnbull Ministry. Notably, he increased the number of female Cabinet Ministers from two to five and appointed Marise Payne as Australia's first female Minister for Defence. The number of Cabinet Ministers rose from 19 to 21. On Turnbull's key policy differences with Abbott, particularly climate change, republicanism and same-sex marriage, he stated that there would be no immediate change before any election. billion worth of deals from Turnbull, as well as control of the water portfolio, in exchange for a continued Coalition agreement. Turnbull stated that he would not lead a government that did not take climate change seriously.The Nationals successfully negotiated a total of $4
On 21 March 2016, Turnbull announced that Parliament would consider bills to reinstate the Australian Building and Construction Commission (ABCC), with the bills having previously been rejected twice before. Turnbull stated if the Senate rejected the bills a third time, he would advise the Governor-General to call a double dissolution of Parliament and a federal election for 2 July. Turnbull also brought forward the delivery of the federal budget from 10 May to 3 May to facilitate this.On 18 April, the Senate once again rejected the bills to reinstate the ABCC. On 8 May, Turnbull visited Government House to advise the Governor-General to issue the writs for a double dissolution on 9 May; this confirmed the date of the election as 2 July 2016.
During the 2016 federal election campaign, a ReachTEL opinion poll of 626 Wentworth voters conducted on 31 May predicted a two-party swing against Turnbull for the first time since his election to Wentworth, revealing a reduced 58% two-party vote from a large 10.9% two-party swing.A controversy occurred during the election campaign, when the president of the Australian National Imams Council, Sheikh Shady Alsuleiman participated in an Iftar dinner hosted by Turnbull at Kirribilli House. Turnbull said he would not have invited Alsuleiman if he had known of his position regarding homosexuals.
At the election, the Coalition lost 14 seats and retained majority government by a single seat.The result was the closest since the 1961 federal election. In the days following the election, when the result was still not certain, Turnbull had to negotiate with the crossbench to secure confidence and supply support from Bob Katter, Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan in the event of a hung parliament and resulting minority government.
In February 2017, Turnbull confirmed he had donated $1.75 million to the Liberal Party's election campaign.
Asylum seeker policy is a contentious wedge issue in Australian politics, especially since the Tampa affair. Continuing the bipartisan stance of Operation Sovereign Borders has been at the forefront the Coalition's asylum seeker policy. Around 1,250 asylum seekers remain in the offshore processing centres on Manus Island and Nauru. In August 2016 protestors called for the closure of camps on Manus and Nauruafter The Guardian released leaked incident reports alleging "routine dysfunction and cruelty" on Nauru.
In July 2016 the Obama administration set up a refugee center in Costa Rica in response to a Central American migration crisis.In November, Turnbull and Peter Dutton announced that Australia would accept 1,250 refugees from Central America, in exchange for the U.S. accepting refugees on Nauru and Manus.
Turnbull and President Donald Trump held a phone conversation on 28 January 2017, the transcript of which later leaked to the Washington Post .On 2 February 2017, Trump tweeted that Obama's deal was "dumb". US Vice-President Mike Pence later confirmed that the United States would honour the deal, subject to 'extreme vetting' of asylum seekers. Australia began receiving Central American asylum seekers in July 2017.
Since the 2016 election, the Turnbull government has followed prior Coalition government energy policies. This involves the wholesale dismissal of renewable energy targets and emissions intensity schemes. This only hardened when South Australia faced large blackouts which Turnbull had blamed on the state's 'ambitious' renewable energy target.In response to the gas and energy crisis that occurred in March 2017, Malcolm Turnbull announced a 50% increase in the capacity of Snowy Hydro through 'pumped hydro' technology.
In April 2017, Turnbull announced that he would use the Commonwealth government's powers to place export restrictions on the nation's liquified natural gas ("LNG") industry.He announced that these changes were in response to the high wholesale gas prices that were a result of a shortage of gas in the domestic gas market and that it was 'unacceptable' that domestic prices were so high, indicating a consequence of these restrictions would be a decrease in the wholesale gas price. The multinational gas companies and the gas industry association heavily criticised the policy saying that it would neither increase supply nor reduce the wholesale price of gas.
Prior to Turnbull becoming Prime Minister, the parliamentary Liberal Party voted to resolve the issue of same-sex marriage by putting the question to Australians voters via a plebiscite. Enabling legislation was rejected twice by the Senate, and so the government decided to adopt a postal plebiscite option, which will involve the Australian Bureau of Statistics conducting a nationwide survey asking voters whether they would like to see a change in the definition of marriage. Sending out of ballots began on 12 September 2017, as attempts to prevent the survey through a High Court challenge failed. The survey ended 7 November 2017 and results released 15 November the same year. It returned with a total of 7,817,247 (61.6%) "Yes" responses and 4,873,987 (38.4%) "No" responses.
Following the vote, after four days of debates regarding amendments which included proposals to increase religious protections to refuse services to same-sex couples, on the 7 December 2017 same-sex marriage was legalised through a parliamentary vote by the House of Representatives. The first same-sex marriages in Australia occurred as a result of the law change from 9 January 2018.
Members of Turnbull's government were among those embroiled in the parliamentary eligibility crisis that arose in 2017, which disqualified several parliamentarians who held dual citizenship in accordance with subsection 44(i) of the Australian Constitution.Three Cabinet members were among the "Citizenship Seven" whose cases were heard in the High Court of Australia: the leader and deputy leader of the co-governing National Party, Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce and Senator Fiona Nash; and Resources Minister Matt Canavan, who resigned from Cabinet after discovering his potential dual citizenship. The High Court ruled that Canavan was eligible, but disqualified dual citizens Joyce and Nash from Parliament.
The Turnbull Government temporarily lost its one-seat majority in the House of Representatives after Joyce's disqualification and the resignation of Liberal Party MP John Alexander, who also held dual citizenship. However, in December 2017 both Joyce and Alexander, having renounced their foreign citizenships, contested and won by-elections in their former seats of New England and Bennelong, thereby retaining Turnbull's governing majority in the House of Representatives.
On 21 August 2018, Turnbull survived a challenge to his leadership of the Liberal Party by Home Affairs Minister Peter Dutton, winning by 48 votes to Dutton's 35.The spill highlighted ideological tensions within the Liberal Party, between the more moderate wing led by Turnbull, and the more conservative wing represented by Dutton and Tony Abbott. From 21 to 23 August, tensions mounted and Dutton announced that he would seek a second spill. Turnbull responded that, pending a report from the Solicitor-General of Australia on the eligibility of Dutton to serve in Parliament and the receipt of a petition calling for a party room meeting that bore the signatures of at least half (43) of the parliamentary party, he would call such a meeting, vacate the leadership (regarding the petition as a vote of no confidence) and not stand in the subsequent leadership election. On the morning of 24 August, the Solicitor-General advised that Peter Dutton was "not ineligible" to serve. Later that morning, Dutton presented to Turnbull a document calling for a party room meeting that contained the minimum 43 signatures. A party meeting was then called and the leadership was spilled, with Scott Morrison elected as Turnbull's successor by 45 votes over Dutton with 40. In his final press conference as Prime Minister, Turnbull denounced Dutton and Abbott as "wreckers".
On 27 August Turnbull announced that he would resign from Parliament over the coming days. On 31 August 2018 he tendered a formal notice of resignation to the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Turnbull is married to Lucy Turnbull (née Hughes), who was the Lord Mayor of Sydney from 2003 to 2004 and has held a number of other prominent positions. The couple were married on 22 March 1980 at Cumnor, Oxfordshire, by a Church of England priest while Turnbull was attending the University of Oxford. They live in the eastern suburbs of Sydney.
Turnbull and Lucy have two adult children, Alex and Daisy, and as of July 2016 [update] , three grandchildren. Alex Turnbull is married to Yvonne Wang of Chinese descent.
The use of Bligh as a male middle name is a tradition in the Turnbull family. It is also Turnbull's son's middle name. One of Turnbull's ancestors was colonist John Turnbull, who named his youngest son William Bligh Turnbull in honour of deposed Governor William Bligh at the time of the Rum Rebellion.
Raised Presbyterian, Turnbull became agnostic in the beginning of his adult life and later converted to Roman Catholicism "by mid-2002"; his wife's family is Roman Catholic.However, he has found himself at odds with the church's teaching on abortion, stem cell research and same-sex marriage. Turnbull supported legislation relaxing restrictions on abortion pill RU486 and he also voted for the legalisation of somatic cell nuclear transfer. He did so despite the vocal public opposition to both proposals by Cardinal George Pell, the then-Archbishop of Sydney.
In 2005, the combined net worth of Malcolm and Lucy Turnbull was estimated at A$133 million, making him Australia's richest parliamentarian until the election of billionaire Clive Palmer in the 2013 election.
Turnbull made the BRW Rich 200 list for the second year running in 2010, and although he slipped from 182 to 197, his estimated net worth increased to A$186 million, and he continued to be the only sitting politician to make the list. Turnbull was not listed in the 2014 list of the BRW Rich 200. As of 2015, his estimated net worth is in excess of A$200 million.
On 1 January 2001, Turnbull received the Centenary Medal for services to the corporate sector.
Turnbull has written books on the republican debate, as well as his experiences during the Spycatcher trial:
Julie Isabel Bishop is an Australian politician who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2013 to 2018 and deputy leader of the Liberal Party from 2007 to 2018. She was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Curtin in 1998.
Gregory Andrew Hunt is an Australian politician serving as Health Minister in the Morrison Government. He has been a Liberal Member of the House of Representatives since November 2001, representing the Division of Flinders in Victoria.
Mitchell Peter Fifield is an Australian politician. He is a member of the Australian Senate, in which capacity he has represented the state of Victoria for the Liberal Party since March 2004. Fifield served as the Assistant Minister for Social Services and the Manager of Government Business in the Senate in the Abbott Government, and Minister for Communications and Minister for the Arts in the Turnbull Government from 21 September 2015 until 23 August 2018. He resigned from the ministry following his criticism of the leadership of Malcolm Turnbull. He was reappointed to the same portfolio by Turnbull's successor, Scott Morrison.
Joshua Anthony Frydenberg is an Australian politician who has been Treasurer of Australia and Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party since 24 August 2018. He has been a member of the Australian House of Representatives for the seat of Kooyong since August 2010.
Mathias Hubert Paul Cormann is an Australian Liberal Party politician serving as Minister for Finance and the Public Service in the Morrison Government since 2018 and Senator for Western Australia since 2007. Cormann served as Minister for Finance in the Abbott and Turnbull Government from 2013 to 2018.
Christopher Maurice Pyne is an Australian politician who has been the Liberal member for the House of Representatives seat of Sturt since the 1993 election.
A spill of the leadership of the Liberal Party of Australia took place on 29 November 2007, following the defeat of the Howard Government at the federal election five days earlier. The resulting ballot was an open race as outgoing Prime Minister John Howard had lost his own seat at the election, and his preferred successor Peter Costello refused to stand.
A leadership spill for the Liberal Party of Australia was held on 1 December 2009. The incumbent leader Malcolm Turnbull was defeated by Tony Abbott on the second ballot; Joe Hockey also stood as a candidate. Abbott thus replaced Turnbull as Leader of the Opposition, and would lead the party to the 2010 federal election.
Craig Kelly, an Australian federal politician, is a member of the Australian House of Representatives. Since the 2010 federal election, he has represented the electorate of Hughes, in New South Wales, for the Liberal Party of Australia, succeeding Danna Vale.
The Abbott Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by the 28th Prime Minister Tony Abbott. The government was made up of members of the Liberal–National Coalition. The Leader of The Nationals, Warren Truss, served as Deputy Prime Minister. Following the 2013 Australian federal election held on 7 September, the Coalition defeated the second Rudd Government, ending six years of Labor Government. The Abbott Government was sworn into office on 18 September 2013. Less than two years later on 14 September 2015, Malcolm Turnbull defeated Abbott in a leadership ballot, 54 votes to 44 and the Turnbull Government became the executive government of Australia.
Craig Arthur Samuel Laundy is an Australian Liberal Party politician serving as Member of Parliament for Reid since 2013. He served as Minister for Small and Family Business, the Workplace and Deregulation in the Second Turnbull Ministry, before resigning in August 2018 following the ousting of Malcolm Turnbull as Prime Minister.
A motion seeking a leadership spill of the federal parliamentary leader of the Liberal Party of Australia, Prime Minister and Deputy Leader was proposed in a meeting of the parliamentary Liberal Party on 9 February 2015. Luke Simpkins and Don Randall moved the spill motion at the meeting. Incumbent Prime Minister Tony Abbott and deputy leader of the Liberal Party Julie Bishop jointly stood in opposition to the motion which was defeated by 61 votes to 39.
A motion seeking a leadership spill of the federal parliamentary leader of the Liberal Party of Australia and Prime Minister was proposed by Malcolm Turnbull, who requested the ballot on 14 September 2015. The incumbent Prime Minister, Tony Abbott, announced that a meeting of Liberal members of the House and Senate would take place at 9:15 pm AEST on 14 September 2015 for the purpose of a spill motion. During the meeting a vote was held for the leadership and deputy leadership. Turnbull defeated Abbott, 54 votes to 44, becoming the leader of the Liberal Party of Australia and Prime Minister-nominee. Julie Bishop retained her position of deputy leader defeating Kevin Andrews 70 votes to 30.
The Turnbull Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by the 29th Prime Minister of Australia, Malcolm Turnbull, from 2015 to 2018. It succeeded the Abbott Government, which brought the Coalition to power at the 2013 Australian federal election. The Government consisted of members of Australia's Liberal-Nationals Coalition. Turnbull took office by challenging his leader, Tony Abbott, in an internal leadership ballot. Warren Truss, the leader of the Nationals, served as Deputy Prime Minister until he retired in 2016 and was replaced by Barnaby Joyce. Joyce resigned in February 2018 and the Nationals' new leader Michael McCormack became Deputy Prime Minister. The Turnbull Government concluded with Turnbull's resignation ahead of internal leadership ballot which saw him succeeded as Prime Minister by Scott Morrison and the Morrison Government.
Leadership spills of the federal parliamentary leadership of the Liberal Party of Australia were held on 21 and 24 August 2018 and were called by the incumbent leader of the party, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull.
A by-election for the Australian House of Representatives seat of Wentworth took place on 20 October 2018 following the parliamentary resignation of the former Prime Minister of Australia and incumbent Liberal MP Malcolm Turnbull.
The Morrison Government is the federal executive government of Australia led by the 30th Prime Minister of Australia, Scott Morrison of the Liberal Party of Australia. The government consists of members of the Liberal-National Coalition, and Michael McCormack, the leader of the junior party in the Coalition, the National Party serves as Deputy Prime Minister. The prime ministership of Scott Morrison commenced on 24 August 2018, when he was sworn in by the Governor-General of Australia.
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| Chair of the Australian Republican Movement |
|Parliament of Australia|
| Member for Wentworth |
| Minister for the Environment and Water |
| Leader of the Opposition |
| Minister for Communications |
| Prime Minister of Australia |
|Party political offices|
| Leader of the Liberal Party |
| Leader of the Liberal Party |