Mohammad Khatami

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This government is proud to announce that it heralded the era where the sanctity of power has been turned into the legitimacy of critique and criticism of that power, which is in the trust of the people who have been delegated with power to function as representatives through franchise. So such power, once considered Divine Grace, has now been reduced to an earthly power that can be criticized and evaluated by earthly beings. Instances show that although due to some traces of despotic mode of background we have not even been a fair critique of those in power, however, it is deemed upon the society, and the elite and the intellectuals in particular, not to remain indifferent at the dawn of democracy and allow freedom to be hijacked.

Post-presidential career

Khatami at World Economic Forum in 2007 World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2007.jpg
Khatami at World Economic Forum in 2007
Khatami with Klaus Schwab at World Economic Forum in 2007 Flickr - World Economic Forum - Mohammad Khatami, Klaus Schwab - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2004 (Cropped).jpg
Khatami with Klaus Schwab at World Economic Forum in 2007

After his presidency, Khatami founded two NGOs which he currently heads:

Notable events in Khatami's career after his presidency include:

The Man with the Chocolate Robe

On 22 December 2005, a few months after the end of Khatami's presidency, the monthly magazine Chelcheragh , along with a group of young Iranian artists and activists, organized a ceremony in Khatami's honor. The ceremony was held on Yalda night at Tehran's Bahman Farhangsara Hall. The ceremony, titled "A Night with The Man with the Chocolate Robe" by the organizers, was widely attended by teenagers and younger adults. One of the presenters and organizers of the ceremony was Pegah Ahangarani, a popular young Iranian actress. The event did not get a lot of advance publicity, but it drew a huge amount of attention afterwards. In addition to formal reports on the event by the BBC, IRNA, and other major news agencies, googling the term "مردی با عبای شکلاتی" ("The Man with the Chocolate Robe" in Persian) shows thousands of results of mainly young Iranians' blogs mentioning the event. It was arguably the first time in the history of Iran that an event in such fashion was held in honor of a head of government. Some weblog reports of the evening described the general atmosphere of the event as "similar to a concert!", and some reported that "Khatami was treated like a pop star" among the youth and teenagers in attendance during the ceremony. Many bloggers also accused him of falling short of his promises of a safer, more democratic Iran. [56] [57]

2008 International Conference on Religion in Modern World

In October 2008, Khatami organized an international conference on the position of religion in the modern world. Former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan, former Norwegian Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik, former Italian Prime Minister Romano Prodi, former French Prime Minister Lionel Jospin, former Swiss President Joseph Deiss, former Portuguese President Jorge Sampaio, former Irish President Mary Robinson, former Sri Lankan President Chandrika Kumaratunga and former UNESCO director general Federico Mayor as well as several other scholars were among the invited speakers of the conference. [58]

The event was followed by a celebration of the historical city of Yazd, one of the most famous cities in Persian history and Khatami's birthplace. Khatami also announced that he is about to launch a television program to promote intercultural dialogue.

2009 presidential election

Khatami contemplated running in the 2009 Iranian presidential election. [59] In December 2008, 194 alumni of Sharif University of Tech wrote a letter to him and asked him to run against Ahmadinejad "to save the nation". [60] On 8 February 2009, he announced his candidacy at a meeting of pro-reform politicians. [61]

On 16 March 2009, Khatami officially announced he would drop out of the presidential race to endorse another reformist candidate Mir-Hossein Mousavi who Khatami claimed would stand a better chance against Iran's conservative establishment to offer true change and reform. [62] [63]

Green movement

In December 2010, following the crushing of post-election protest, Khatami was described as working as a political "insider," drawing up a "list of preconditions" to present to the government "for the reformists' participation in the upcoming parliamentary elections", that would be seen as reasonable by the Iranian public but intolerable by the government. This was seen by some (Ata'ollah Mohajerani) as "astute" and proving "the system could not take even basic steps required for living up to its own democratic conservatives" (Azadeh Moaveni). In response to the conditions, Kayhan newspaper condemned Khatami as "a spy and traitor" and called for his execution. [64]

2013 presidential election

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Khatami in 2013

A few months before presidential election which was held in June 2013, several reformist groups of Iran invited Khatami to attend in competition. The reformists also sent a letter to the Iran Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei in December 2012, regarding the participation of Khatami at the upcoming presidential election. Member of the traditional-conservative Islamic Coalition Party, Asadullah Badamchyan said that in their letter, the reformists asked the Supreme Leader to supervise the allowance of Khatami to participate in the upcoming election. [65] Former mayor of Tehran, Gholamhossein Karbaschi announced: "Rafsanjani may support Khatami in presidential election". [66]

Khatami himself said that he still waits for the positive changes in the country, and will reveal his decision when the time is suitable. On 11 June 2013, Khatami together with council of reformists backed moderate Hassan Rouhani, in Iran's presidential vote as Mohammad Reza Aref quit the race when Khatami advised him that it "would not be wise" for him to stay in the race for the June 2013 elections. [67]

Controversy and criticism

Khatami's two terms as president were regarded by some people[ who? ] as unsuccessful or not fully successful in achieving their goals of making Iran freer and more democratic, [68] and he has been criticized by conservatives, reformers, and opposition groups for various policies and viewpoints.

In a 47-page "A Letter for Tomorrow", Khatami said his government had stood for noble principles but had made mistakes and faced obstruction by hardline elements in the clerical establishment. [68]

Electoral history

Mohammad Khatami
محمد خاتمی
Mohammad Khatami - December 11, 2007.jpg
Khatami in 2007
5th President of Iran
In office
3 August 1997 3 August 2005
YearElectionVotes %RankNotes
1980 Parliament 32,94282.11stWon
1992 Parliament N/ADisqualified [69]
1997 President 20,078,18769.61stWon
2001 President Increase2.svg 21,659,053Increase2.svg 77.11stWon

Primary sources

Khatami holds Quran in his hands Khatami-3by Mardetanha.jpg
Khatami holds Quran in his hands


Khatami has written a number of books in Persian, Arabic, and English:

Books in Persian

Books in English

Books in Arabic

A full list of his publications is available at his official personal web site (see below).

Awards and honors

See also

References and notes

  1. "Parliament members" (in Persian). Iranian Majlis. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  2. 1 2 3 4 کارت پایان خدمت خاتمی
  3. Profile of Mohammad Khatami
  4. "انتخابات92".
  5.عكسجشن-تولد-خاتمی [ bare URL ]
  6.وزراي-دولت-اصلاحات-چه-آرايي-از-نمايندگان-مجلس-گرفتند [ bare URL ]
  7. "The Struggle for Iran". The Weekly Standard. 22 February 2010. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  8. "Iran: People Rally In Ardakan In Support Of Opposition Leader Mohammad Khatami". Payvand. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  9. "Khatami Prevented from Leaving Iran for Japan". insideIRAN. 15 April 2010. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  10. "Karroubi Challenges Hardliners to Put Green Movement Leaders on Trial". PBS. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  11. "Profile: Mohammad Khatami". BBC News. 6 June 2001. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  12. 1 2 "Khatami Speaks of Dialogue among Civilizations". diplomacy. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  13. 1 2 "Dialogue among Civilizations". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 5 February 2007.
  14. 1 2 "Round Table: Dialogue among Civilizations United Nations, New York, 5 September 2000 Provisional verbatim transcription". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 10 March 2007.
  15. 1 2 Petito, Fabio (2004). "Khatami' Dialogue among Civilizations as International Political Theory" (PDF). International Journal of Humanities. 11 (3): 11–29.
  16. "Iran's Khatami to run for office". BBC News. 8 February 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
  17. "Former Iranian president exits election race". The Irish Times. 3 March 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
  18. "Iran's Rouhani praises Khatami role in recent vote".
  19. Sciolino, Elaine (2001). Persian Mirrors: The Elusive Face of Iran . Simon & Schuster. pp.  79–80. ISBN   0-7432-1779-9.
  20. "Iranian Cleric: Fatwa Against Rushdie is 'Still Alive'". Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  21. U.S. policies on Iran defeated Archived 11 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine , Ahmad Khatami 20 July 2007, IRNA
  22. "Profile: Mohammad Khatami". BBC News. 6 June 2001.
  23. 1 2 "1997 Presidential Election". PBS. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  24. Siddiqi, Ahmad. "SJIR: Khatami and the Search for Reform in Iran". Stanford. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  25. [Tahavolat, 98–138; Economic Trends, no. 23 (Tehran: Central Bank, 2000–2001); and Iran: Interim Assistance Strategy (Washington: The World Bank, April 2001).]
  26. 1 2 Amuzegar, Jahangir (March 2002). "Project MUSE". SAIS Review. 22 (1): 1–21. doi:10.1353/sais.2002.0001. S2CID   153845590.
  27. UNDP, Human Development Report 2001 (New York: UNDP, 2001).
  28. Iran Economics (Tehran), July/August 2001.
  29. Anoushiravan Enteshami & Mahjoob Zweiri (2007). Iran and the rise of Neoconsevatives, the politics of Tehran's silent Revolution. I.B.Tauris. p. 15.
  30. Order Out of Chaos Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine , Hoover Institution
  31. Samii, Abbas William (Winter 2008). "A Stable Structure on Shifting Sands: Assessing the Hizbullah-Iran-Syria Relationship" (PDF). Middle East Journal. 62 (1): 32–53. doi:10.3751/62.1.12 . Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  32. "Iranian President Denies Israeli Handshake". MSNBC. 9 April 2005.
  33. "U.S.–Iran Roadmap" (PDF). The Washington Post.
  34. "Iran reformists' protest continues". CNN. 12 January 2006. Retrieved 1 January 2007.
  35. "FToI: What did Khatami really say?". Free thoughts. 8 December 2004. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  36. "Strategic Insights – Iranian Politics After the 2004 Parliamentary Election". CCC. June 2004. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  37. Anthony J. Dennis, LETTERS TO KHATAMI: A Reply To The Iranian President's Call For A Dialogue Among Civilizations (Wyndham Hall Press, 2001, ISBN   1556053339).
  38. Anoushiravan Enteshami & Mahjoob Zweiri (2007). Iran and the rise of Neoconsevatives, the politics of Tehran's silent Revolution. I.B.Tauris. p. 17.
  39. Hamid Naficy in Farsoun andMashayekhi (1992). Islamizing film cultural in iran in political cultural in the Islamic republic. Routledge. pp. 200–205. ISBN   9781134969470.
  40. "The Reform Movement and the Debate on Modernity and Tradition in Contemporary Iran". Archived from the original on 8 August 2003.
  41. "International Institute for Dialogue Among Cultures and Civilizations". Dialogue. 1 September 2008. Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2010.
  42. "Welcome To FDC Website" (in Persian). Dialogue Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2010.
  43. "Baran". Baran. Archived from the original on 6 June 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  44. "Khatami Retires". Archived from the original on 29 September 2005.
  45. "Newsday | Long Island's & NYC's News Source | Newsday" . Retrieved 15 November 2005.[ dead link ]
  46. Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  47. "Non-Productive Sectors Unhelpful". Archived from the original on 10 July 2007.
  48. Archived 21 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  49. "Iran's Khatami calls for US talks". BBC News. 8 September 2006. Retrieved 8 September 2006.
  50. "Khatami to attend World Economic Forum in Davos". Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  51. "Khatami & Kerry: A Common Denominator". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  52. Kerry confirmed Khatami's remarks in his address (ISNA) Archived 1 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  53. [ bare URL ]
  54. "Iran's Khatami awarded 2009 "Global Dialogue Prize"". Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2009.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  55. The (copyrighted) webpages of the Global Dialogue Prize offer a brief scholarly presentation of Khatami's contributions to the concept of dialogue as paradigm of international relations, as well as a bibliography.
  56. "Mohammad Ali Abtahi's weblog report of the evening".
  57. "BBC News: The Man with the Chocolate Robe".
  58. "World Dignitaries Open International Conference On Religion". Bernama. 14 October 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2010.
  59. Erdbrink, Thomas (16 December 2008). "Iran's Khatami Mulls Run for Presidency". The Washington Post. p. A15. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
  60. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  61. Hafezi, Parisa (8 February 2009). "Iran's Khatami to run in June presidential election". Reuters. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
  62. "Former president khatami won't run for the next presidential election race". Former President Khatami's website. 16 March 2009. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
  63. "Iran's Khatami won't run for president, state news agency says". CNN. 16 March 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
  64. The Smiling Cleric's Revolution, BY Moaveni, Azadeh|16 February 2011
  65. "Reformists send letter to Supreme Leader regarding ex-president's participation in elections". Ilna. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  66. "Rafsanjani may support Khatami in presidential election". Oana news. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  67. "Khatami, reformists back Rohani in Iran presidential vote". Reuters. 11 June 2013.
  68. 1 2 Khatami blames clerics for failure", The Guardian, 4 May 2004.
  69. Farzin Sarabi (subscription required) (1994). "The Post-Khomeini Era in Iran: The Elections of the Fourth Islamic Majlis". Middle East Journal. Middle East Institute. 48 (1): 107. JSTOR   4328663. The first victim of the cabinet changes, however, was Hoijatolislam Mohammad Khatami-Ardekani, culture and Islamic guidance minister. Khatami, who is a member of Ruhaniyoun and was disqualified to run for the Majlis by the Council of Guardians, was not on Rafsanjani's list of those for possible dismissalCS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  70. Khātamī, Muḥammad (1998). Islam, Liberty and Development: Mohammad Khatami, Muhammad Khatami: Books. ISBN   188305883X.
Political offices
Preceded by
President of Iran
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Majid Moadikhah
Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance
Succeeded by
Party political offices
Vacant Head of the Association of Combatant Clerics' central council
Cultural offices
Preceded by
Mohammad Rajabi
President of National Library of Iran
Succeeded by
Media offices
Preceded by
Head of Kayhan Institute
Succeeded by
Mohammad Asghari
Non-profit organization positions
New title
NGO founded
Head of BARAN Foundation

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