Outline of geography

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography:

An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure. An outline is used to present the main points or topics (terms) of a given subject. Each item in an outline may be divided into additional sub-items. If an organizational level in an outline is to be sub-divided, it shall have at least two subcategories, as advised by major style manuals in current use. An outline may be used as a drafting tool of a document, or as a summary of the content of a document or of the knowledge in an entire field. It is not to be confused with the general context of the term "outline", which a summary or overview of a subject, presented verbally or written in prose. The outlines described in this article are lists, and come in several varieties.


Geography study of earth and its people. [1]

A map of the world. Map of the world by the US Gov as of 2016.svg
A map of the world.

Nature of geography

Geography is

Natural science Branch of science about the natural world

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances.

Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches. These social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, history, musicology, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology. The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science.

Branches of geography

As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches:

Other branches include:

All the branches are further described below...

Physical geography

Physical geography The study of processes and patterns in the natural environment

Physical geography is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. Physical geography is the branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.

Fields of physical geography

  • Geomorphology study of landforms and the processes that them, and more broadly, of the processes controlling the topography of any planet. Seeks to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics, and to predict future changes through a combination of field observation, physical experiment, and numerical modeling.
  • Hydrology study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
    • Glaciology study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
    • Oceanography studies a wide range of topics pertaining to oceans, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries.
    Oceanography The study of the physical and biological aspects of water

    Oceanography, also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean. It is an important Earth science, which covers a wide range of topics, including ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within: astronomy, biology, chemistry, climatology, geography, geology, hydrology, meteorology and physics. Paleoceanography studies the history of the oceans in the geologic past.

  • Biogeography study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally. Over areal ecological changes, it is also tied to the concepts of species and their past, or present living 'refugium', their survival locales, or their interim living sites. It aims to reveal where organisms live, and at what abundance. [6]
  • Climatology study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. [7]
  • Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and short term forecasting (in contrast with climatology).
  • Pedology study of soils in their natural environment [8] that deals with pedogenesis, soil morphology, and soil classification.
  • Palaeogeography study of what the geography was in times past, most often concerning the physical landscape, but also the human or cultural environment.
  • Coastal geography study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast. It involves an understanding of coastal weathering processes, particularly wave action, sediment movement and weather, and also the ways in which humans interact with the coast.
  • Quaternary science focuses on the Quaternary period, which encompasses the last 2.6 million years, including the last ice age and the Holocene period.
  • Landscape ecology the relationship between spatial patterns of urban development and ecological processes on a multitude of landscape scales and organizational levels. [9] [10] [11]
Geomorphology The scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them

Geomorphology is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphologists work within disciplines such as physical geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology, climatology and geotechnical engineering. This broad base of interests contributes to many research styles and interests within the field.

Hydrology The science of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets

Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering. Using various analytical methods and scientific techniques, they collect and analyze data to help solve water related problems such as environmental preservation, natural disasters, and water management.

Glaciology Scientific study of ice and natural phenomena involving ice

Glaciology is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.

Approaches of physical geography

Human geography

Fields of human geography

  • Cultural geography study of cultural products and norms and their variations across and relations to spaces and places. It focuses on describing and analyzing the ways language, religion, economy, government and other cultural phenomena vary or remain constant, from one place to another and on explaining how humans function spatially. [12]
    • Children's geographies study of places and spaces of children's lives, characterized experientially, politically and ethically. Children's geographies rests on the idea that children as a social group share certain characteristics which are experientially, politically and ethically significant and which are worthy of study. The pluralisation in the title is intended to imply that children's lives will be markedly different in differing times and places and in differing circumstances such as gender, family, and class. The range of focii within children's geographies include:
      • Children and the city
      • Children and the countryside
      • Children and technology
      • Children and nature,
      • Children and globalization
      • Methodologies of researching children's worlds
      • Ethics of researching children's worlds
      • Otherness of childhood
    • Animal geographies studies the spaces and places occupied by animals in human culture, because social life and space is heavily populated by animals of many differing kinds and in many differing ways (e.g. farm animals, pets, wild animals in the city). Another impetus that has influenced the development of the field are ecofeminist and other environmentalist viewpoints on nature-society relations (including questions of animal welfare and rights).
    • Language geography studies the geographic distribution of language or its constituent elements. There are two principal fields of study within the geography of language:
      1. Geography of languages deals with the distribution through history and space of languages, [13]
      2. Linguistic geography deals with regional linguistic variations within languages. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]
    • Sexuality and space encompasses all relationships and interactions between human sexuality, space, and place, including the geographies of LGBT residence, public sex environments, sites of queer resistance, global sexualities, sex tourism, [19] the geographies of prostitution and adult entertainment, use of sexualised locations in the arts, [20] [21] and sexual citizenship. [22]
    • Religion geography study of the influence of geography, i.e. place and space, on religious belief. [23]
  • Development geography study of the Earth's geography with reference to the standard of living and quality of life of its human inhabitants. Measures development by looking at economic, political and social factors, and seeks to understand both the geographical causes and consequences of varying development, in part by comparing More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs) with Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs).
  • Economic geography study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. Subjects of interest include but are not limited to the location of industries, economies of agglomeration (also known as "linkages"), transportation, international trade and development, real estate, gentrification, ethnic economies, gendered economies, core-periphery theory, the economics of urban form, the relationship between the environment and the economy (tying into a long history of geographers studying culture-environment interaction), and globalization.
    • Marketing geography a discipline within marketing analysis which uses geolocation (geographic information) in the process of planning and implementation of marketing activities. [24] It can be used in any aspect of the marketing mix – the product, price, promotion, or place (geo targeting).
    • Transportation geography branch of economic geography that investigates spatial interactions between people, freight and information. It studies humans and their use of vehicles or other modes of traveling as well as how markets are serviced by flows of finished goods and raw materials.
  • Health geography application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care, to provide a spatial understanding of a population's health, the distribution of disease in an area, and the environment's effect on health and disease. It also deals with accessibility to health care and spatial distribution of health care providers.
    • Time geography study of the temporal factor on spatial human activities within the following constraints:
  1. Authority - limits of accessibility to certain places or domains placed on individuals by owners or authorities
  2. Capability - limitations on the movement of individuals, based on their nature. For example, movement is restricted by biological factors, such as the need for food, drink, and sleep
  3. Coupling - restraint of an individual, anchoring him or her to a location while interacting with other individuals in order to complete a task
  • Historical geography study of the human, physical, fictional, theoretical, and "real" geographies of the past, and seeks to determine how cultural features of various societies across the planet emerged and evolved, by understanding how a place or region changes through time, including how people have interacted with their environment and created the cultural landscape.
  • Political geography study of the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. Basically, the inter-relationships between people, state, and territory.
    • Electoral geography study of the relationship between election results and the regions they affect (such as the environmental impact of voting decisions), and of the effects of regional factors upon voting behavior.
    • Geopolitics analysis of geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales, ranging from the level of the state to international.
    • Strategic geography concerned with the control of, or access to, spatial areas that affect the security and prosperity of nations.
    • Military geography the application of geographic tools, information, and techniques to solve military problems in peacetime or war.
  • Population geography study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations are related to the nature of places.
  • Tourism geography study of travel and tourism, as an industry and as a social and cultural activity, and their effect on places, including the environmental impact of tourism, the geographies of tourism and leisure economies, answering tourism industry and management concerns and the sociology of tourism and locations of tourism.
  • Urban geography the study of urban areas, in terms of concentration, infrastructure, economy, and environmental impacts.

Approaches of human geography

Integrated geography


Fields contributing to geomatics

  • Photogrammetry   The science of making measurements using photography
  • Cartography   The study and practice of making maps
  • Digital terrain modelling
  • Geodesy   The science of the geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field of Earth
  • Geographic information system   System to capture, manage and present geographic data
  • Geospatial
  • Global navigation satellite systems represented by Satellite navigation   Any system that uses satellite radio signals to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning Any system that uses satellite radio signals to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning
  • Hydrography   Applied science of measurement and description of physical features of bodies of water
  • Mathematics   Field of study concerning quantity, patterns and change
  • Navigation   The process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another
  • Remote sensing   Acquisition of information at a significant distance from the subject
  • Surveying   The technique, profession, and science of determining the positions of points and the distances and angles between them

Regional geography

Regional geography study of world regions. Attention is paid to unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural elements, human elements, and regionalization which covers the techniques of delineating space into regions. Regional geography breaks down into the study of specific regions.

Region an area, defined by physical characteristics, human characteristics, or functional characteristics. The term is used in various ways among the different branches of geography. A region can be seen as a collection of smaller units, such as a country and its political divisions, or as one part of a larger whole, as in a country on a continent.


Earth may have had a single supercontinent called "Pangaea" Pangea animation 03.gif
Earth may have had a single supercontinent called "Pangaea"

List of supercontinents A supercontinent is a landmass comprising more than one continental core, or craton.


Continent one of several large landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by convention rather than any specific criteria, but seven areas are commonly regarded as continents. They are:

1. Africa   (outline)
2. Antarctica
3. Australia   (outline)
The Americas:
4. North America   (outline)
5. South America   (outline)
6. Europe   (outline)
7. Asia   (outline)

Subregion (list)

Biogeographic regions

Map of six of the world's eight ecozones
Oceania and Antarctic ecozones not shown Ecozones.png
Map of six of the world's eight ecozones
   Oceania and Antarctic ecozones not shown

Ecozone The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed a system of eight biogeographic realms (ecozones):


Ecoregion Ecozones are further divided into ecoregions. The World has over 800 terrestrial ecoregions. See Lists of ecoregions by country.

Geography of the political divisions of the World

Other regions

History of geography

Reconstruction of Hecataeus' map of the World, created during ancient Greek times Hecataeus world map-en.svg
Reconstruction of Hecataeus' map of the World, created during ancient Greek times

Topics pertaining to the geographical study of the World throughout history:

By period

By region

By subject

By field

Elements of geography

Topics common to the various branches of geography include:

Tasks and tools of geography

The equal-area Mollweide projection Mollweide-projection.jpg
The equal-area Mollweide projection

Types of geographic features

Geographic feature component of a planet that can be referred to as a location, place, site, area, or region, and therefore may show up on a map. A geographic feature may be natural or artificial.

Location and place

Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Countries by Population Density in 2015.svg
Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006
  • Location
    • Absolute location
      • Latitude   The angle between zenith at a point and the plane of the equator
        • Prime meridian   A line of longitude, at which longitude is defined to be 0°
      • Longitude   A geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface
        • Equator   Intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and midway between the poles
        • Tropic of Cancer   Line of northernmost latitude at which the sun can be directly overhead
        • Tropic of Capricorn   Line of southernmost latitude at which the sun can be directly overhead
        • Arctic Circle   Boundary of the Arctic
        • Antarctic Circle   Boundary of the Antarctic
        • North Pole   Northern point where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface
        • South Pole   Southern point where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface
      • Altitude   Height in relation to a specified reference point
        • Elevation   Height of a geographic location above a fixed reference point
  • Place
    • Aspects of a place or region
      • Climate   Statistics of weather conditions in a given region over long periods
      • Population   All the organisms of a given species that live in the specified region
      • Sense of place   A term used in behavioral sciences and urban planning
      • Terrain   Vertical and horizontal dimension and shape of land surface
      • Topography   The study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects
      • Tourist attraction   Place of interest where tourists visit
    • Lists of places   A list of Wikipedia's list articles of places on earth sorted by category

Natural geographic features

Natural geographic feature an ecosystem or natural landform.


Ecosystem community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.

  • Biodiversity hotspot   A biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction
  • Ecozone broadest biogeographic division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms.
    • Ecoprovince biogeographic unit smaller than an ecozone that contains one or more ecoregions.
      • Ecoregion   Ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion
        • Ecodistrict   Term used in urban planning to integrate objectives of sustainable development and reduce ecological impact
        • Ecosection
          • Ecosite
            • Ecotope   The smallest ecologically distinct landscape features in a landscape mapping and classification system
  • Biome   Distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate
    • Bioregion   Ecologically and geographically defined area smaller than an ecozone, but larger than an ecoregion or an ecosystem
      • Biotope   A habitat for communities made up of populations of multiple species
Natural landforms
The Ganges river delta in India and Bangladesh is one of the most fertile regions in the world. Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh, India.jpg
The Ganges river delta in India and Bangladesh is one of the most fertile regions in the world.
The volcano Mount St. Helens in Washington, United States. MSH82 st helens plume from harrys ridge 05-19-82.jpg
The volcano Mount St. Helens in Washington, United States.

Natural landform terrain or body of water. Landforms are topographical elements, and are defined by their surface form and location in the landscape. Landforms are categorized by traits such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification, rock exposure, and soil type. Some landforms are artificial, such as certain islands, but most landforms are natural.

Natural terrain feature types

  • Continent   Very large landmass identified by convention
  • Island   Any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water
  • Mainland   The continental part of any polity or the main island within an island nation
  • Mountain   A large landform that rises fairly steeply above the surrounding land over a limited area
  • Mountain range   A geographic area containing several geologically related mountains
  • Subcontinent   A large, relatively self-contained landmass forming a subdivision of a continent

Natural body of water types

  • Natural bodies of water   Any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface
    • Bodies of seawater   Water from a sea or ocean
      • Channel   A type of landform in which part of a body of water is confined to a relatively narrow but long region
      • Firth   Scottish word used for various coastal inlets and straits
      • Harbor   Sheltered body of water where ships may shelter
      • Inlet   An indentation of a shoreline that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound, bay, lagoon, or marsh
        • Bay   Coastal landforms
          • Bight   Shallowly concave bend or curve in a coastline, river, or other geographical feature
          • Gulf   Coastal landforms
        • Cove   A small sheltered bay or coastal inlet
        • Creek (tidal)   The portion of a stream that is affected by ebb and flow of ocean tides
        • Estuary   A partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea
        • Fjord   A long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial activity
      • Kettle   A depression/hole in an outwash plain formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters
      • Kill   A creek, tidal inlet, river, strait, or arm of the sea
      • Lagoon   A shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs
        • Barachois   A coastal lagoon partially or totally separated from the ocean by a sand or shingle bar
      • Loch   Scottish Gaelic, Indian and Irish word for a lake or a sea inlet
        • Arm of the sea
        • Mere   A lake that is broad in relation to its depth
      • Ocean   A body of water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere
      • Phytotelma   A small water-filled cavity in a terrestrial plant
      • Salt marsh   A coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides
      • Sea   Large body of salt water
        • Types of sea:
          • Mediterranean sea   A mostly enclosed sea with limited exchange with outer oceans
          • Sound   A long, relatively wide body of water, connecting two larger bodies of water
        • Sea components or extensions:
          • Sea loch   Scottish Gaelic and Irish word for a sea inlet
          • Sea lough   Anglicised version of Scottish Gaelic and Irish word for a sea inlet
      • Strait   A naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water
    • Bodies of fresh water
      • Bayou   French term for a body of water typically found in flat, low-lying area
      • Lake   A body of relatively still water, in a basin surrounded by land
      • Pool   A stretch of a river or stream in which the water is relatively deep and slow moving
        • Pond   A relatively small body of standing water
          • Billabong   Australian term for a seasonal oxbow lake
        • Tide pool   A rocky pool on a seashore, separated from the sea at low tide, filled with seawater
        • Vernal pool   Seasonal pools of water that provide habitat for distinctive plants and animals
        • Puddle   A small accumulation of liquid, usually water, on a surface
      • River   Natural flowing watercourse
        • Lists of rivers   A list of rivers, organised geographically
          • Parts of a river:
          • Rapid   A section of a river where the river bed is relatively steep, increasing the water's velocity and turbulence
          • Source
          • Waterfall   Place where water flows over a vertical drop in the course of a river
      • Roadstead   An open anchorage affording some shelter, but less protection than a harbor
      • Spring   A point at which water emenges from an aquifer to the surface
        • Boil -
      • Stream   A body of surface water flowing down a channel
        • Beck   A body of surface water flowing down a channel
        • Brook   A body of surface water flowing down a channel
        • Burn   Term of Scottish origin for a small river
        • Creek   A body of surface water flowing down a channel
          • Arroyo (creek)   A dry creek or stream bed with flow after rain
            • Wash   A dry creek or stream bed with flow after rain
            • Draw   A dry creek or stream bed with flow after rain
        • Run   A body of surface water flowing down a channel
      • Wetland   A land area that is permanently or seasonally saturated with water
        • Freshwater marsh   A wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species
        • Slough (wetland)   A forested wetland
          • Mangrove swamp   A shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water

Artificial geographic features

Artificial geographic feature a thing that was made by humans that may be indicated on a map. It may be physical and exist in the real world (like a bridge or city), or it may be abstract and exist only on maps (such as the Equator, which has a defined location, but cannot be seen where it lies).

  • Settlement   Community of any size, in which people live
    • Hamlet (place)   Small human settlement in a rural area rural settlement which is too small to be considered a village. Historically, when a hamlet became large enough to justify building a church, it was then classified as a village. One example of a hamlet is a small cluster of houses surrounding a mill.
    • Village   Small clustered human settlement smaller than a town clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand (sometimes tens of thousands).
    • Town human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size a settlement must be in order to be called a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world, so that, for example, many American "small towns" seem to British people to be no more than villages, while many British "small towns" would qualify as cities in the United States.
    • City   Large and permanent human settlement relatively large and permanent settlement. In many regions, a city is distinguished from a town by attainment of designation according to law, for instance being required to obtain articles of incorporation or a royal charter.
      • Financial centre   Locations which are centres of financial activity
      • Primate city the leading city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy.
      • Metropolis very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications.
      • Metropolitan area region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. [27]
      • Global city   City which is important to the world economy city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system. Globalization is largely created, facilitated and enacted in strategic geographic locales (including global cities) according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade.
      • Megalopolis chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas. An example is the huge metropolitan area along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, Massachusetts through New York City; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland and ending in Washington, D.C..
      • Eperopolis theoretical "continent city". The world does not have one yet. Will Europe become the first one?
      • Ecumenopolis theoretical "world city". Will the world ever become so urbanized as to be called this?
  • Engineered construct built feature of the landscape such as a highway, bridge, airport, railroad, building, dam, or reservoir. See also construction engineering and infrastructure.
    • Artificial landforms
    • Airport place where airplanes can take off and land, including one or more runways and one or more passenger terminals.
    • Aqueduct artificial channel that is constructed to convey water from one location to another.
    • Breakwater   Structure constructed on coasts as part of coastal management or to protect an anchorage construction designed to break the force of the sea to provide calm water for boats or ships, or to prevent erosion of a coastal feature.
    • Bridge   structure built to span physical obstacles structure built to span a valley, road, body of water, or other physical obstacle such as a canyon, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.
    • Building closed structure with walls and a roof.
    • Canal   Man-made channel for water artificial waterway, often connecting one body of water with another.
    • Causeway   Route raised up on an embankment
    • Dam   A barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface or underground streams structure placed across a flowing body of water to stop the flow, usually to use the water for irrigation or to generate electricity.
      • Dike barrier of stone or earth used to hold back water and prevent flooding.
        • Levee   Ridge or wall to hold back water artificial slope or wall to regulate water levels, usually earthen and often parallel to the course of a river or the coast. [28]
    • Farm place where agricultural activities take place, especially the growing of crops or the raising of livestock.
    • Manmade harbor   Sheltered body of water where ships may shelter harbor that has deliberately constructed breakwaters, sea walls, or jettys, or which was constructed by dredging.
    • Industrial region   Geographical region with a high proportion of industrial use
    • Marina   A dock or basin with moorings and facilities for yachts and small boats
    • Orchard   Intentionally planted trees or shrubs that are maintained for food production
    • Parking lot   Cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles
    • Pier   Raised structure in a body of water, typically supported by well-spaced piles or pillars
    • Pipeline   Mode of transporting fluids over long distances through sealed pipes
    • Port   maritime commercial facility
    • Railway   Structure comprising load-bearing rails on a load-spreading foundation intended to carry special-purpose wheeled vehicles
    • Ranch   Area of land used for raising grazing livestock
    • Reservoir   Bulk storage space for water
    • Road   A demarcated land route with a suitable surface between places
      • Highway   A public road or other public way on land
      • Race track   Facility built for racing of animals, vehicles, or athletes
      • Street   A public thoroughfare in a built environment
    • Subsidence crater   A hole or depression left on the surface over the site of an underground explosion.
    • Ski resort   Resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports
    • Train station   Railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers and/or freight
    • Tree farm   Plantation for the cultivation of trees for harvest
    • Tunnel   An underground passage made for traffic
    • Viaduct   A multiple span bridge crossing an extended lower area
    • Wharf   A structure on the shore of a harbor or on the bank of a river or canal where ships dock
Provinces and territorial disputes of the People's Republic of China China administrative.gif
Provinces and territorial disputes of the People's Republic of China
  • Abstract geographic feature does not exist physically in the real world, yet has a location by definition and may be displayed on maps.
    • Geographical zone   Major regions of the Earth's surface demarcated by latitude
    • Political division   A territorial entity for administration purposes
      • Nation   a large body of people united by common descent, ethnicity, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular country or territory.
      • Administrative division   A territorial entity for administration purposes
        • Special Economic Zone   A geographical region in which business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country
      • Country subdivision   A territorial entity for administration purposes a designated territory created within a country for administrative or identification purposes. Examples of the types of country subdivisions:
        • Bailiwick   The area of jurisdiction of a bailiff
        • Canton   A type of administrative division of a country
        • Commune   An urban administrative division having corporate status and usually some powers of self-government or jurisdiction
        • County   Geographical and administrative region in some countries
        • Department   Administrative or political subdivision in some countries
        • District   Administrative division, in some countries, managed by local government
        • Duchy   Territory, fief, or domain ruled by, or representing the title of, a duke or duchess
        • Emirate   A political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Muslim monarch styled emir
        • Federal state   A union of partially self-governing states or territories, united by a central (federal) government that exercizes directly on them its sovereign power
        • Parish   Ecclesiastical subdivision of a diocese
        • Prefecture   An administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries
        • Province   A major administrative subdivision within a country or sovereign state
        • Region   Two or three dimensionally defined space, mainly in terrestrial and astrophysics sciences
        • Rural district   Former type of local government area in England, Wales, and Ireland
        • Settlement   Community of any size, in which people live
          • Municipality   An administrative division having corporate status and usually some powers of self-government or jurisdiction
          • City   Large and permanent human settlement
            • Borough   An administrative division in some English-speaking countries
            • Township   Designation for types of settlement as administrative territorial entities
          • Village   Small clustered human settlement smaller than a town
        • Shire   A traditional term for a division of land, found in some English-speaking countries
        • State   A territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federal union
        • Subdistrict   A low level administrative division of a country
        • Subprefecture   Administrative division of a country that is below prefecture
        • Voivodeship   Administrative division based on the region administered by a voivode
        • Wilayat   Administrative division approximating a state or province
    • Cartographical feature theoretical construct used specifically on maps that doesn't have any physical form apart from its location.
      • Latitude line   The angle between zenith at a point and the plane of the equator
        • Equator   Intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and midway between the poles
      • Longitude line   A geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface
        • Prime Meridian   A line of longitude, at which longitude is defined to be 0°
      • Geographical pole   Points on a rotating astronomical body where the axis of rotation intersects the surface
        • North pole   Northern point where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface
        • South pole   Southern point where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface

Geographic features that include the natural and artificial

  • Waterway   Any navigable body of water
    • List of waterways   List of navigable rivers, canals, estuaries, lakes, and firths

Geography awards

Hubbard Medal awarded to Anne Morrow Lindbergh, showing her flight route Hubbard Gold Medal, Anne Morrow Lindbergh.JPG
Hubbard Medal awarded to Anne Morrow Lindbergh, showing her flight route

Some awards and competitions in the field of geography:

Persons influential in geography

A geographer is a scientist who studies Earth's physical environment and human habitat. Geographers are historically known for making maps, the subdiscipline of geography known as cartography. They study the physical details of the environment and also its effect on human and wildlife ecologies, weather and climate patterns, economics, and culture. Geographers focus on the spatial relationships between these elements.

Influential physical geographers

Alexander Von Humboldt, considered to be the founding father of physical geography. Alexander von Humboldt-selfportrait.jpg
Alexander Von Humboldt, considered to be the founding father of physical geography.
Richard Chorley, 20th-century geographer who progressed quantitative geography and who helped bring the systems approach to geography. Richard Chorley.jpg
Richard Chorley, 20th-century geographer who progressed quantitative geography and who helped bring the systems approach to geography.

Influential human geographers

Sketch of Carl Ritter Carl ritter.jpg
Sketch of Carl Ritter
Paul Vidal de la Blache Paul Vidal Blache.jpg
Paul Vidal de la Blache
David Harvey David Harvey.jpg
David Harvey

Geography educational frameworks

Educational frameworks upon which primary and secondary school curricula for geography are based upon include:

See also

Related Research Articles

Human geography The study of cultures, communities and activities of peoples of the world

Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Human geography attends to human patterns of social interaction, as well as spatial level interdependencies, and how they influence or affect the earth's environment. As an intellectual discipline, geography is divided into the sub-fields of physical geography and human geography, the latter concentrating upon the study of human activities, by the application of qualitative and quantitative research methods.

In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics, human impact characteristics, and the interaction of humanity and the environment. Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography, where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are defined in law.

Geographer scholar whose area of study is geography

A geographer is a scientist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society. The Greek prefix, "geo," means "earth" and the Greek suffix, "graphy," meaning "description," so a geographer is someone who studies the earth. The word "geography" is a Middle French word that is believed to have been first used in 1540.

Topography The study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects

Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description.

Economic geography has been defined by the geographers as the study of human's economic activities under varying sets of conditions which is associated with production, location, distribution, consumption, exchange of resources, and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. It represents a traditional subfield of the discipline of geography. However, many economists have also approached the field in ways more typical of the discipline of economics.

Landscape visible features of an area of land

A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms, and how they integrate with natural or man-made features. A landscape includes the physical elements of geophysically defined landforms such as (ice-capped) mountains, hills, water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds and the sea, living elements of land cover including indigenous vegetation, human elements including different forms of land use, buildings, and structures, and transitory elements such as lighting and weather conditions. Combining both their physical origins and the cultural overlay of human presence, often created over millennia, landscapes reflect a living synthesis of people and place that is vital to local and national identity.

This page is a list of geography topics.

Regional geography

Regional geography is a major branch of geography. It focuses on the interaction of different cultural and natural geofactors in a specific land or landscape, while its counterpart, systematic geography, concentrates on a specific geofactor at the global level.

History of geography aspect of history

The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups. In more recent developments, geography has become a distinct academic discipline. 'Geography' derives from the Greek γεωγραφία – geographia, a literal translation of which would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes. However, there is evidence for recognizable practices of geography, such as cartography prior to the use of the term geography.

Cultural geography study of cultural products and norms and their variations across and relations to spaces and places.

Cultural geography is a subfield within human geography. Though the first traces of the study of different nations and cultures on Earth can be dated back to ancient geographers such as Ptolemy or Strabo, cultural geography as academic study firstly emerged as an alternative to the environmental determinist theories of the early Twentieth century, which had believed that people and societies are controlled by the environment in which they develop. Rather than studying pre-determined regions based upon environmental classifications, cultural geography became interested in cultural landscapes. This was led by Carl O. Sauer, at the University of California, Berkeley. As a result, cultural geography was long dominated by American writers.

Outline of Earth sciences Hierarchical outline list of articles related to Earth sciences

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Earth science:

Physiographic regions of the world are a means of defining the Earth's landforms into distinct regions, based upon the classic three-tiered approach by Nevin M. Fenneman in 1916, that separates landforms into physiographic divisions, physiographic provinces, and physiographic sections. The model became the basis for similar classifications of other continents, and is still considered valid.

Geographical features are naturally-created features of the Earth. Natural geographical features consist of landforms and ecosystems. For example, terrain types, are natural geographical features. Conversely, human settlements or other engineered forms are considered types of artificial geographical features.

Geography The science that studies the terrestrial surface, the societies that inhabit it and the territories, landscapes, places or regions that form it

Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.

This glossary or terminology of geography terms is a list of definitions of terms and concepts used in geography and related fields, which describe and identify natural phenomena, geographical locations, spatial dimension and natural resources. Geographical terms are classified according to their functions, such as description, explanation, analysing, evaluating and integrating.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to social science:

Cognitive geography An interdisciplinary study of cognitive science and geography

Cognitive geography is an interdisciplinary study of cognitive science and geography. It aims to understand how humans view space, place, and environment. It involves the formalization of factors that influence our spatial cognition to create a more effective representation of space. These improved models assist in a variety of issues, for example, the developing maps that communicate better, providing navigation instructions that are easier to follow, utilizing space more practically, accounting for the cultural differences on spatial thinking for more effective cross-cultural information exchange, and an overall increased understanding of our environment.


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