سلسله امرای چوپانی
Division of Ilkhanate territory
|Common languages||Persian, Mongolian|
|History of the Mongols|
|Culture · Language · Proto-Mongols|
|History of Greater Iran|
The Chobanids or the Chupanids (Persian : سلسله امرای چوپانی), were descendants of a Mongol family of the Suldus clan that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. At first serving under the Ilkhans, they took de facto control of the territory after the fall of the Ilkhanate. The Chobanids ruled over Azerbaijan (where they were based), Arrān, parts of Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and west central Persia, while the Jalayirids took control in Baghdad.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
The Persian Empire refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th century BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey. The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that today comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, western Afghanistan, and the Northwestern edge of the Indian sub-continent. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam.
The early Chobanids were members of the Soldus tribe.[ citation needed ] Sorgan Sira, one of the first important Chobanids, served Genghis Khan during the latter's rise to power.[ citation needed ] Later on, the Chobanids came to live under the authority of the Ilkhanate. A descendent of Sorgan Sira, Amir Tudahun, was killed in 1277 fighting against the Mamluks at the battle of Elbistan. He left a son, Malek (king), who in turn fathered Amir Chupan, the namesake of the Chobanids.[ citation needed ]
Genghis Khan was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in the Khwarazmian and Western Xia controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.
Mamluk is an Arabic designation for slaves. The term is most commonly used to refer to slave soldiers and Muslim rulers of slave origin.
During the early 14th century, Amir Chupan served under three successive Ilkhans, beginning with Ghazan Mahmud. A military commander of note, Chupan quickly gained a degree of influence over the Ilkhans and married several members of the line of Hulagu Khan. His power fueled resentment among the nobility, who conspired against him in 1319 but failed. The Ilkhan Abu Sa'id, however, also disliked Chupan's influence and successfully eliminated him from court. He fled in 1327 to Herat, where the Kartids executed him. Several of his sons fled to the Golden Horde or the Mamluks of Egypt while others were killed.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu, was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Western Asia. Son of Tolui and the Keraite princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan.
Herāt is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 436,300, and serves as the capital of Herat Province, situated in the fertile valley of the Hari River in the western part of the country. It is linked with Kandahar, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif via Highway 1 or the ring road. It is further linked to the city of Mashhad in neighboring Iran through the border town of Islam Qala, and to Mary in Turkmenistan to the north through the border town of Torghundi.
The Golden Horde was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.
The Chobanids were not completely wiped out from Persia. A daughter of Chupan's, Baghdad Katun, had caught the eye of Abu Sa'id. During Chupan's lifetime, she had been married to Hasan Buzurg, the future founder of the Jalayirids, but after Chupan fled Hasan Buzurg divorced her, and she married Abu Sa'id. She quickly gained influence over the Ilkhan and exercised the wide powers given to her. She was alleged (but never proven) to have been involved in any conspiracies against the Ilkhan, but was believed by some to have caused Abu Sa'id's death in 1335. Abu Sa'id's successor Arpa Ke'un executed her.
Shaikh Hasan, called "Buzurg", was the first of several de facto independent Jalayirid rulers of Iraq and central Iran. He was the son of Husain and Öljetey. His sister Soyurghatmish Khatun was married to Öljaitü Khan.
Arpa Ke'un, also known as Arpa Khan or Gavon or Gawon, was an Ilkhan (1335–1336) during the disintegration of the Mongol state in Persia. He was a member of the house of Tolui. His lineage traced back to Ariq Böke, who was the youngest brother of Möngke, Kublai and Hulagu.
Arpa Ke'un's position proved to be weak; when a granddaughter of Chupan, Delsad Katun, fled to Diyarbakr, it caused the governor of that region to attack and defeat the Ilkhan. During the strife that occurred in the next few years, individual members of the Chobanids sided with various factions, such as Arpa or Hasan Buzurg. The latter ended up marrying Delsad Katun, who provided for the heirs to the Jalayirid position.
While the Jalayirids were consolidating their position in Iraq, however, other Chobanid were also busy. Hasan Kucek, a grandson of Chupan, rallied much of the Chobanid family to his side and defeated the Jalayirids in 1338, paving the way for a Chobanid realm in the area around Tabriz. That same year, he elevated Sati Beg, sister of Abu Sa'id and widow of Chupan, to the Ilkhanid throne. To keep Sati Beg in check, he forced her to marry his puppet Suleiman Khan. Hasan Kucek continued to fight the Jalayirids (a fight which was further complicated by the incursions made by Togha Temur of Khurasan), but family infighting proved to be the most difficult challenge. Several members defected to the Jalayirids; in any case, Hasan Kucek was forced to deal with them up until his death in 1343.
Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.
Tabriz is the most populated city in northwestern Iran, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province. It is the sixth most populous city in Iran. Located in the Quru River valley, in Iran's historic Azerbaijan region, between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand and Eynali mountains, Tabriz's elevation ranges between 1,350 and 1,600 metres above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia, 60 kilometres to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, Tabriz is considered a summer resort. It was named World Carpet Weaving City by the World Crafts Council in October 2015 and Exemplary Tourist City of 2018 by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Sati Beg was an Ilkhanid princess, the sister of Il-Khan Abu Sa'id. She was the consort of amir Chupan (1319–27), Il-Khan Arpa, and Il-Khan Suleiman. In 1338–39, she was briefly the Ilkhanid khatun during internal conflicts, appointed by a Chobanid faction led by Hassan Kuchak.
A power struggle quickly emerged after Hasan Kucek's death. During the dispute, Hasan Kucek's brother Malek Asraf gained the upper hand and eliminated his uncles. By the end of 1344, Malek Asraf had gained effective control of the Chobanid lands. Like his predecessor, Malek Asraf used puppet monarchs from behind which he ruled. During his reign, the Chobanid attempted to capture Baghdad from the Jalayirids in 1347 but failed miserably. He also failed to seize Fars from the Injuids in 1350. As his reign wore on, Malek Asraf became more and more cruel, prompting widespread dissatisfaction amongst his subjects. When forces of the Golden Horde overran the Chobanid realm and captured Tabriz in 1357, few lamented the loss of power by the Chupanids. Malek Asraf was executed, and his family brought north to the Golden Horde. Malek Asraf's offspring were eventually killed off in Persia, bringing a definitive end to the Chobanids as a power.
|Hassan||Timurtash||Demasq Kaja||Shaikh Mahmoud||Baghdad Khatun|
|Hassan Kuchak||Malek Ashraf||Dilshad Khatun|
Amir Chūpān, also spellt Choban or Coban, was a Chupanid noble of the Ilkhanate, and nominal general of the Mongol Empire. His father was named the Malek of the Mongol Suldus clan. His ancestor was Chilaun (Чулуун), who was one of Chingis Khan's four great companions.
Baghdad Khatun, was a Chobanid princess, the daughter of Chupan. She was the Empress consort of the Ilkhanate as the wife of Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan.
Timurtash was a member of the Chupanid family who dominated pominated Persian politics in the final years of the Ilkhanate. He was the second son of Chupan.
Shaikh Mahmoud was a member of the Chupanid family who lived in the Ilkhanate. He was the fourth son of Chupan.
Hasan Kuchak or Ḥasan-i Kūchik was a Chupanid prince during the 14th century. He is credited with setting up a nearly independent Chupanid state in northern Persia during the struggles taking place in the aftermath of the Ilkhanate.
Demasq Kaja was a member of the Chobanid family during the middle of the fourteenth century. He was the son of Coban.
Dilshad Khatun (meaning 'Happy Hearted'), also Delshad, was a Chobanid princess. She was the wife of Ilkhan Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, and after him Hasan Buzurg, the first ruler of the Jalayirid Sultanate, and the mother of his son and successor Shaikh Awais.
The House of Inju was a Shia dynasty of Mongol origin that came to rule over the Persian cities of Shiraz and Isfahan during the 14th century AD. Its members became de facto independent rulers following the breakup of the Ilkhanate until their defeat in 1357.
Shaikh Awais Jalayir, also known as Uvais or Oways, was a Jalayirid ruler of Iraq (1356–1374) and Azerbaijan (1360–1374). He was the son of Hasan Buzurg and the Chobanid Dilshad Khatun.
Muhammad Khan was a claimant to the throne of the Ilkhanate. He was a great-grandson of Mengu Timur, who was a son of Hulagu.
Suleiman Khan was a Chobanid puppet for the throne of the Ilkhanate during the breakdown of central authority in Persia. He was the great-grandson of the Ilkhan Hülegü's third son Yoshmut.
Jahan Temür, son of Alafrang, was a Jalayirid candidate for the throne of the Ilkhanate in the late 1330s and the grandson of the Ilkhan Gaykhatu.
Malek Ashraf, was a Chupanid ruler of northwestern Iran during the 14th century. He was the last of the Chupanids to possess a significant influence within Persia. He was the son of Timurtash.
Yasa'ur was a Chagatai prince who launched a revolt against the Ilkhan Abu Sa'id. He was the son of Chübei, and a great-great-grandson of Chagatai Khan.
Togha Temür, also known as Taghaytimur, was a claimant to the throne of the Ilkhanate in the mid-14th century. Of the many individuals who attempted to become Ilkhan after the death of Abu Sa'id, Togha Temür was the only one who hailed from eastern Iran, and was the last major candidate who was of the house of Genghis Khan. His base of power was Gurgan and western Khurasan. His name "Togoy Tomor" means "Bowl/Pot Iron" in the Mongolian language.
Yagi Basti was a member of the Chobanid family and the ruler of Shiraz for a part of 1343. He was the son of Amir Chupan by his second wife.
Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, also spelt Abusaid Bahador Khan, Abu Sa'id Behauder, was the ninth ruler of Ilkhanate c. 1316-1335. This kingdom encompasses the present day countries of Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia, as well as portions of Iraq, Turkey, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.