Armenia is a landlocked country in Western Asia, situated in the Transcaucasus region, between the Black and Caspian Seas, bordered on the north and east by Georgia and Azerbaijan and on the south and west by Iran, Azerbaijan's exclave Nakhchivan, and Turkey.
The terrain is mostly mountainous and flat, with fast flowing rivers and few forests but with many trees. The climate is highland continental: hot summers and cold winters. The land rises to 4,090 m above sea-level at Mount Aragats.
Armenia is located in the southern Caucasus, the region southwest of Russia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.Modern Armenia occupies part of historical Armenia, whose ancient centers were in the valley of the Araks River and the region around Lake Van in Turkey. Armenia is bordered on the north by Georgia, on the east by Azerbaijan, on the southeast by Artsakh, on the south by Iran, and on the west by Turkey.
Twenty-five million years ago, a geological upheaval pushed up the Earth's crust to form the Armenian Plateau, creating the complex topography of modern Armenia.The Lesser Caucasus range extends through northern Armenia, runs southeast between Lake Sevan and Azerbaijan, then passes roughly along the Armenian-Azerbaijani border to Iran. Thus situated, the mountains make travel from north to south difficult. Geological turmoil continues in the form of devastating earthquakes, which have plagued Armenia. In December 1988, the second largest city in the republic, Leninakan (now Gyumri), was heavily damaged by a massive quake that killed more than 25,000 people.
About half of Armenia's area of approximately 29,743 km2 (11,483.8 sq mi) has an elevation of at least 2,000 m (6,562 ft), and only 3% of the country lies below 650 m (2,133 ft). The lowest points are in the valleys of the Araks River and the Debed River in the far north, which have elevations of 380 and 430 m (1,247 and 1,411 ft), respectively. Elevations in the Lesser Caucasus vary between 2,640 and 3,280 m (8,661 and 10,761 ft). To the southwest of the range is the Armenian Plateau, which slopes southwestward toward the Araks River on the Turkish border. The plateau is masked by intermediate mountain ranges and extinct volcanoes. The largest of these, Mount Aragats, 4,090 meters (13,419 ft) high, is also the highest point in Armenia. Most of the population lives in the western and northwestern parts of the country, where the two major cities, Yerevan and Gyumri, are located.
The valleys of the Debed and Akstafa rivers form the chief routes into Armenia from the north as they pass through the mountains. 72.5 km (45 mi) across at its widest point and 376 km (233.6 mi) long, is by far the largest lake. It lies 1,900 m (6,234 ft) above sea level on the plateau and is 1,279.18 km2 (493.9 sq mi) large. Other main lakes are: Arpi, 7.5 km2 (2.9 sq mi), Sev, 2 km2 (0.8 sq mi), Akna 0.8 km2 (0.3 sq mi).Lake Sevan,
Terrain is most rugged in the extreme southeast, which is drained by the Bargushat River, and most moderate in the Araks River valley to the extreme southwest.Most of Armenia is drained by the Araks or its tributary, the Hrazdan, which flows from Lake Sevan. The Araks forms most of Armenia's border with Turkey and Iran, while the Zangezur Mountains form the border between Armenia's southern province of Syunik and Azerbaijan's adjacent Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
Temperatures in Armenia generally depend upon elevation. 0 °C (32 °F) to −15 °C (5 °F), and the mean midsummer temperature is 15 °C (59 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F). Average precipitation ranges from 250 millimeters (9.8 in) per year in the lower Araks River valley to 800 millimeters (31.5 in) at the highest altitudes. Despite the harshness of winter in most parts (with frosts reaching −40 °C (−40 °F) and lower in Shirak region[ citation needed ]), the fertility of the plateau's volcanic soil made Armenia one of the world's earliest sites of agricultural activity.Mountain formations block the moderating climatic influences of the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea, creating wide seasonal variations with cold snowy winters, and warm to hot summers. On the Armenian Plateau, the mean midwinter temperature is
This section needs additional citations for verification .(October 2020)
total: 29,743 km2
land: 28,203 km2
water: 1,540 km2
total: 1,570 km
Azerbaijan and Republic of Artsakh-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Nakhchivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 219 km, Iran 44 km, Turkey 311 km
0 km (landlocked)
lowest point: 375m
highest point: Mount Aragats 4,090 m
Extreme points of Armenia:
North: Tavush ( )
South: Syunik' ( )
West: Shirak ( )
East: Syunik' ( )
This section needs additional citations for verification .(October 2020)
Natural resources: deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite
arable land:4.456 km², 15.8%
permanent crops: 1.9%
permanent pastures: 4.2%
forest (2018): 11.2%
other: 31.2% (2011)
Irrigated land: 2.084 km2 (2018)
Total renewable water resources:
7.77 m³ (2011) Armenia is considered to be a big water “supplier” in the Caspian basin; as a result, the country lacks water, especially in summer when the rate of evaporation exceeds the amount of precipitation. That is the main reason why since ancient times inhabitants have built water reservoirs and irrigation canals in the area. Lake Sevan contains the largest amount of water in the country.
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 2.86 km³/yr (40%/6%/54%)
per capita: 929.7 m³/yr (2010)
Azerbaijan is a country in the Caucasus region, situated at the juncture of Europe and Western Asia. Three physical features dominate Azerbaijan: the Caspian Sea, whose shoreline forms a natural boundary to the east; the Greater Caucasus mountain range to the north; and the extensive flatlands at the country's center. About the size of Portugal or the US state of Maine, Azerbaijan has a total land area of approximately 86,600 square kilometers, less than 1% of the land area of the former Soviet Union. Of the three Transcaucasian states, Azerbaijan has the greatest land area. Special administrative subdivisions are the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, which is separated from the rest of Azerbaijan by a strip of Armenian territory, and the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region, entirely within Azerbaijan. The status of Nagorno-Karabakh is disputed by Armenia.
Geographically, Iran is located in West Asia and borders the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman. Its mountains have helped to shape both the political and the economic history of the country for several centuries. The mountains enclose several broad basins, on which major agricultural and urban settlements are located. Until the 20th century, when major highways and railroads were constructed through the mountains to connect the population centers, these basins tended to be relatively isolated from one another.
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The region covers 5,502.75 km2 (2,124.62 sq mi) with a population of 459,600 bordering Armenia to the east and north, Iran to the south and west, and Turkey to the northwest.
The Aras or Araz or Araxes or Araks is a river that starts in Turkey and then flows along the borders between Turkey and Armenia, between Turkey and the Nakhchivan area of Azerbaijan, between Iran and both Azerbaijan and Armenia and finally through Azerbaijan to the river Kura. It drains the south side of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains and then joins the Kura, which drains the north side of Lesser Caucasus Mountains. Its total length is 1,072 kilometres (666 mi), and its watershed covers an area of 102,000 square kilometres (39,000 sq mi). The Aras is one of the largest rivers in the Caucasus.
Gegharkunik, is a province (marz) of Armenia. Its capital and largest city is the town of Gavar.
Syunik is the southernmost province of Armenia. It is bordered by the Vayots Dzor Province to the north, Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic exclave to the west, Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran to the south. Its capital and largest city is the town of Kapan. The Statistical Committee of Armenia reported its population was 141,771 in the 2011 census, down from 152,684 at the 2001 census.
Vayots Dzor is a province of Armenia. It lies at the southeastern end of the country, bordering the Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan to the west and the Kalbajar District of Azerbaijan to the east. It covers an area of 2,308 km2 (891 sq mi). With a population of only 53,230, it is the most sparsely populated province in the country. The capital and largest city of the province is the town of Yeghegnadzor.
Lake Sevan is the largest body of water in both Armenia and the Caucasus region. It is one of the largest freshwater high-altitude (alpine) lakes in Eurasia. The lake is situated in Gegharkunik Province, at an altitude of 1,900 m (6,234 ft) above sea level. The total surface area of its basin is about 5,000 km2 (1,900 sq mi), which makes up 1⁄6 of Armenia's territory. The lake itself is 1,242 km2 (480 sq mi), and the volume is 32.8 km3 (7.9 cu mi). It is fed by 28 rivers and streams. Only 10% of the incoming water is drained by the Hrazdan River, while the remaining 90% evaporates.
Mount Aragats is an isolated four-peaked volcano massif in Armenia. Its northern summit, at 4,090 m (13,420 ft) above sea level, is the highest point of the Lesser Caucasus and Armenia. It is also one of the highest points in the Armenian Highlands.
The Hrazdan is a major river and the second largest in Armenia. It originates at the northwest extremity of Lake Sevan and flows south through the Kotayk Province and Armenia's capital, Yerevan; the lake in turn is fed by several streams. In the Ararat plain it joins the Aras River along the border with Turkey. A series of hydro-electric plants have been constructed on the river. Its waters are in demand to irrigate crops.
The Lesser Caucasus, also called Caucasus Minor, is the second of the two main mountain ranges of Caucasus mountains, of length about 600 km (370 mi). The western portion of the Lesser Caucasus overlaps and converges with the Turkish part of the high Armenian plateau, in the far northeast of Turkey.
The Vorotan, is a river in Transcaucasia that is the largest right tributary of the Hakari river. The river rises in the northern part of the province of Syunik in the Republic of Armenia. It then flows for 119 kilometres (74 mi) in a generally south-easterly direction through Armenia. The river then enters the territory of Azerbaijan flowing for 43 km (27 mi) through the rayons (districts) of Qubadli and Zangilan. The lower section of the Hakari, from its confluence with the Vorotan until its confluence with the Aras river, is sometimes considered to be part of the Vorotan.
Armenia a land of rugged mountains and extinct volcanoes, its highest point is Mount Aragats, 13,435 ft.
The Eastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey.
Vardenis is a town and urban municipal community in the southeastern part of the Gegharkunik Province of Armenia. It is located in the valley of the Masrik River, on the territory of the Masrik artesian basin at 2,006 metres above sea level, near the southeastern shores of Lake Sevan. It is 170 kilometres by road east of the capital Yerevan, and 75 kilometres southeast of the provincial centre Gavar. The administrative territory of Vardenis comprises 3,006 hectares, of which 736 hectares is occupied by the town itself. Vardenis obtained its status as an urban settlement in 1995.
The Armenia–Azerbaijan border is the international border between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Estimates of the border's length vary from 996 km (619 mi) to 1,007.1 km (625.8 mi). European routes E002 and E117 cross the border.
The Eastern Anatolian montane steppe is a temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregion. It is located in high plateau of Eastern Anatolia, covering parts of eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, southern Georgia, and northwestern Iran.
The geology of Armenia was shaped by geological upheaval pushed up the Earth's crust to form the Armenian Plateau 25 million years ago. This created the complex topography of Armenia.
The Borders of Azerbaijan define the land and maritime borders of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan has international land borders with 5 states.