Timeline of Pakistani history

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This is a timeline of Pakistani history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the region of modern-day Pakistan. To read about the background of these events, see History of Pakistan and History of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.


Paleolithic Period Lower Paleolithic Period  ·

Middle Paleolithic Period  ·

Upper Paleolithic Period

Centuries BCE 35th  · 27th  · 25th  · 19th  · 17th  · 15th  · 13th  · 12th  · 10th  · 7th  · 6th  · 5th  · 4th  · 3rd  · 2nd  · 1st
CE 1st  · 2nd  · 3rd  · 4th  · 5th  · 6th  · 7th  · 8th  · 9th  · 10th  · 11th  · 12th  · 13th  · 14th  · 15th  · 16th  · 17th  · 18th  · 19th  · 20th  · 21st

Lower Paleolithic

2,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCETools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the region of present-day North Pakistan [1] [2]

The pebble stones from the archaeological site of Riwat, Murree are discovered, dating back approximately 1.9 million years ago. [3]

The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley. [4] Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across Indian subcontinent. [5] [6] [7]

500,000 BCESome of the earliest relics of Stone Age man have been found in the Soan Valley of the Potohar region near Rawalpindi, dating back to 500,000 BCE.

Middle Paleolithic

300,000 BCE – 100,000 BCE

Flake tools, microliths and other chopping tools have been found in Soan Valley. Most of these tools were composed of the metamorphic quartzite rocks. The stone tool artifacts in this assemblage have been identified as a part of the second inter-pluvial period in Pakistan.

Some of the Bhimbetka shelters were inhabited by Homo erectus more than 100,000 years ago. [8] [9]

Upper Paleolithic

43,000 BCEThe archaeological site of Riwat 55 dates back to this period. It is modern form of Early Riwat Site. [10]

Riwat 55 contains a structure that includes a low wall footing, a pit, and a stone-lined niche, all associated with a freshly flaked stone assemblage that included blades. [10]

35th century BCE

3500 BCE – 3300 BCE Mature phases of the Indus Valley civilization begins. The civilization used an early form of the Indus signs, also called Indus script.

Over the course of next 1000–1500 years, inhabitants of the civilization developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products and seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin) had elaborate urban planning, baked brick houses, efficient drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings. [11] The civilization depended significantly on trade, was the first civilization to use wheeled transport in form of bullock carts, and also used boats. [12]

27th century BCE

2700 BCE – 2600 BCEThe cities of Harappa [13] and Mohenjo-daro [14] become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole region of modern-day Pakistan and also some areas of Afghanistan and India, [15] covering a region of around one million square miles, which was larger than the land area of its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, and also had superior urban planning and sewage systems. The civilization began using the mature Indus script for its writing system.

25th century BCE

2500 BCE – 2000 BCEThe culture, artichetere, technology and educational system of Indus Valley civilization reached at its zenith with Harappa and Kot Diji as main centres. [13]

These fluctuations reflect complex and dynamic political, ideological, and economic processes that are an integral part of urban society. [13]

19th century BCE

1900 BCE – 1300 BCE Late Harappan Phase (Cemetery H Culture)

13th century BCE

1300 BCE Cemetery H culture comes to an end

10th century BCE

1000 BCEMiddle and Late Vedic period (to 500 BCE)
Iron Age of Indian subcontinent (including today's Pakistan)

7th century BCE

700 BCEThe Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism is written.

6th century BCE

600 BCESixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "Great Kingdoms") emerge. [16]
Vedic period ends.
535 BCE – 518 BCE Achaemenid Emperors launched Persian campaign of Indus Valley and in result parts of modern-day Pakistan became easternmost part of Achaemenid Empire [17]
500 BCE Gandhara Civilization at first stage of its flourishness. [18]

5th century BCE

500 BCE – 450 BCE Persian rule is at its zenith.
500 BCE Roruka as capital of Sauvira Kingdom become most important trading center of Indian subcontinent, also mentioned in early Buddhist literature. [19]
450 BCERor Dynasty come to power and captured Sindh, Balochistan and North India with the capital of Rori, Sindh. [20]

4th century BCE

333 BCEPersian rule in the Pakistan ends after Darius III is defeated by Alexander the Great, who establishes the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenid Empire. [21]
326 BCE Ambhi king of Takshila surrenders to Alexander. [22]
Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River. [23]
325 BCEDuring the Mallian Campaign, Alexander was seriously wounded by an arrow in the chest and this became reason of his death. [24]
321 BCE Mauryan Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya. [25]
305 BCE Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire. [26]
304 BCESeleucus gives up his territories (Balochistan) to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta to seal their friendship. [27]

2nd century BCE

200 BCE – 150 BCE Gandhara Civilization (present day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) flourished in new way by combination of Hellenistic culture and Ancient Indian culture.

Taxila became centre of Gandhara Civilization and religion of Buddhism.

1st century BCE

75 BCEArrival of Scythians (Sakas) from Central Asia.
58 BCEBeginning of Vikram Era.

1st century

20 AD – 35 AD Indo-Parthian Kingdom was established and conquered present northern Pakistan. [28]
35 AD Western Satraps formed. [29]
68 ADEstablishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula Kadphises. [30]

2nd century

100 AD or afterSugar was first produced from sugarcane plants in Punjab. [31]

3rd century

240 AD Sri Gupta starts the establishment of Gupta Empire in Indian subcontinent (including present Pakistan). [32]
260 AD Kushans decline and are dominated by Indo-Sassanians. [33]

4th century

320 AD Chandragupta I ascends the throne of Gupta Empire. [34]
Kidarite Kingdom came to power in the region of modern-day Pakistan. [35]
335 AD Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire. [36]
380 AD Chandragupta II, Samudragupta's son becomes the Gupta Emperor. [34]

5th century

450 AD White Huns (Hephthalites) attacked Gandhara, sacked its cities and burnt down its many monasteries and centres of learning. [37]
489 ADRor dynasty is disestablished. [38]

6th century

524 AD Rai dynasty come to power in the region of Sindh. [39]
554 ADCollapse of Gupta Empire after the death of Skandagupta. [34]
565 AD Sassanians and Turks overthrow Huns.

7th century

601 AD Rai dynasty reached at its zenith and covered whole of Pakistan and Afghanistan with the capital of Aror, Sindh. [40]
632 AD Brahman dynasty come into power and Chach of Aror become Maharaja of Sindh. [41]
644 AD Islam arrived in Indian subcontinent. Rashidun Caliphate defeated Rai dynasty in the Battle of Rasil and Balochistan become easternmost frontier of Rashidun Caliphate. [42]
665 AD Turk Shahi gained control west of the Indus River, including Gandhara. [43]
671 ADAt the death of Chach of Alor, the Brahmin dynasty reached its zenith and he was succeeded by his brother Chandar of Sindh. [44]
679 ADChandar of Sindh died and succeeded by his nephew Raja Dahir, last Hindu Maharaja of Sindh. [45]

8th century

700 ADAccording to the Qissa-i Sanjan, the Parsi immigrants are granted permission to stay by the local ruler Jadi Rana.
712 AD Muhammad Bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir and established Ummayad Islamic rule on Sindh and South Punjab (Multan) on the orders of Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. [46]
747 AD – 751 AD Ummayad Era finished and Abbasid Era begins. [47]

Mansur ibn Jumhur al-Kalbi revolted against Ummayad Dynasty during Abbasid Revolution and after Abbasid victory in revolution, he was confirmed as Abbasid Governor of Sindh. [48]

9th century

841 AD Dynastic rule of Habbaris over Sindh begin under suzerainty of Abbasid Caliphate. [49]
870 AD Hindu Shahis captured Kingdom of Kabul Shahi and expanded their rule in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa and Punjab. [50]
875 ADHabbari dynasty rule expanded over whole of Sindh, Balochistan and South Punjab (Multan). [51]

10th century

977 AD – 997 AD Sabuktigin of Ghaznavid dynasty defeated many times Hindu Shahi ruler Jayapala and became ruler of domains east of the Indus River. [52]

11th century

1001 Mahmud Ghazni defeated Raja Jayapala of Hindu Shahi; after that Jayapala commits suicide. [53]
1021Mahmud Ghazni defeats Raja Tarnochalpal and Punjab becomes part of Ghaznavid dynasty. [54]

In this way whole of Pakistan comes under Muslim rule; Punjab and Khyber Pukhtunkhwa under Ghaznavid Empire, Sindh under Habbari dynasty while Makran (Balochistan) under Caliphate.

This Muslim rule continued for next 8 centuries under different Muslim dynasties.

1030 Alberuni arrives in Indian subcontinent; death of Mahmud Ghazni. [55]
1058 Muslim Rajput Soomra Dynasty ends the rule of Habbari dynasty and starts to rule on the behave of Abbasid Caliph. [56] [57]
1092Reign of Zainab Tari begins; first absolute female ruler in the history of South Asia as well as only female who ruled Sindh. [58]

12th century

1175 Muhammad of Ghurid dynasty defeats Qarmatians rulers of Multan in 1175. [59] [60]
1186Muhammad Ghori along with Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad ends the rule of Ghaznavid dynasty after having captured Lahore. [61] [62] [63]
1191"Victory of Prithviraj Chauhan". First Battle of Tarain fought between Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj III. Ghori is defeated by Prithivi Raj Chauhan III. [64]
1192"Victory of Muhammad Ghori". Second Battle of Tarain fought between Muhammad Ghori and Prithivi Raj Chauhan III. Chauhan is defeated by Muhammad Ghori. [64]
1193 Qutb al-Din Aibak becomes deputy of Ghurid Empire in Indian subcontinent. [65]

13th century

120615 March Khukhrains kill Muhammad Ghori during a raid on his camp on the Jhelum River. [66]
120612 JuneEnd of Ghurid Era.
120625 June Qutb-ud-din Aibak establishes Delhi Sultanate by becoming first Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate from Mamluk dynasty. [67]
1210November Qutb-ud-din Aibak died while playing polo. [68]
1210December Aram Shah becomes new Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. [69]
1211June Shams ud-Din Iltutmish defeats Aram Shah in the Battle of Delhi and become third Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. [70]
1221 Genghis Khan invades Punjab during rule of Iltutmish.
123630 AprilIltutmish dies and Rukn ud din Firuz become fourth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. [71]
123610 October Razia Sultana abolishes the rule of Rukn ud din Firuz and become fifth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. [72]
124017 May Muiz ud din Bahram becomes sixth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. [73]
124014 OctoberMurder of Razia Sultan by nobles of Chalisa. [74]
124215 MayMurder of Muiz ud din Bahram by army.

Ala ud din Masud becomes seventh Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. [75]

124610 June Nasiruddin Mahmud becomes eighth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate with the support of Corps of Forty. [71]

Balban rules on the behave of Nasiruddin Mahmud as a deputy of empire.

126618 FebruaryNasiruddin Mahmud dies without any hier.

Ghiyas ud din Balban becomes ninth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. [71]

1285 Delhi Sultanate decisively defeats the army of Mongol Empire at the battle of Beas River. [76]
1287March Muiz ud din Qaiqabad becomes tenth Sultan of Delhi Sultanate after the death of his grandfather Ghiyas ud din Balban. [77]
12901 FebruaryMurder of Muiz ud din Qaiqabad by Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji, an army commander. [78]

Shamsuddin Kayumars becomes eleventh Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.

129013 JuneJalaluddin Firuz Khalji ends the Mamluk Dynasty by murdering Shamsuddin Kayumars.

Establishment of Khalji dynasty. Jalaluddin becomes twelfth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. [79]

129619 July Alauddin Khalji murders Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji and become thirteen Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. [79]
1296October Allauddin Khalji conquers Multan and eliminates all surviving members of his predecessor Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji. [80]
1297-1298 Mongol Army invades Punjab and Sindh but Delhi Sultanate decisively defeats them and crushes away from Pakistan. [81]
1298 Mongols once again invades Sindh and occupies fort of Sivistan but Delhi Sultanate decisively defeats them. [82]

14th century

13164 January Alauddin Khalji died due to severe illness. [83]
13165 January Shihabuddin Omar succeeded Alauddin Khalji with the help of Malik Kafur and becomes the 14th Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. [80]
131614 AprilAfter the assassination of Malik Kafur, Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah detroned his brother Shihabuddin Omar and himself becomes 15th Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. [80]











  • 20 June: General Pervez Musharraf dismissed the president and named himself to the post.
  • 15 July: Agra Summit starts. President Pervez Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee holds talks over long-standing issues.
  • 14 August: New Local Government system installed, after holding of elections in three phases.
  • 16 September: US Secretary of State Powell told that Pakistan's President Musharraf had agreed to support the U.S. anti-terrorist campaign.
  • 10 November: US President Bush meets President Musharraf in New York and assures additional aid of one billion dollars.


  • 5 January: Musharraf stunned Vajpayee by a hand-shake at the last 11th SAARC summit in Kathmandu.
  • 1 February: Wall Street Journal reporter, Daniel Pearl killed in Karachi.
  • 16 March: War in North-West Pakistan begins.
  • 30 April: General Pervez Musharraf wins a referendum thus ensures 5 more years in office.
  • 8 May: 2002 Karachi bus bombing, 15 killed.
  • 24 August: President General Musharraf issues the Legal Framework Order 2002.
  • 10 October: 2002 Pakistani general election, First general elections since the 1999 military coup held.
  • 23 November: Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali sworn in as Prime Minister.


  • 24 February: Senate elections: Ruling party wins most seats in voting to the upper house.
  • 23 March: AAJ TV, Pakistan's premier channel inaugurated.
  • 24 June: President Pervez Musharraf meets US President G.W. Bush in Camp David. US announces $3-billion five-year economic assistance package for Pakistan.
  • 4 July: 2003 Quetta mosque bombing, 44 killed.
  • 11 July: Lahore-Delhi bus service resumed after suspension of 18 months.
  • 14 December: General Musharraf survived an assassination attempt in Rawalpindi.


  • 1 January: General Musharraf won a vote of confidence in the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies.
  • 5 January: Musharraf meets Vajpayee in Islamabad, discusses Kashmir dispute.
  • 22 May: Pakistan readmitted to Commonwealth.
  • 26 June: Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali steps down and nominates Ch. Shujaat Hussain as his interim successor.
  • 28 August: Shaukat Aziz becomes Prime Minister.


200513 July136 people killed and about 170 injured in a collision of three passenger trains near Ghotki.
14 JulyNWFP Assembly passes the Hasba bill with a majority vote.
19 JulyGovernment of Pakistan launches country-wide crackdown against extremist elements.
8 OctoberThe 7.6 Mw Kashmir earthquake affects Azad Kashmir with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe), killing more than 79,000 people and displacing several million more.
11 OctoberRenowned littérateur, linguist and poet, Shanul Haq Haqqee, passes away in Toronto. He was 88.
20062 JanuaryDr. Shamshad Akhtar assumes office of State Bank Governor having the first woman Governor of SBP.
14 MayCharter of democracy (CoD) is signed by two former prime ministers of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto in London.
26 AprilPervez Musharraf lays foundation-stone of Diamir-Bhasha dam.
8 JulyProcess to release over 1600 women prisoners from 55 jails across starts after Presidential Ordinance.
10 JulyNoted poet, writer and columnist, Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi, passes away in Lahore. He was 89.
26 AugustProminent Baloch leader and politician Sirdar Akbar Bugti killed by military
20079 MarchPresident Musharraf dismissed Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar.
3 JulyPakistani security forces started operation Sunrise to liberate Lal Masjid from the fundamentalist Islamic militants
20 JulyIftikhar restored as Chief Justice of Pakistan.
18 October Bhutto, Benazir returned to Pakistan, after exile of about 8 years.
3 NovemberPervez Musharraf imposed emergency, most of the senior judges of Supreme Court ousted.
16 NovemberAfter completion of 5 years, National Assembly dissolved, Caretaker government of Muhammad Mian Soomro took oath.
25 NovemberNawaz Sharif returned Pakistan after 7 years of forced exile.
15 DecemberEmergency lifted, civil rights and suspended constitution restored
27 DecemberFormer Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto assassinated in Rawalpindi
20082 JanuaryThe Election Commission announces elections will now be held on February 18.
18 FebruaryElections are held amidst tight security. PPP, PML-N, PML-N and ANP win 124, 91, 54 and 13 seats respectively.
24 March Yusuf Raza Gilani is elected as the new Prime Minister.
18 August Pervaiz Musharraf steps down as President of Pakistan. Mohammadmian Soomro takes over as president.
6 SeptemberAsif Zardari wins presidential election with 481 votes.
9 SeptemberAsif Zardari takes oath as President of Pakistan.














  • 27 May: The twenty-fifth amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan was approved by the Parliament of Pakistan and the Provincial Assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), giving way to the merger of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas into the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
  • 25 July: 2018 Pakistani general election are held and Imran khan became Prime Minister of Pakistan with majority .


See also

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