Geography of Cape Verde

Last updated
Geography of Cape Verde
Satellite image of Cape Verde in December 2002.jpg
Continent Africa
Region Atlantic Ocean
Coordinates 16°N24°W / 16°N 24°W / 16; -24
Area Ranked 165th
  Total4,033 km2 (1,557 sq mi)
  Land100%
  Water0%
Coastline965 km (600 mi)
BordersNone
Highest point Mount Fogo
2,829 metres (9,281 ft)
Lowest point Atlantic Ocean
0 metres (0 ft)
Exclusive economic zone800,561 km2 (309,098 sq mi)
The location of Cape Verde. LocationCapeVerde.png
The location of Cape Verde.
Map of the Cape Verde Islands. Topographic map of Cape Verde-en.svg
Map of the Cape Verde Islands.
Mount Fogo, the highest point in Cabo Verde. Mount fogo.jpg
Mount Fogo, the highest point in Cabo Verde.
Ribeira Torre on Santo Antao Island, Cape Verde. Ribeira Torre-Sto Antao Island-Cape Verde.jpg
Ribeira Torre on Santo Antão Island, Cape Verde.
Satellite image of Fogo. Fogo, Cape Verde Islands.jpg
Satellite image of Fogo.

Cape Verde (formally, the Republic of Cabo Verde) is a group of arid Atlantic islands which are home to distinct communities of plants, birds, and reptiles. The islands constitute the unique Cape Verde Islands dry forests ecoregion, according to the World Wildlife Fund.

Contents

Location and description

The Cape Verde Islands are located in the mid-Atlantic Ocean some 570 km (354 mi) off the west coast of the continent of Africa. The landscape varies from dry plains to high active volcanoes with cliffs rising steeply from the ocean. The climate is arid. The total size is 4,033 km2 (1,557 sq mi).

The archipelago consists of ten (10) islands and five (5) islets, divided into the windward (Barlavento) and leeward (Sotavento) groups. The six (6) islands in the Barlavento group are Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, São Nicolau, Sal, and Boa Vista. The islands in the Sotavento group are Maio, Santiago, Fogo, and Brava. All but Santa Luzia are inhabited.

Three islands Sal, Boa Vista, and Maio generally are level and lack natural water supplies. Mountains higher than 1,280 metres (4,199 ft) are found on Santiago, Fogo, Santo Antão, and São Nicolau.

Sand carried by strong winds has caused erosion on all islands, especially the windward ones. Sheer, jagged cliffs rise from the sea on several of the mountainous islands. The lack of natural vegetation in the uplands and coast also contributes to soil erosion. Only the interior valleys support natural vegetation.

Data

Geographic coordinates
16°N24°W / 16°N 24°W / 16; -24
Area
  • Total: 4,072 km2
  • Land: 4,072 km2
  • Water: 0 km2 (inland water is negligible) [ disputed ]
Area comparative
US: slightly larger than Rhode Island
Canada: slightly larger than Haida Gwaii
UK: slightly larger than Suffolk
Coastline
965 km
Maritime claims
  • Measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
  • Territorial sea: 12 nmi (22.2 km)
  • Contiguous zone: 24  nmi (44.4 km)
  • Exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi (370.4 km)
Exclusive economic zone
  • EEZ area: 800,561 km2 (309,098 sq mi)
  • Continental shelf: 5,591 km2
  • Coral reefs: 0.09% of world
  • Sea mounts: 0.04% of world
source: Sea Around Us Project's Countries' EEZ
Terrain
Steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic.
Elevation extremes
  • Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  • Highest point: Mount Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)
Natural resources
Salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish, clay, gypsum
Land use
  • Arable land: 11.66%
  • Permanent crops: 0.74%
  • Other: 87.59% (2012)
Irrigated land
34.76 km2 (2004)
Total renewable water resources
0.03 km3 (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
  • total: 0.02 km3/yr (6%/1%/93%)
  • per capita: 48.57 m3/yr (2004)
Natural hazards
Prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active.
Geography - note
Strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site.

Table of islands

IslandCapitalOther CitiesArea (km2)Population
Barlavento Islands Mindelo Porto Novo, Cape Verde, Espargos 2265.55179114
Santo Antão Porto Novo, Cape Verde Ribeira Grande, Pombas, Ponta do Sol, Alto Mira 779.046872
São Vicente Mindelo São Pedro, Madeiral, Calhau, Salamansa 227.081267
Ilhéu dos Pássaros Passaros Lighthouse 0.051
Santa Luzia Ponta da Cruz Praia de Francisca 34.00
Ilhéu Raso 7.00
São Nicolau Ribeira Brava Tarrafal de São Nicolau 379.513680
Sal Espargos Santa Maria 216.027515
Boa Vista Sal Rei Cabecada, Estancia de Baixo 620.09779
Ilhéu Branco Ilhéu Branco 3.00
Sotavento Islands Praia Assomada, Chao Bom, Tarrafal, Sao Filipe 1806.95345886
Maio Vila do Maio Calheta 269.07420
Santiago Praia Assomada, Chao Bom, Tarrafal, Calheta de Sao Miguel, Pedra Badejo 991.0292500
Fogo São Filipe Mosteiros, Relva, Patim 475.639567
Brava Nova Sintra Furna 66.66399
Ilhéus Secos Ilheu Grande Ilheu de Cima 4.750
Cape Verde Praia 4072.5525000

Borders

Map of Cape Verde's EEZ. EEZ Cape Verde.png
Map of Cape Verde's EEZ.

Cabo Verde shares maritime boundaries with Mauritania and Senegal. Cabo Verde has signed treaties with Senegal and Mauritania delimiting the specific boundaries. However, the two treaties conflict in their delimitation of the precise borders. Due to the numerous islands it has an Exclusive Economic Zone of 800,561 km2 (309,098 sq mi).

Climate

Sal Island
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
3
 
 
23
17
 
 
2
 
 
22
15
 
 
0
 
 
24
18
 
 
0
 
 
25
20
 
 
0
 
 
26
21
 
 
0
 
 
27
22
 
 
8
 
 
28
24
 
 
97
 
 
29
24
 
 
115
 
 
30
25
 
 
31
 
 
28
23
 
 
8
 
 
26
21
 
 
4
 
 
24
19
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: BBC Weather [1]

A cold Atlantic current produces an arid atmosphere around the archipelago. December–June is cool and dry, with temperatures at sea level averaging 21 °C (69.8 °F); July–November is warm and dry, with temperatures averaging 27 °C (80.6 °F). Although some rain comes during the latter season, rainfall is sparse overall and very erratic. Accumulations are generally around 130 mm (5.12 in) annually in the northern islands and 300 mm (11.81 in) in the south. The archipelago is subject to cyclical droughts; a devastating drought began in 1968 and was broken only briefly in 1975, 1978, 1984, and 1986.

Rainfall is irregular, historically causing periodic droughts and famines. Desalination plants now provide water to more than half the country's population. [2] [3] Experiments with fog collectors have been conducted since 1962, [4] however, such collectors had not been expanded beyond the Serra Malagueta community of Santiago Island, as of 2009. [5] The average precipitation per year in Praia is 240 mm (9.45 in). During the winter, storms blowing from the Sahara sometimes form dense dust clouds that obscure the sun; however, sunny days are the norm year round. The clearest skies are found between February and June, with very little rainfall during these months. Saharan dust, Harmattan wind, laden with dust come from the Sahara. This occurs between November and March and is generally similar to the "Calima" affecting the Canary Islands.

The ocean near Cabo Verde is an area of tropical cyclone formation; since these storms have the whole Atlantic over which to develop as they move westward, they are among the most intense hurricanes, and are called Cape Verde-type hurricanes.

The Cape Verde islands are a very degradated area. Also, most islands do not always get a monsoon. In fact, it is not surprising that some atmospheric precipitation of islands are limited in tropical rain.

If rain arrives, it is usually between August and October. The first "rainy season" brings high temperatures and high humidity that condenses as dew mountain. The other rainy season is between December and June, when the northeast trade winds are common during this season, only altitudes above 600 m tend to receive regular rain. The island of Sal receives an average of 0 mm in May. When the rain comes, if it comes, it can be very strong. Half of the rain in a particular year can often fall into a single storm. Most of the Cape Verde islands are dry, but on islands with high mountains and farther away from the continental land mass, by orography, the humidity is much higher, giving a rainforest habitat, very degraded by the strong human presence. Northeastern slopes of high mountains often receive a lot of rain and southwestern slopes do not. This is because they are umbria areas, situated in the north hillsides or slopes of the mountainous areas, oriented behind the sun in the Northern Hemisphere, in the shadyside orographic. So the amount of solar radiation that it receive is much lower than it would if it had without the island's relief which intercepts much of the sun. In terms of botanical ecology, these umbria areas are identified as being cool and moist.

The current north of the Canaries, has a cooling effect on the islands of Cabo Verde, making the air temperature more bearable than it would expect in any case at this latitude. Conversely, the islands do not receive the upwellings (cold streams) that affect the West African coast, so the air temperature is cooler than in Senegal, but the sea is actually warmer, because the orographic relief of some islands, such as Sao Miguel with steep mountains, cover it with rich woods and luxuriant vegetation where the humid air condenses and soak the plants, rocks, soil, logs, and moss.

Hurricanes often begin forming in the waters around the islands of Cabo Verde, but it is rare that the strength of the storm reaches close to the islands. A Cape Verde type hurricane is formed in the area south of the islands, near Sao Miguel, after a tropical wave on the African continent during the rainy season. The storm picks up strength when it crosses the warm waters of Atlantic.

Fog on Cape Verde La recolte de l'eau.jpg
Fog on Cape Verde

The laurel forest is a type of cloud forest, the cloud forests, are developed preferably about mountains, where the dense moisture from the sea or ocean, is precipitated by the action of the relief. Opposing the terrain to a front of warm, moist air mass, it forces to increase the height above sea level of that body wet and warm air mass, which cools and decreases the dew point, causing it to condense part of the moisture that falls as rain or fog, creating a habitat especially cool, saturated with moisture in the air and soil.

It is the balance between the dry and warm influence of the subtropical anticyclone, hot and dry summer and orography the responsible for carrying cool wet air. As latitude increases, this increases the impact of the storms, which in its journey from west to east, swept the western coasts of continents, dumping heavy rains as carrying high humidity. Precipitation multiply if these air masses are crossing mountains in the way. The resulting climate is wetter, but with an annual oscillation of the temperature moderated by the proximity of the ocean. Appear mostly occupying favorable areas named geographically Umbrias, this is north hillsides or slopes of the mountainous areas that are oriented behind the sun, because the islands are in the Northern Hemisphere, between 600 and 1,500 meters, thus benefiting from the humidity provided by the trade winds to form such a sea of clouds. In its botanical ecology, the mountain umbria is identified with cool and moisture.

Flora

Cape Verde is the driest archipelago of the ecoregion of Macaronesia. That with a greater influence of African species due to its geographical location near the African mainland of the Sahel. At first, the islands of Cabo Verde housed an extensive savanna and dry forest cover, but mostly it was removed to convert to agricultural land, which, together with the arid climate and rugged terrain, has led to a soil erosion and desertification widespread. However, the archipelago can be divided into four broad ecological zones (arid, semiarid, subhumid and humid), according to altitude and average annual rainfall ranging from 200 mm in the arid areas of the coast to more than 1000 mm in the humid mountain. Mostly rainfall precipitation is due to condensation of the ocean mist. Today much of the forest cover comprises relatively immature agroforestry plantations, in which are used non-native species such as Prosopis juliflora, Leucaena leucocephala and Jatropha curcas. The native laurel forest species are in wet area only in mountainous areas.

On the lower and drier islands the vegetation, before human colonization, consisted of savanna or steppe vegetation, with the flattest inland portion supporting semi-desert plants. At higher altitudes, a form of arid shrubland was also present. These islands were covered with savanna on the plains and arid shrubland on the mountainsides, but after over 500 years of human habitation (after Portuguese colonisation) nearly all the original vegetation has been cleared in favour of widespread agriculture including the grazing of goats, sheep and cattle and the planting of imported crop species. There are some remaining patches of dry forest high on steep mountainside including a number of endemic plant species, but these are inaccessible and hard to study.

On the higher islands and somewhat wetter islands, exclusively in mountainous areas, like Santo Antao island, the climate is suitable for the development of dry monsoon forest, and laurel forest as this vegetation is believed to have been present in the past. However, most vegetation has now been converted to agriculture and forest fragments are now restricted to areas where cultivation is not possible, such as mountain peaks and steep slopes. The demand for wood has resulted in deforestation and desertification.

Of particular note is the endemic type of humid subtropical laurel forest of macaronesian laurisilva, found on several of the Macaronesian islands of the North Atlantic and Macaronesian African mainland enclaves: these are a relic of the Pliocene subtropical forests, supporting numerous endemic species, namely Madeira Islands, the Azores, Cape Verde Islands and the Canary Islands.

This laurisilva forests are found in the islands of Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic, in particular the Azores, Madeira Islands, and western Canary Islands, from 400 m to 1,200 m elevation. Trees of the genera Apollonias (Lauraceae), Ocotea (Lauraceae), Persea (Lauraceae), Clethra (Clethraceae), Dracaena (Ruscaceae), and Picconia (Oleaceae) are characteristic. [6] The Madeira Islands laurel forest was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1999.

Fauna

There are four endemic bird species including the Raso lark along with more common swifts, larks, warblers, and sparrows. The islands are an important breeding site for seabirds including the Cape Verde shearwater and Fea's petrel (Pterodroma feae), which breeds only here and in Madeira. Santiago Island holds the only breeding site of the endemic and critically endangered Bourne's heron. The 11 endemic reptile species include a giant gecko ( Tarentola gigas), and there are other geckos and skinks in abundance. The giant skink ( Macroscincus coctei ) is now thought to be extinct.

Threats and protection

Almost all of the natural environment has been destroyed by conversion to agriculture and logging for firewood, as well as natural soil erosion, all of which has threatened several species of birds and reptiles. The remaining original forest exists at high altitudes only. Newer problems include illegal beach sand extraction and overfishing while the nesting birds are vulnerable due to introduced mammals, including cats and rats.

Environment - international agreements

Visiting the ecoregion

The higher altitudes of the islands are accessible on the islands of Fogo, where there is a road to the volcano and walks up to the crater, and the mountainous Santo Antão where there are hiking routes.

Extreme points

Related Research Articles

History of Cape Verde

The recorded history of Cape Verde begins with Portuguese discovery in 1456. Possible early references go back around 2000 years.

Macaronesia Collection of four archipelagos in the North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Europe and Africa

Macaronesia is a collection of four volcanic archipelagos in the North Atlantic Ocean, off the coasts of the continents of Europe and Africa. Each archipelago is made up of a number of Atlantic oceanic islands, which are formed by seamounts on the ocean floor and have peaks above the ocean's surface. Some of the Macaronesian islands belong to Portugal, some belong to Spain, and the rest belong to Cape Verde. Politically, the islands belonging to Portugal and Spain are part of the European Union. Geologically, Macaronesia is part of the African tectonic plate. Some of its islands - the Azores - are situated along the edge of that plate at the point where it abuts the Eurasian and North American plates.

Madeira Island Portuguese island in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, part of the Madeira Archipelago

Madeira is a Portuguese island, and is the largest and most populous of the Madeira Archipelago. It has an area of 740.7 km2, including Ilhéu de Agostinho, Ilhéu de São Lourenço, Ilhéu Mole (northwest). As of 2011, Madeira had a total population of 262,456.

Fogo, Cape Verde Island of Cape Verde

Fogo is an island in the Sotavento group of Cape Verde. Its population is 35,837 (2015), with an area of 476 km2. It reaches the highest altitude of all the islands in Cape Verde, rising to 2,829 metres above sea level at the summit of its active volcano, Pico do Fogo.

Brava, Cape Verde Island of Cape Verde

Brava is an island in Cape Verde, in the Sotavento group. At 62.5 km2 (24.1 sq mi), it is the smallest inhabited island of the Cape Verde archipelago, but at the same time the greenest. First settled in the early 16th century, its population grew after Mount Fogo on neighbouring Fogo erupted in 1680. For more than a century, its main industry was whaling, but the island economy is now primarily agricultural.

Laurel forest

Laurel forest, also called laurisilva or laurissilva, is a type of subtropical forest found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable, mild temperatures. The forest is characterized by broadleaf tree species with evergreen, glossy and elongated leaves, known as "laurophyll" or "lauroid". Plants from the laurel family (Lauraceae) may or may not be present, depending on the location.

Chã das Caldeiras Settlement in Fogo, Cape Verde

Chã das Caldeiras is a small community of approximately 700 inhabitants in the crater of the volcano Pico do Fogo on the island of Fogo, Cape Verde. The village consists of two main neighborhoods: Portela and Bangaeira, founded in 1920 and 1917, respectively. At an elevation of about 1,700 meters, it is the highest village in Cape Verde. It is part of the municipality of Santa Catarina do Fogo. The main organizing body in the village is the Associação dos Agricultores de Chã, an agricultural cooperative that holds considerable sway over the local economy. Chã is the only area in Cape Verde that grows significant quantities of grapes and produces export-quality wines.

Santo Antão, Cape Verde Westernmost and largest of the Barlavento islands of Cape Verde

Santo Antão is the westernmost island of Cape Verde. At 785 km2 (303 sq mi), it is the largest of the Barlavento Islands group, and the second largest island of Cape Verde. The nearest island is São Vicente to the southeast, separated by the sea channel Canal de São Vicente. Its population was 38,200 in mid 2019, making it the fourth most populous island of Cape Verde after Santiago, São Vicente and Sal. Its largest city is Porto Novo located on the southern coast.

Boa Vista, Cape Verde Cape Verde island

Boa Vista, also written as Boavista, is a desert-like island that belongs to the Cape Verde Islands. At 631.1 km2 (243.7 sq mi), it is the third largest island of the Cape Verde archipelago.

Santiago, Cape Verde Largest island of Cape Verde

Santiago is the largest island of Cape Verde, its most important agricultural centre and home to half the nation's population. Part of the Sotavento Islands, it lies between the islands of Maio and Fogo. It was the first of the islands to be settled: the town of Ribeira Grande was founded in 1462. Santiago is home to the nation's capital city of Praia.

Cape Verde Islands dry forests

The Cape Verde Islands dry forests is a tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests ecoregion in the Cape Verde Islands, which constitute the country of Cabo Verde. The islands lie off the western coast of Africa.

Wildlife of Cape Verde

The wildlife of Cape Verde is spread over its archipelago of ten islands and three islets, which all have parks under their jurisdiction by decree promulgated by the Cape Verde government. Located off the west coast of Africa, the total land area of the island nation is 4,564 square kilometres (1,762 sq mi). The wildlife consists of many tropical dry forest and shrub land, endemic flora and fauna, and rare breeding seabirds and plants, which are unique to this group of islands.

Cape Verde country off the coast of West Africa

Cape Verde or Cabo Verde, officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an archipelago and island country in the central Atlantic Ocean, consisting of ten volcanic islands with a combined land area of about 4,033 square kilometres (1,557 sq mi). These islands lie between 600 to 850 kilometres west of Cap-Vert situated at the westernmost point of continental Africa. The Cape Verde islands form part of the Macaronesia ecoregion, along with the Azores, the Canary Islands, Madeira, and the Savage Isles.

Geology of Cape Verde

Cape Verde is a volcanic archipelago situated above an oceanic rise that puts the base of the islands 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) above the rest of the seafloor. Cape Verde has been identified as a hotspot and the majority of geoscientists have argued that the archipelago is underlain by a mantle plume and that this plume is responsible for the volcanic activity and associated geothermal anomalies.

<i>Globularia amygdalifolia</i> Species of flowering plant

Globularia amygdalifolia is a flowering plant of the family Plantaginaceae. The species is endemic to Cape Verde. It is listed as an endangered species by the IUCN.

Moroços Natural Park, in the middle of the island of Santo Antão, is one of ten "natural parks" in Cape Verde. The protected area is 8.18 km2 (3.16 sq mi). It covers 7.46 km2 (2.88 sq mi) of the municipality of Ribeira Grande, and 0.71 km2 (0.27 sq mi) of Porto Novo.

Cova (crater)

Cova is a volcanic caldera in the eastcentral part of the island of Santo Antão in Cape Verde. It is situated at the southwestern end of the municipality of Paul. Its lowest point is 1,166 meters, and the highest point of the crater rim is about 1,500 m. The diameter of the caldera is about 1.0 km. It forms a part of Cova-Paul-Ribeira da Torre Natural Park. The Cova formation dates from between 1.4 million and 700,000 years ago.

Flora of Cape Verde

The Flora of Cape Verde includes the flowers and plants of Cape Verde, mostly native to the islands. There are about 240 species of plants.

Madeira evergreen forests

The Madeira evergreen forests is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion of southwestern Europe. It covers the archipelago of Madeira and some nearby islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Laurel forest, known as laurissilva, once covered the islands. Over centuries the forests were mostly cleared. Madeira's remaining forests are now protected.

References

  1. "BBC". BBC. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
  2. "What do you do when your island runs out of water?". Deutsche Welle. 2017-05-26.
  3. "Cape Verde: Desalination against aridity". Deutsche Welle. 2017-06-21.
  4. Sabino, António A. (2007), Fog Water Collection Projects in Cape Verde: Potentialities and Constraints. Case Study of the Natural Park of Serra Malagueta. 4th International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew
  5. "Can fog solve water shortages?". IRIN News. 2009-01-09.
  6. Madeira Laurel Forest, Madeira Wind Birds 2005