Nasrid dynasty (Sistan)

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Nasrid dynasty of Sistan
1029–1225
Nasrid-coin-obv-Taj.png
Nasrid coin
Status Kingdom
Capital Zaranj
Common languages Persian
Religion Sunni Islam
Malik  
 1029–1073
Tadj al-Din I Abu l-Fadl Nasr
 1106–1164
Taj al-Din II Nasr ibn Khalaf
 1169–1213
Taj al-Din III Harb ibn Muhammad ibn Nasr
 1213–1221
Yamin al-Din Bahram Shah ibn Harb
Historical era Middle Ages
 Established
1029
 Disestablished
1225
Currency billon Dirhem
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Ghaznavids
Mongol Empire Blank.png
Mihrabanid dynasty Blank.png
Today part of

The Nasrid dynasty, also referred to as the Later Saffarids of Seistan or the Maliks of Nimruz, was an Iranian Sunni dynasty that ruled Sistan in the power vacuum left by the collapse of the Ghaznavid Empire and until the Mongol invasion of Central Asia. The Nasrids were a branch of the Saffarid dynasty, and the establishment of the Nasrid Kingdom at Nimruz in 1068 until its dissolution in 1225 represents a transient resurgence of Saffarid rule in Sistan. [1]

Iranian peoples diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group

The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

Sunni Islam denomination of Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by 75-90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah, referring to the behaviour of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions.

Sistan historical and geographical region in present-day Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan

Sīstān, known in ancient times as Sakastan, is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. Largely desert, the region is bisected by the Helmand River, the largest river in Afghanistan, which empties into the hamun lakes that form part of the border between the two countries.

Contents

The kingdom was established by Tadj al-Din I Abu l-Fadl Nasr who was the Malik of Sistan under the Ghaznavids. Nasrid maliks ruled intermittently as sovereigns or vassals of larger neighboring powers, including the Seljuks, the Ghurids, and the Khwarezmians. After the dissolution of the kingdom by Inaltigin Khwarazmi [2] in the wake of the Mongol invasion, the region was ruled by a third dynasty of Saffarids, the Mihrabanids.

Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek, Malick, or Melekh is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic and Arabic.

Sovereignty concept that a state or governing body has the right and power to govern itself without outside interference

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity.

Mihrabanids

The Mihrabanid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty that ruled Sistan from 1236 until the mid-16th century. It is the third indigenous Muslim dynasty of Sistan, having been preceded by the Saffarid and Nasrid dynasties.

Nasrid maliks

Throne NameOriginal NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft officeFamily RelationsNote
Nasrid dynasty, [2] 1029-1225
1Tadj al-Din I Abu l-Fadl NasrMalik10291073Malik of Sistan under the Ghaznavids
2Baha al-Dawala Tahir ibn NasrMalik10731088son of Tadj al-Din I Nasr
3Badr al-Dawala Abu ‘l-‘Abbas ibn NasrMalik10881090son of Tadj al-Din I Nasr
4Baha al-Dawala Khalaf ibn NasrMalik10901106son of Tadj al-Din I Nasr
5Taj al-Din II Nasr ibn KhalafMalik11061169son of Baha al-Dawala Khalaf
6Taj al-Din III Harb ibn Muhammad ibn NasrMalik11691213grandson of Tadj al-Din I NasrBecame vassal of Ghurids starting in 1175 AD
7Yamin al-Din Bahram Shah ibn HarbMalik12131221son of Taj al-Din III HarbKilled during the Mongol invasion, ushering in a period of succession instability and subsequent dissolution.
8Taj al-Din IV Nasr ibn Bahram ShahMalik12211221son of Bahram Shah
9Shihab al-Din Mahmud I ibn HarbMalik12211225son of Taj al-Din III Harb
10Rukn al-Din Mahmud ibn Bahram ShahMalik12211222son of Bahram Shah
11Abu ‘l-Muzaffar Ali ibn HarbMalik12221222son of Taj al-Din III Harb
12Ala al-Din Ahmad ibn Uthman Nasr al-Din ibn HarbMalik12231223son of Taj al-Din III Harb
13Uthman Shah ibn Uthman Nasr al-Din ibn HarbMalik12251225son of Taj al-Din III Harb

See also

The term Iranian Intermezzo represents a period in history which saw the rise of various native Iranian Muslim dynasties in the Iranian plateau. This term is noteworthy since it was an interlude between the decline of Abbāsid Arab rule and power and the eventual emergence of the Seljuq Turks in the 11th century. The Iranian revival consisted of Iranian support based on Iranian territory and most significantly a revived Iranian national spirit and culture in an Islamic form.

History of Afghanistan aspect of history

The history of Afghanistan, as a state began in 1747 with its establishment by Ahmad Shah Durrani. The written recorded history of the land presently constituting Afghanistan can be traced back to around 500 BCE when the area was under the Achaemenid Empire, although evidence indicates that an advanced degree of urbanized culture has existed in the land since between 3000 and 2000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up to large parts of Afghanistan in the north. Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army arrived at what is now Afghanistan in 330 BCE after conquering Persia. Since then, many empires have risen from Afghanistan, including the, Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Hindu Shahi, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khaljis, Timurids, Mughals, Hotakis and Durranis.

Notes

Related Research Articles

Nimruz Province Province in Afghanistan

Nimruz or Nimroz is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southwestern part of the country. It lays to the east of the Sistan and Baluchestan Province of Iran and north of Balochistan, Pakistan. The province contains five districts, encompassing about 649 villages, and roughly 156,600 settled people. The city of Zaranj serves as the provincial capital and Zaranj Airport, which is located by that city, serves as a domestic airport for the province.

Saffarid dynasty Persian dynasty

The Saffarid dynasty was a Muslim Persian dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj. Khorasan, Afghanistan and Sistan from 861 to 1003. One of the first indigenous Persian dynasties to emerge after the Arab Islamic invasions, its founder was Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, who was born in 840 in a small town called Karnin (Qarnin), which was located east of Zaranj and west of Bost, in what is now Afghanistan - a native of Sistan and a local ayyār, who worked as a coppersmith (ṣaffār) before becoming a warlord. He seized control of the Sistan region and began conquering most of Iran and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Pakistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

Maymana Place in Faryab Province, Afghanistan

Maymana is the capital city of Faryab Province in northwestern Afghanistan, near the Turkmenistan border. It is approximately 400 km (250 mi) northwest of the country’s capital Kabul, and is located on the Maymana River, which is a tributary of the Murghab River. The population of Maymana was 149,040 in 2015, making it one of the largest cities of northwestern Afghanistan.

Zaranj Place in Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

Zaranj or Zarang is a city in southwestern Afghanistan, near the border with Iran, which has a population of 160,902 people as of 2015. It is the capital of Nimruz province and is linked by highways with Lashkar Gah to the east, Farah to the north and the Iranian city of Zabol to the west. Zaranj is a major border crossing between Afghanistan and Iran, which is of significant importance to the trade-route between Central Asia and South Asia with the Middle East.

Greater Khorasan historical region of Persia

Khorasan, sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan. The name simply means "East, Orient" and loosely includes the territory of the Sasanian Empire north-east of Persia proper. Early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of so-called Jibal or what was subsequently termed 'Iraq Ajami', as being included in a vast and loosely-defined region of Khorasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley and Sindh. During the Islamic period, Khorasan along with Persian Iraq were two important territories. The boundary between these two was the region surrounding the cities of Gurgan and Qumis. In particular, the Ghaznavids, Seljuqs and Timurids divided their empires into Iraqi and Khorasani regions.

Yaqub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar Founder of the Saffarid dynasty at Zaranj in what is now Afghanistan

Ya'qūb ibn al-Layth al-Saffār, or Ya'qūb-i Layth-i Saffārī, born Rādmān pūr-i Māhak, a Persian coppersmith, was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty of Sistan, with its capital at Zaranj. Under his military leadership he conquered much of the eastern portions of the Greater Persia consisting of modern-day Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan as well as portions of western Pakistan and a small part of Iraq. He was succeeded by his brother, Amr ibn al-Layth.

Khalaf ibn Ahmad Saffarid amir

Abu Ahmad Wali 'l-Dawla Khalaf ibn Ahmad was the Saffarid amir of Sistan from 963 until 1002. Although he was renowned in the eastern Islamic world as a scholar, his reign was characterized by violence and instability, and Saffarid rule over Sistan came to an end with his deposition.

Shams al-Din 'Ali ibn Mas'ud ibn Khalaf ibn Mihraban was the first Mihrabanid malik of Sistan. He ruled from 1236 until his death.

Qutb al-Din Muhammad was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1330 until his death. He was the son of Rukn al-Din Mahmud.

Taj al-Din was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1346 until 1350. He was the son of Qutb al-Din Muhammad.

Jalal al-Din Mahmud was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1350 until his death. He was the son of Rukn al-Din Mahmud.

Qutb al-Din was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1380 until 1383. He was the son of 'Izz al-Din ibn Rukn al-Din Mahmud.

Taj al-Din Shah-i Shahan Abu'l Fath or Shah-i-Shahan of Sistan was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1383 until his death. He was the son of Mas'ud Shihna.

Shams al-Din 'Ali was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1419 until his death. He was the son of Qutb al-Din Muhammad.

Shams al-Din Muhammad was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1480 until around the end of the 15th century. He was the eldest son of Nizam al-Din Yahya.

The Ma'danid dynasty was an Islamic dynasty that ruled Makran from the late 9th or early 10th century until around the 11th century.

Sultan Mahmud was the last Mihrabanid malik of Sistan, from c. 1495 until c. 1537.

Muslim conquest of Khorasan was the last phase of the heavy war between the Rashidun caliphate against Sassanid Empire.

References

  1. Mitchiner, Michael (1977). Oriental Coins and Their Values: The world of Islam. Hawkins Publications. p. 152. ISBN   978-0904173154.
  2. 1 2 Clifford Edmund Bosworth (January 1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press. pp. 211–. ISBN   978-0-231-10714-3.