Timeline of Iranian history

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The page details the timeline of History of Iran.

Millennia: 1st BC  · 1st–2nd  · 3rd
Centuries: 7th BC  · 6th BC  · 5th BC  · 4th BC  · 3rd BC  · 2nd BC  · 1st BC  · See also  · References  · Bibliography  · External links

33rd century BC

3200 BC Elam civilization in the far west and southwest of modern-day Iran and modern-day southeast Iraq.

13th century BC

1250 BC Untash-Napirisha, king of Elam, builds the Chogha Zanbil ziggurat complex in present-day Khuzestan Province.
1210 BC Elamite Empire reaches the height of its power.

8th century BC

770 BC The Persians start driving the Elamites of Anshan towards Susa. [1]
727 BC Deioces founds the Median government.
705 BC Birth of Achaemenes (died c.675 BC), the eponymous ancestor of the Achaemenid dynasty. [1]

7th century BC

647 BC Assyrian Empire defeats Elam Empire in the Battle of Susa, resulting in looting and total destruction of Susa.
633 BC The Scythians invade Media. [1]
624 BC The Medians repel the Scythians. [1]
624 BC Cyaxares the Great becomes the king of the Medes. [1]
612 BC Together with the Babylonians, Cyaxares the Great captures the Assyrian capital Nineveh, which leads to the eventual collapse of the Neo-Assyrian empire. [1]

6th century BC

550 BC Cyaxares dies and is succeeded by his son Astyages. [1]
550 BC The Achaemenid Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great after defeating the Median empire.
539 BC Cyrus captured Babylon, freed thousands of slaves and issued a declaration of human rights. This would later be inscribed into the Cyrus Cylinder.
525 BC Cambyses II conquers Egypt after the Battle of Pelusium. [1] [2]

5th century BC

490 BCAugust/September Battle of Marathon, Persian Empire is defeated by Greek states.
480 BCThe Achaemenid Empire under Xerxes I invades mainland Greece.
480–479 BCPersians capture and destroy Athens. The Acropolis, the Old Temple of Athena and the Older Parthenon are destroyed.

4th century BC

343 BCEgypt is annexed by Persians after defeat of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt by Artaxerxes III
334 BC Alexander III of Macedon crosses the Hellespont into Asia.
334 BCMay Alexander III of Macedon defeats the armies of the Achaemenid Empire in the Battle of the Granicus river
333 BC5 NovemberAlexander III of Macedon defeats the armies of the Achaemenid Empire in the Battle of Issus
330 BC20 JanuaryAlexander III of Macedon defeats the armies of the Achaemenid Empire in the Battle of the Persian Gate
330 BCJuly Darius III, the last Achaemenid emperor is killed, bringing an end to the Achaemenid empire.
330 BC Persepolis, the capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire is destroyed by Alexander III of Macedon.
323 BC10/11 JuneAlexander III dies in Babylon, triggering a division of his empire among his generals in a treaty known as the Partition of Triparadisus.
312 BC Seleucus I Nicator, establishes the Seleucid Empire in the Persian territories of the erstwhile Macedonian Empire.

3rd century BC

247 BC Arsaces I establishes the Parthian Empire (also known as the Arsacid Empire) in present-day north-eastern Iran. [1] [3]

2nd century BC

1st century BC

94 BCThe Parthian Empire reaches its peak, stretching from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to present-day Afghanistan and western Pakistan.
54 BCBeginning of the Roman–Parthian Wars, lasting till 217 CE.
Centuries: 1st  · 2nd  · 3rd  · 4th  · 5th  · 6th  · 7th  · 8th  · 9th  · 10th  · 11th  · 12th  · 13th  · 14th  · 15th  · 16th  · 17th  · 18th  · 19th  · 20th

1st century

2nd century

3rd century

208 Vologases V dies and is succeeded by his son Vologases VI. [1] [4]
211 Ardashir I establishes the Sasanian Empire in Istakhr in present-day Fars Province.
224Ardashir I defeats the last Parthian Shahanshah Artabanus IV, ending the Parthian Empire.
260Persians defeated the Romans at the Battle of Edessa and take emperor Valerian prisoner for the remainder of his life.

4th century

360Sasanian Empire captures the town of Singara, in the Siege of Singara (360)
363 Battle of Samarra (363) between the Roman Empire and the Sasanian Empire, in which Roman emperor Julian is wounded, and subsequently dies of his wounds.
371 Roman Empire and Kingdom of Armenia defeat the Sasanian Empire and Caucasian Albania in the Battle of Bagavan

5th century

421 Roman–Sasanian War of 421–422 after which Persian Empire agreed to tolerate Christianity and Roman Empire agreed to tolerate Zoroastrianism

6th century

570–578 Aksumite–Persian wars, Yemen is annexed by the Sasanian Empire.
590 Khosrow II becomes ruler of the Sasanian Empire. During his rule till 628, Egypt, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon are annexed into the Sasanian Empire

7th century

620Sasanian Empire reaches its greatest height, encompassing all of present-day Iran and Iraq and stretching from the eastern Mediterranean (including Anatolia and Egypt) to Pakistan, and from parts of southern Arabia to the Caucasus and Central Asia.
626June – JulySasanian Empire lays siege of Constantinople, however is unable to capture it.
62825 FebruaryKhosrow II is deposed and killed by his son Kavad II.
6286 September Ardashir III becomes ruler of the Sasanian Empire.
63216 June Yazdegerd III becomes ruler of the Sasanian Empire.
633May Battle of Ullais in which the Rashidun Caliphate defeats the Sasanian Empire resulting in the massacre of 70,000 Persians by Arabs.
634October Sasanian Empire led by Bahman Jaduya defeats the Rashidun Caliphate in the Battle of the Bridge.
636Arab invasion brings end of Sassanid dynasty and start of Islamic rule. [5]
63616–19 NovemberRashidun Caliphate defeats the Sasanian Empire in the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah, takes control of present day Iraq.
637Destruction of the Ctesiphon library by Arabs of the Rashidun Caliphate. [6]
642Rashidun Caliphate defeats the Sasanian Empire in the Battle of Nahavand, resulting in the near collapse of the Sasanian Empire.
6443 NovemberThe second Rashidun caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab (r.634–644) is assassinated by the Persian slave Abu Lu'lu'a Firuz.
6446 November Uthman ibn Affan becomes the third Rashidun Caliph. During his reign, almost the whole of the former Sassanid empire's territories rebel from time to time, with major rebellions in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Fars, Sistan (in 649), Khorasan (651), and Makran (650).
651Rashidun Caliphate defeats the Sasanian Empire and the Göktürk Empire in the Battle of Oxus River.
651 Yazdegerd III, the last Sassanid emperor, is killed near Merv putting an end to both his dynasty and to organized Persian resistance to Arab conquest.

8th century

716–717 Farrukhan the Great, ruler of Tabaristan in present-day Mazandaran Province defeats the Muslim invasion under Yazid ibn al-Muhallab.
761 Tabaristan falls to Muslim invasion and becomes a province of the Abbasid Caliphate.
767 Ustadh Sis, Persian Zoroastrian revolutionary leader launches a rebellion, occupies Herat and Sistan before marching towards Merv. He initially defeats an Abbasid army under the command of al-Ajtham of Merv, but is himself defeated in a bloody battle against an army led by Muhammad ibn Abdallah.

9th century

816–835 Babak Khorramdin a Persian Zoroastrian revolutionary leader of the Khorram-Dīnân movement defeats successive Arab generals of the Abbasid Caliphate.
821 Tahir ibn Husayn, an Iranian general under the Abbasid Caliphate, declared the establishment of the independent Tahirid dynasty.
867 Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari founded the Saffarid dynasty.
867One of the earliest works in Early New Persian is composed by Muhammad ibn Wasif (died 909), a poet and secretary of the Saffarids. [7] [8]

10th century

934 Sistan is conquered by the Samanid Empire. [1]
930 Zoroastrian commander Mardavij establishes the Ziyarid dynasty and briefly conquers much of northern Persia before being betrayed and killed in 935 CE. The Ziyarid dynasty continued to rule over much of Tabaristan until its demise in 1090 CE.
934The Buyid dynasty was founded.

11th century

1010The poet Ferdowsi finished writing the epic poem Shahnameh , a touchstone of the modern Persian language.

12th century

1131Death of the Persian poet Sanai. [1]
1136The Eldiguzid dynasty (also known as the Atabegs of Azerbaijan) is founded by Eldiguz. [1] [9]
1157Death of the Seljuk sultan Ahmad Sanjar. [1]
1182/3Death of Rashid al-Din Vatvat, a secretary, poet, philologist in the Khwarazmian Empire. [10]
1189 Third Crusade : Teutonic Knights destroyed several cities of the Middle East. As a result of the conflict, the safety of both Christian and Muslim unarmed pilgrims is guaranteed throughout the Levant.
1195Death of the Persian poet Khaqani. [1]

13th century

1219The Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia begins after two diplomatic missions to Khwarezm sent by Genghis Khan are massacred. In 1220 and 1221, Bukhara, Samarkand, Herat, Tus and Nishapur were razed, and the whole populations were slaughtered.
1220Pursued by Mongol forces, Shah Muhammad II of Khwarezm dies on an island off the Caspian coast.

14th century

15th century

16th century

1501 Ismail I established himself in Tabriz and declared himself the king (shah) of Iran.
151423 August Battle of Chaldiran : The Ottoman Empire inflicted a severe defeat on a numerically inferior Persian force, opening the northwestern Iranian Plateau to their occupation.
7 SeptemberThe Ottoman sultan entered Tabriz.
A mutiny in the Ottoman army forced the sultan to withdraw.
152423 May Ismail died. He was succeeded by his son Tahmasp I.
159021 MayThe Treaty of Istanbul (1590) was signed between Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire ending the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590), under which Safavid Empire ceded the Caucasus and western Iranian territories, for several years.

17th century

1609November Battle of DimDim : The Persian army laid siege to a Kurdish fortress on the banks of Lake Urmia.
1610Battle of DimDim: The fortress was taken, and its occupants were massacred.
162919 January Abbas I of Persia died. His grandson Safi of Persia succeeded him.
1639The Treaty of Zuhab was signed between Persia and the Ottoman Empire, decisively partitioning the Caucasus between the two (with the greater part remaining Iranian,) and establishing what remains the border between Iran, Turkey, and Iraq.
1642 Safi died. He was succeeded by Abbas II of Persia.
1666 Abbas died. He was succeeded by Suleiman I of Persia.

18th century

170921 April Mirwais Khan Hotak, the leader of the Ghilzai clan and mayor of Kandahar, killed the Persian-appointed governor George XI of Kartli and declared himself King of Persia.
1722July Russo-Persian War (1722-1723) : A Russian military expedition sailed to prevent the territories in disintegrating neighboring Safavid Iran fall into Ottoman hands.
172312 September Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1723) : The envoy of the shah signed a peace treaty ceding the cities of Derbent and Baku and the provinces of Shirvan, Guilan, Mazandaran and Astrabad to the Russian Empire.
17464 SeptemberThe Treaty of Kerden was signed between the Ottoman Empire and Iran, reaffirming the border drawn in the Treaty of Zuhab and allowing Iranian pilgrims to visit Mecca.
179511 September Battle of Krtsanisi : The Persian army demolished the armed forces of Kartl-Kakheti, captured Tbilisi, and reconquered eastern Georgia, which comprised the territories of the Kartli-Kakheti.
1796April Persian Expedition of 1796 : The tsarina of Russia launched a military expedition to punish Persia for its incursion into the Russian protectorate of Kartl-Kakheti.

19th century

1804 Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) : Russian forces attacked the Persian settlement Ganja.
181324 OctoberRusso-Persian War (1804–1813): According to the Treaty of Gulistan, the Persian Empire ceded all its North Caucasian and swaths of its Transcaucasian territories to Russia, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, and most of the contemporary Republic of Azerbaijan.
182616 July Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) : The Persian army invaded the recently Russian-annexed territories in order to reclaim the lost regions.
182821 FebruaryRusso-Persian War (1826–1828) Facing the possibility of a Russian conquest of Tehran and with Tabriz already occupied, Persia signed the Treaty of Turkmenchay; decisive and final cession of the last Caucasian territories of Iran comprising modern-day Armenia, the remainder of the Azerbaijan Republic that was still in Iranian hands, and Igdir (modern-day Turkey).
188121 SeptemberPersia officially recognized Russia's annexation of Turkmenistan in the Treaty of Akhal.

20th century

Year DateEvent
1906The first Persian Constitution was adopted during the Persian Constitutional Revolution.
192531 March Solar Hijri calendar legally adopted in Iran. [11]
194125 August Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran: Three Soviet armies began invasion of Iran from the north, while British army invades Khuzestan and Central Iran.
1945NovemberThe Soviet Union established the Azerbaijan People's Government in Iranian Azerbaijan.
194622 JanuaryThe Soviet-backed Kurdish Republic of Mahabad declared its independence from Iran.
2 March Iran crisis : British troops withdrew from Iran. The Soviet Union violated its prior agreement and remained.
9 MayIran crisis: The Soviet Union withdrew from Iran.
11 DecemberIran regained control over the territory of the Azerbaijan People's Government.
15 DecemberIran conquered Mahabad.
1953August Mohammad Mosaddegh is overthrown in a coup engineered by the British and American intelligence services. Fazlollah Zahedi is proclaimed as prime minister and the Shah returns. [12]
197911 February Iranian Revolution : The Iranian Monarchy collapsed in a popular revolution.
1 AprilA referendum passed which made Iran an Islamic republic.
198022 September Iraq launched a full-scale invasion of Iran. The Iran–Iraq War would last until August 1988. The tactics used by both sides were similar to those used during World War I, [13] including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across trenches, manned machine-gun posts, bayonet charges, human wave attacks across a no-man's land, and extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas by the Iraqi government against Iranian troops, civilians, and Iraqi Kurds.
19819 OctoberLater Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei assumes office as the President of Iran under Supreme Leader Khomenei.
198820 AugustThe Iran–Iraq War ends in a stalemate. The Iran–Iraq War was the deadliest conventional war ever fought between regular armies of developing countries. [14]
Massacres of Iranian political prisoners, thousands of cases of forced disappearances, executions, torture and inhuman and degrading treatment.
19893 June1st Supreme Leader of Iran and founder of the Islamic Republic, Ruhollah Khomeini, dies.
19894 June Ali Khamenei replaces Ruhollah Khomeini, becoming the second Supreme Leader of Iran.
198928 JulyA constitutional reform was allegedly approved by 97.6% of voters in a referendum, it was the first and so far only time the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been amended. It made several significant changes to the system of government of the Islamic Republic such as eliminating the need for the Supreme Leader (rahbar) of the country to be a marja or chosen by popular acclaim.
198916 August Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani becomes President of Iran, the first president to assume office under the post-reform constitution.
199422 February Homa Darabi an Iranian pediatrician and women's rights activist immolates herself in protest against compulsory hijab.
19973 August Mohammad Khatami replaces Rafsanjani as President.

21st century

Year DateEvent
20018 June Iranian presidential election, 2001 : President Mohammad Khatami was reelected with vast majority.
2003December40,000 people are killed in an earthquake in southern Iran.
200524 June Iranian presidential election, 2005 : Ahmadinejad defeated the more liberal Rafsanjani.
200912 June Iranian presidential election, 2009 : Ahmadinejad re-elected for a second time after defeated Mousavi.
13 June 2009–10 Iranian election protests : Protests in Iran over election results.
20133 August Hassan Rouhani replaces Ahmadinejad as President.
2014 My Stealthy Freedom, an online movement in which women in Iran post photos of themselves without hijabs, as a protest against the compulsory hijab laws in the country.
201514 JulySigning of Iran nuclear deal between Iran and the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council— China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany).
20188 MayUnited States withdraws from the Iran nuclear deal
2017–19 Iranian woman protest against compulsory hijab in multiple cities including Tehran, Kangavar, Isfahan and Shiraz. Many are physically assaulted with injuries including broken limbs and imprisoned.
20199 SeptemberSelf immolation of women's rights activist Sahar Khodayari over six month prison sentence for attempting to enter a public stadium to watch a football game, against the national ban against women at such events. Leads to widespread protests, and on 10 October 2019, more than 3,500 women attend the Azadi Stadium for a World Cup qualifier against Cambodia.
20203 January Quds Force commander Qasem Soleimani and commander of the Iran-backed Kata'ib Hezbollah militia, Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, are assassinated in a U.S. drone strike in Baghdad.
20213 August Ebrahim Raisi replaces Rouhani as President.
202216 September22-year-old Iranian woman Mahsa Amini, also known as Jina Amini, died in a hospital in Tehran, Iran, under suspicious circumstances, after her arrest by the Islamic Republic's Guidance Patrol. Eyewitnesses, including women who were detained with Amini, reported that she was severely beaten and that she died as a result of police brutality. Her death sparked widespread antigovernmental protests in Iran.
2022-present Civil unrest and protests against the Islamic Republic of Iran associated with the death in police custody of Mahsa Amini (Persian: مهسا امینی) began on 16 September 2022 and are ongoing as of May 2023.

See also

Cities in Iran:

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