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This article lists the heads of state of Iran since establishment of the Iran's modern Nation-Stateon 1501 AD.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the capital, largest city, and leading economic and cultural center.
A nation state is a state in which the great majority shares the same culture and is conscious of it. The nation state is an ideal in which cultural boundaries match up with political ones. According to one definition, "a nation state is a sovereign state of which most of its subjects are united also by factors which defined a nation such as language or common descent." It is a more precise concept than "country", since a country does not need to have a predominant ethnic group.
The Expansive Realm of Iran (1501–1736)
|No.||Name||Birth–Death||Reign start||Reign end||Dynasty|
|Shah of Persia|
|1||Shah Ismail I||1487–1524||July 1501||23 May 1524||Safavi|
|2||Shah Tahmasp I||1514–1576||23 May 1524||14 May 1576||Safavi|
|3||Shah Ismail II||1537–1577||23 May 1576||24 November 1577||Safavi|
|4||Shah Mohammad Khodabanda||1532–1595/96||11 February 1578||1 October 1588||Safavi|
|5||Shah Abbas I||1571–1629||1 October 1588||19 January 1629||Safavi|
|6||Shah Safi||1611–1642||28 January 1629||12 May 1642||Safavi|
|7||Shah Abbas II||1632–1666||12 May 1642||25 September 1666||Safavi|
|8||Shah Suleiman I||1648–1694||1 November 1666||29 July 1694||Safavi|
|9||Shah Sultan Husayn||1668–1726||6 August 1694||23 October 1722 ||Safavi|
|10||Mahmud Shah||1699–1725||23 October 1722||25 April 1725||Hotak|
|11||Ashraf Shah||1700–1730||26 April 1725||13 November 1729||Hotak|
|12||Shah Tahmasp II||1704–1740||10 November 1722||2 September 1732||Safavi|
| He was crowned on 9 December 1729 after liberation of the Safavid Capital.|
Reigned at exile:
|13||Shah Abbas III||1732–1740||2 September 1732||8 March 1736||Safavi|
Realm of Iran (1736–1796)
|14||Nader Shah||1688–1747||8 March 1736||20 June 1747||Afshar|
|15||Adil Shah||1719–1749||6 July 1747||29 September 1748||Afshar|
|16||Ebrahim Shah||1724–1749||29 September 1748||May 1749||Afshar|
|17||Shahrokh Shah||1734–1796||May 1749||30 December 1749||Afshar|
|Proclaimed as Shah at 30 September 1748 and one day later crowned at Mashhad.|
Second Safavid restoration
|18||Suleiman II||1714–1763||13 January 1750||20 March 1750||Safavi|
|Proclaimed after deposing and blinding of Shahrokh Shah and crowned at 14 January 1750.|
|19||Ismail III||1733–1773||29 June 1750||1773||Safavi|
|He was a Puppet ruler who raised to the throne by Ali Mardan Khan Bakhtiari and Karim Khan Zand as a front to legitimize their rule. |
|(17)||Shahrokh Shah||1734–1796||9 May 1755||14 May 1796||Afshar|
|20||Karim Khan||1705–1779||1773||1 March 1779||Zand|
|21||Abol-Fath Khan||1755–1787||6 March 1779||May/June 1779||Zand|
|He and his younger brother Mohammad Ali Khan were Co-rulers.|
|22||Mohammad Ali Khan||1760–1779||6 March 1779||19 June 1779||Zand|
|He and his elder brother Abol-Fath Khan were Co-rulers until May/June 1779.|
|(21)||Abol-Fath Khan||1755–1787||19 June 1779||22 August 1779||Zand|
|23||Sadeq Khan||?–1781||22 August 1779||14 March 1781||Zand|
|24||Ali-Morad Khan||?–1785||15 March 1781||11 February 1785||Zand|
|–||Bagher Shah||?–1786||12 February 1785||17 February 1785 ||N/A|
|After the death of Ali-Morad Khan, Bagher Khan Khorasgani Governor of Isfahan proclaimed himself as Shah and mentioned himself in the Khutbah and on coins. He was defeated from the corps of Jafar Khan.|
|25||Jafar Khan||1766–1794||18 February 1785||23 January 1789||Zand|
|26||Seyd Morad Khan||1766–1794||23 January 1789||10 May 1789||Zand|
|27||Lotf Ali Khan||1766–1794||10 May 1789||20 March 1794||Zand|
|Shah of Iran|
|(27)||Lotf Ali Shah||1766–1794||21 March 1794||30 October 1794||Zand|
Sublime State of Persia (1796–1925)
|28||Agha Mohammad Shah||1742–1797||14 May 1796||17 June 1797||Qajar|
|Agha Mohammad decided to move his capital to the small town of Tehran on 1786. He was formally crowned as Shah on spring 1796 at the Mugan plain, on his return after the conquest of Tbilisi.|
|29||Fath-Ali Shah||1772–1834||17 June 1797||23 October 1834||Qajar|
|30||Mohammad Shah||1808–1848||9 November 1834||5 September 1848||Qajar|
|31||Naser al-Din Shah||1831–1896||13 September 1848||1 May 1896||Qajar|
|Queen-mother Mahd-e Olia: 5 September 1848 – 1 October 1848.|
|32||Mozaffar ad-Din Shah||1853–1907||2 May 1896||8 January 1907||Qajar|
|33||Mohammad Ali Shah||1872–1925||8 January 1907|| 16 July 1909 ||Qajar|
|34||Ahmad Shah||1898–1930||16 July 1909||31 October 1925||Qajar|
| Reigned in exile: from 2 December 1923|
Imperial State of Iran (1925–1979)
|No.||Name||Birth–Death||Took office||Left office||Political Affiliation|
|Provisional Head of State|
|35||Reza Khan||1878–1944||31 October 1925||15 December 1925||Military|
|No.||Name||Birth–Death||Took office||Left office||Dynasty|
|Shah of Iran|
|(35)||Reza Shah||1878–1944||15 December 1925|| 16 September 1941 ||Pahlavi|
|36||Mohammad Reza Shah||1919–1980||16 September 1941||11 February 1979||Pahlavi|
| Reigned in exile:|
|No.||Name||Birth–Death||Took office||Left office||Political Affiliation|
Islamic Republic of Iran (1979–present)
|Leader of the Revolution|
|37||Ruhollah Khomeini||1902–1989||5 February 1979||3 December 1979||Independent|
|Supreme Leader of Iran|
|(37)||Ruhollah Khomeini||1902–1989||3 December 1979||3 June 1989||Independent|
|38||Ali Khamenei||1939–||4 June 1989||Incumbent||Independent|
Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad Khodabanda.
Tahmasp I was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ismail I.
The Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas, simply known as Fadaiyan-e-Khalq was a Marxist-Leninist underground guerrilla organization in Iran.
The Social Democratic Party was a political party formed by Persian emigrants in Transcaucasia with the help of local revolutionaries, maintaining close ties to the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and Hemmat Party.
Parliamentary elections were held in Persia in 1914. The new Parliament convened on 6 December.
Roger Savory is a British-born Professor Emeritus at the University of Toronto who is an Iranologist and specialist on the Safavids. His numerous writings on Safavid political, military history, administration, bureaucracy, and diplomacy-translated into several language have had a great impact in understanding this period.
Moderate Socialists or simply Moderates Party, was a political party in Qajari Persia and one of the two major parties of the constitutional period alongside its parliamentary rival Social Democratic Party–Democrat Party.
Union and Progress Party or Unity and Progress Party was a political party in constitutional period Persia.
Reformers' Party of Reformists Party was a political party in Iran, established in late years of Qajar dynasty. It was one of the four major parliamentary parties in early 1920s, along with the Communist Party, Socialist Party and Revival Party.
Islamic Nations Party or Party of Islamic Nations was an Islamic leftist armed group with clandestine system short-lived during 1960s. It was initially a secret society active against Pahlavi dynasty in late 1950s. It consisted of middle-class youth, mostly highschool teachers and university students.
Iran-e-No Party was a short-lived fascist anticlerical party in Iran, founded by Abdolhossein Teymourtash in an attempt to form a one-party state which mobilized support for Reza Shah, but soon was replaced by its offshoot the Progress Party.
Abu’l-Qāsem Khān Qarāgozlu, known by the title Nāṣer-al-molk, was a Persian politician during Qajar dynasty.
Nur-Ali Khalifa, also known as Nur-Ali Khalifa Rumlu, was an early 16th-century Safavid military leader and official from the Turkoman Rumlu tribe. He served as the governor of Erzincan from ca. 1511 to 1515.
Peykar Party was a small nationalist organization in Iran during 1940s. The party denounced the reign of Reza Shah and it condemned the presence of the Allies on Iranian soil.
Organization of Working-Class Freedom Fighters or simply Razmandegan, was a communist party in Iran that opposed both the Soviet line and the guerrilla doctrine.
Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar was the Qajar chieftain of the Qoyunlu branch from 1759 till his death in 1777.
Socialism in Iran or Iranian socialism is a political ideology that traces its beginnings to the 20th century and encompasses various political parties in the country. Iran experienced a short Third World Socialism period at the zenith of the Tudeh Party after the abdication of Reza Shah and his replacement by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. After failing to reach power, this form of third world socialism was replaced by Mosaddegh's populist, non-aligned Iranian nationalism of the National Front party as the main anti-monarchy force in Iran, reaching power (1949–1953), and it remained with that strength even in opposition until the rise of Islamism and the Iranian Revolution. The Tudehs have moved towards basic socialist communism since then.
The elections for the eighth Majlis were held in the summer of 1930.
The elections for the eleventh Majlis were held during the spring and summer of 1937 and all deputies were elected to the parliament.
Ali-Qoli Khan Shamlu was a Safavid officer of Turkoman origin. He is mostly remembered for leading a rebellious coalition against then-incumbent kings (shahs) Ismail II and Mohammad Khodabanda. This rebellion guaranteed the survival of the young prince Abbas, for whom he was guardian (laleh).
Michael George Andrew AxworthyFRSA, FRAS was a British academic, author, and commentator. He was the head of the Iran section at the British Foreign & Commonwealth Office between 1998–2000.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house. It was co-founded in 1935 by Sir Allen Lane, his brothers Richard and John, as a line of the publishers The Bodley Head, only becoming a separate company the following year. Penguin revolutionised publishing in the 1930s through its inexpensive paperbacks, sold through Woolworths and other high street stores for sixpence, bringing high-quality paperback fiction and non-fiction to the mass market. Penguin's success demonstrated that large audiences existed for serious books. Penguin also had a significant impact on public debate in Britain, through its books on British culture, politics, the arts, and science.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.