Afrasiyab dynasty

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Afrasiyab dynasty

چلاویان
1349–1504
Chalav Government.png
Capital Amol
(1349–1359 & 1393-1403)
Firuzkuh (?)
(1403–1504)
Common languages Mazandarani
Religion
Shia Islam
GovernmentMonarchy
 1349–1359
Kiya Afrasiyab (first)
 ?–1504
Kiya Husayn II (last)
Historical era Middle Ages
 Established
1349
  Safavid conquest
1504
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Bavand dynasty
Marashis Blank.png
Safavid dynasty Blank.png

The Afrasiyab or Chalavi dynasty was a small Iranian Shia dynasty of Mazandaran and flourished in the late medieval, pre-Safavid period; it is also called the Kia dynasty. It was founded by Kiya Afrasiyab, who conquered the Bavand kingdom in 1349 and made himself king of the region. In 1504, Ismail I invaded Mazandaran and ended Afrasiyab rule of the region.

Iranian peoples diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group

The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

Shia Islam group of denominations of Islam which holds that Muhammad designated Ali as his successor and leader (imam), whose adherents form the majority of the population in Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain

Shia, also transliterated Shiah and Shiʿah, is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam (leader) after him, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from the caliphate as a result of the incident at Saqifah. This view primarily contrasts with that of Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr, who they claim was appointed Caliph through a Shura, i.e. community consensus in Saqifa, to be the first rightful Caliph after the Prophet.

Kiya Afrasiyab

Kiya Afrasiyab, was the founder of the Afrasiyab dynasty, ruling from 1349 to 1359.

Contents

History

Kiya Afrasiyab was the son of certain Hasan Chulabi, who belonged to the Chulabids, a prominent family of Mazandaran which served the Bavandids. Afrasiyab was the sipahsalar and the brother-in-law of the Bavandid ruler Hasan II (r. 1334-1349).

Hasan II, also known as Fakhr al-Dawla Hasan, was the last ruler of the Bavand dynasty from 1334 to 1349. He was the brother, and successor of Sharaf al-Muluk.

In 1349, the Bavandid ruler Hasan ordered the execution of one of his most powerful officials, Jalal ibn Ahmad Jal, who was from the powerful Jalali which governed Sari. The execution resulted in a revolt by the nobles of Mazandaran. Hasan then tried to get support from the Chulabids. However, the two sons of Afrasiyab, murdered Hasan while the latter was in a bath.

Sari, Iran City in Mazandaran, Iran

Sari is the provincial capital of Mazandaran and former capital of Iran, located in the north of Iran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains and southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Sari is the largest and most populous city of Mazandaran.

Afrasiyab then gained control of the Bavandid territories, thus marking the end of the Bavand dynasty and the start of the Afrasiyab dynasty. A son of Hasan managed to flee to the court of the Paduspanid ruler Eskandar II, who later tried to restore Bavand rule in Mazandaran, but failed to do so. Afrasiyab also faced another problem; the nobles of Mazandaran did not acknowledge his rule and viewed it as usurpation. [1]

Eskandar II, was the ruler of the Paduspanid dynasty from 1333 to 1359. He was the son and successor of Taj al-Dawla Ziyar.

Afrasiyab shortly tried to achieve stability by asking aid from Mir-i Buzurg, a Sayyid dervish from Dabudasht. However, some of Mir-i Buzurg's dervishes acted hostile to Afrasiyab, which made him imprison Mir-i Buzurg and many of his dervishes. However, the supporters of Mir-i Buzurg shortly revolted, and freed him from prison. In 1359, a battle between Afrasiyab and Mir-i Buzurg took place near Amol, where Afrasiyab was defeated and was killed together with his three sons.

Mir-i Buzurg

Qavam al-Din ibn Abdallah al-Marashi, better known as Mir Buzurg or Mir Bozorg, was the founder of the Marashi dynasty, ruling from 1359 to 1362.

Sayyid honorific title

Sayyid (Arabic: سيد‎ [ˈsæj.jɪd], Persian: [sejˈjed]; meaning "Mister"; plural: Saadat or Sadat Arabic: سادة‎ sādah is an honorific title denoting people accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his cousin Imam Ali through his grandsons, Imam Hasan ibn Ali and Imam Husayn ibn Ali, sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali.

Dervish someone treading a Sufi Muslim ascetic path

Dervish or darwish in Islam can refer broadly to members of a Sufi fraternity (tariqah), or more narrowly to a religious mendicant, who chose or accepted material poverty. The latter usage is found particularly in Persian and Turkish, corresponding to the Arabic term faqir. Their focus is on the universal values of love and service, deserting the illusions of ego to reach God. In most Sufi orders, a dervish is known to practice dhikr through physical exertions or religious practices to attain the ecstatic trance to reach God. Their most common practice is Sama, which is associated with the 13th-century mystic Rumi.

Mir-i Buzurg shortly conquered the territories of the Afrasiyab dynasty, and laid foundations to the Marashi dynasty. Afrasiyab had several other sons who tried to restore Afrasiyabid authority in Mazandaran. His son Fakhr al-Din Chulabi murdered one of the sons of Mir-i Buzurg, which resulted in a massacre of most of the Afrasiyabid family. Afrasiyab's other son Iskandar-i Shaykhi, managed with the aid of Timur, to restore Afrasiyabid authority in 1393. [1] Iskandar later aided Timur in his campaign to Iraq, Shirvan and Anatolia. After having achieved great success during the campaign, Iskandar was allowed to return to Mazandaran, but shortly rebelled against Timur. In 1403, Timur invaded Mazandaran to repress the rebellion. Iskandar, together with his wife and two children, then fled from Amol. Iskandar, fearing that they might betray him, killed them. [1]

Marashis

The Marashiyan or Marashis were an Iranian Sayyid Twelver Shiʿite dynasty of Mazandarani origin, ruling in Mazandaran from 1359 to 1596. The dynasty was founded by Mir-i Buzurg, a Sayyid native to Dabudasht.

Iskandar-i Shaykhi, was ruler of the Afrasiyab dynasty from 1393 to 1403. He was the son and successor of Kiya Afrasiyab.

Timur Turco-Mongol ruler

Timur, historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane, was a Turco-Mongol conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia, he became the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty. According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur was "the product of an islamized and iranized society", and not steppe nomadic.

Iskandar was shortly killed by the army of Timur, who under the orders of Timur, had Iskandar's head sent to his son Kiya Husayn I, who had fortified himself in Firuzkuh. Kiya Husayn I, after having seen the head of his father, agreed to surrender to Timur, and was pardoned by the latter, who acknowledged him as the ruler of the Afrasiyab dynasty. Kiya Husayn was later succeeded by his son Luhrasp, who ruled sometime around 1475. His grandson, Kiya Husayn II, ruled over a large part of western Mazandaran, and districts of Firuzkuh, Damavand, and Hari-rud. During the dissolution of the Aq Qoyunlu confederation, Kiya Husayn II expanded his rule from western into central Iran, where he captured Ray and Semman. He also defeated Mohammad Hosayn Mirza, who was the Timurid governor of Astarabad. [1]

He later became the enemy of the Safavid shah Ismail I (r. 1501-1524), whom he may have seen as a rival for the command over the Shi'ites in Iran. In 1504, Kiya Husayn II's territories was invaded by Ismail I, who seized the strongholds of Gol-e Khan and Firuzkuh, and surrounded Kiya Husayn II in Osta, who was shortly captured. However, the latter commmited suicide—his body was burned at Isfahan in front its inhabitants, whilst his followers in Mazandaran were slaughtered. [1]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Bosworth 1984, pp. 742-743.

Sources