The Zarmihrid dynasty was a local dynasty of Tabaristan which ruled over parts of the mountainous areas of the region since the reign of Sasanian king Khosrau I to 785.
Tabaristan, also known as Tapuria, was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran. Although the natives of the region knew it as Mazandaran, the region was called Tabaristan from the Arab conquests to the Seljuk period.
The family claimed its origin from a powerful Karen lord named Sukhra, a descendant of Kaveh the blacksmith, the national hero of Iran, and who was one of the leading nobles of the empire during the reign of Balash and Kavadh I. According to a traditional story, Sukhra left two children, Karin and Zarmihr, who helped Khosrau I protect the eastern borders of his empire when it was invaded by Turkic nomads. Karin was rewarded with land in the south of Amol, and was given title of Ispahbadh, thus starting the Karen dynasty of Tabaristan. Zarmihr was rewarded with parts of Tabaristan and was given the title of Marzban and Masmughan. Eastern Tabaristan was mainly divided between the Karenids, the Zarmihrids and the Marzban of Tomisha.
The House of Karen, also known as Karen-Pahlavi (Kārēn-Pahlaw) was one of the Seven Great Houses of Iran. The seat of the house lay at Nahavand, about 65 km south of Ecbatana.
Sukhra was an Iranian nobleman from the House of Karen, who was the de facto ruler of the Sasanian Empire from 484 to 493. He was active during the reign of shah Peroz I, Balash and Kavadh I. He is often confused with his father Zarmihr Hazarwuxt and son Zarmihr Karen.
Balash was the nineteenth king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire from 484 to 488. He was the brother and successor of Peroz I (457–484), who had died in a battle against the Hephthalite invasion of Iran from the east.
In 783, the Karenids, along with the Bavandids and the Zarmihrids revolted against the Abbasid Caliphate, the alliance was, however, defeated in 785, and thus the Zarmihrids disappeared from history afterwards.
The Bavand dynasty, or simply the Bavandids, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan (Mazandaran) in what is now northern Iran from 651 until 1349, alternating between outright independence and submission as vassals to more powerful regional rulers.
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE (132 AH).
Kavad I was king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire from 488 to 531, with an interruption of two years. A son of Peroz I, he was crowned by the nobles in place of his deposed and unpopular uncle Balash. His reign saw the uprising of Vakhtang I of Iberia, the rise of Mazdakism, as well as the Anastasian War and the Iberian War against the Byzantine Empire. During Kavad's reign, massive fortification activities were conducted in the Caucasus, including Derbent.
Sunpadh was an Iranian nobleman from the House of Karen, who incited an uprising against the Abbasid Caliphate in the 8th century.
Bozorgmehr-e Bokhtagan, also known as Burzmihr, Dadmihr and Dadburzmihr, was an Iranian nobleman from the Karen family, who served as minister of the Sasanian king (shah) Kavad I, and the latter son and successor Khosrow I. He also served as the military commander (spahbed) of Khwarasan under Khosrow I and his successor Hormizd IV. According to Persian and Arabic sources, Bozorgmehr was a man of "exceptional wisdom and sage counsels" and later became a characterisation of the expression. His name appears in several important works in Persian literature, most notably in the Shahnameh. The historian Arthur Christensen has suggested that Bozorgmehr was the same person as Borzuya, but historigraphical studies of post-Sasanian Persian literature, as well as linguistic analysis show otherwise. However, the word "Borzuya" can sometimes be considered a shortened form of Bozorgmehr.
Mazyar, was an Iranian prince from the Qarinvand dynasty, who was the ruler (ispahbadh) of the mountainous region of Tabaristan from 825/6 to 839. For his resistance to the Abbasid Caliphate, Mazyar is considered one of the national heroes of Iran by twentieth-century Iranian nationalist historiography. His name means "protected by the yazata of the moon".
Sakastan was a Sasanian province in Late Antiquity, that lay within the kust of Nemroz. The province bordered Kirman in the west, Spahan in the north west, Kushanshahr in the north east, and Turan in the south east. The governor of the province held the title of marzban. The governor also held the title of "Sakanshah" until the title was abolished in ca. 459/60.
Sasanian Armenia, also known as Persian Armenia and Persarmenia, may either refer to the periods where Armenia was under the suzerainty of the Sasanian Empire, or specifically to the parts of Armenia under its control such as after the partition of 387 AD when parts of western Armenia were incorporated into the Byzantine Empire while the rest of Armenia came under Sasanian suzerainty whilst maintaining its existing kingdom until 428.
Kawus was the eldest son of Kavadh I, the Sasanian emperor of Iran. During the late reign of his father, Kawus was appointed as governor of Tabaristan, and was given the title of Padishkhwargar Shah.
Zarmihr Hazarwuxt was a Sasanian commander from the House of Karen. He was also the marzban of Persian Armenia during a short period in 483.
Masmughan was a Sasanian title that existed in the 7th century, probably equivalent to governor of a district or a region.
Burzin Shah, also known by the Arabicized form of Barzan Jah, was an Iranian nobleman from the House of Karen. A descendant of Sukhra, he was the governor of Nishapur during the reign of the Sasanian king Yazdegerd III.
The Battle of Nishapur was fought in 652 between the Karen family and the Rashidun Caliphate along with their allies the Kanārangīyān family.
Sharwin I was the fifth ruler of the Bavand dynasty from 772 to 817. He was the son and successor of Surkhab II.
Surkhab II was the fourth ruler of the Bavand dynasty from 755 to 772. In 760, his overlords, the Dabuyids, under Khurshid of Tabaristan, revolted against the Abbasid Caliphate. Khurshid, was, however, defeated, and fled to Daylam, where he made a counterattack against the Abbasids, but was once again defeated. After learning that his family was captured by the Abbasids, Khurshid poisoned himself. This marked the end of the Dabuyid dynasty; however, other dynasties such as the Bavandids, Karenids and Zarmihrids, who were all formerly subject to the Dabuyids, continued to control parts of Tabaristan as tributary vassals of the Abbasid government. Surkhab II died in 772, and was succeeded by his son Sharwin I, who would later along with the rulers of Tabaristan revolt against the Abbasids and massacre all the Muslims in Tabaristan.
Vindadhhurmuzd, also known by the more correct form of Vandad Hormozd, was the ruler of the Qarinvand dynasty from 765 to 809.
Valash, was an Iranian prince from the House of Karen, who later became the ruler of Tabaristan in 665.
Shapur Mihran, known in Armenian sources as Shapuh Mihran, was a Sasanian nobleman from the House of Mihran. He served as the marzban of Persian Armenia briefly in 482.
The Qarinvand dynasty, or simply the Karenids, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan (Mazandaran) in what is now northern Iran from the 550s until the 11th-century. They considered themselves as the inheritors of the Dabuyid dynasty, and were known by their titles of Gilgilan and Ispahbadh. They were descended from Sukhra, a Parthian nobleman from the House of Karen, who was the de facto ruler of the Sasanian Empire from 484 to 493.
Zarmihr Karen was an Iranian nobleman from the House of Karen, who served as the Sasanian governor of Zabulistan. He was the son of Sukhra.