14th century

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Tamerlane The Conqueror, the founder of the Timurid Empire. Timur reconstruction03.jpg
Tamerlane The Conqueror, the founder of the Timurid Empire.
Mansa Musa I of Mali, described
as the wealthiest individual in history Catalan Atlas BNF Sheet 6 Mansa Musa.jpg
Mansa Musa I of Mali, described as the wealthiest individual in history
Europe in 1328 EuropeMap1328.png
Europe in 1328
Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, in the winter of 1397-1398, painting dated 1595-1600. Timur defeats the sultan of Delhi.jpg
Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, in the winter of 1397–1398, painting dated 1595–1600.
The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate. Asia in 1335.svg
The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate.

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from January 1, 1301 (MCCCI), through December 31, 1400 (MCD). The term is often used to refer to the 1300s, the century between 1300 and 1399. It is estimated that the century witnessed the death of more than 45 million lives from political and natural disasters in both Europe and the Mongol Empire.[ citation needed ] West Africa and the Indian Subcontinent experienced economic growth and prosperity.

Contents

In Europe , the Black Death claimed 25 million lives wiping out one third of the European population [1] while the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV, King of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III, King of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France as well as the foundation of the Italian Renaissance and Ottoman Empire.

In Asia , Tamerlane (Timur), established the Timurid Empire, history's third largest empire to have been ever established by a single conqueror.[ citation needed ] Scholars estimate that Timur's military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time. Synchronously, the Timurid Renaissance emerged. In the Arab world, historian and political scientist Ibn Khaldun and explorer Ibn Battuta made significant contributions. In India , the Bengal Sultanate got divided from the Delhi Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world. The sultanate described by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with. [2] The Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe.

In Africa , the wealthy Mali Empire, a global leader of gold production, reached its territorial and economic height under the reign of Mansa Musa I of Mali, the wealthiest individual of the medieval times, and according to various sources as history's ever. [3] [4]

Events

Sheikh Ibn Taymiyyah's script tkhTyT klm@ bn tymy@.png
Sheikh Ibn Taymiyyah's script
Silver taka with a lion symbol Silver Coin of Jalaluddin.jpg
Silver taka with a lion symbol
This 14th-century statue from Tamil Nadu, present day India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.. Shiva and Uma 14th century.jpg
This 14th-century statue from Tamil Nadu, present day India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C..

1300s

1310s

1320s

1330s

1340s

The Hundred Years' War, Battle of Crecy between the English and French in 1346. Battle of crecy froissart.jpg
The Hundred Years' War, Battle of Crécy between the English and French in 1346.

1350s

Burying coffins of Black Death victims in Tournai. Burying Plague Victims of Tournai.jpg
Burying coffins of Black Death victims in Tournai.

1360s

1370s

1380s

The Portuguese interregnum, Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese and Castilians in 1385. Batalha de Aljubarrota 02.jpg
The Portuguese interregnum, Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese and Castilians in 1385.

1390s

Significant people

Sultan Alauddin Khilji, ruler of most of India. Portrait of Sultan 'Ala-ud-Din, Padshah of Delhi.jpg
Sultan Alauddin Khilji, ruler of most of India.
Guillaume de Machaut (at right) receiving Nature and three of her children, from an illuminated Parisian manuscript of the 1350s. Machaut 1.jpg
Guillaume de Machaut (at right) receiving Nature and three of her children, from an illuminated Parisian manuscript of the 1350s.

Artists

Architects

Explorer

Military

Literary figures

Statue of Dante Alighieri at the Uffizi, Florence Dante Alighieri01.jpg
Statue of Dante Alighieri at the Uffizi, Florence

Scientists and Philosophers

Theologians

Monarchs

Temur Khan (r. 1294-1307), known in Chinese as Emperor Chengzong of Yuan, ruler of the Chinese Yuan dynasty, a grandson of Kublai Khan and considered the sixth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire Chengzong of Yuan China.jpg
Temür Khan (r. 1294-1307), known in Chinese as Emperor Chengzong of Yuan, ruler of the Chinese Yuan dynasty, a grandson of Kublai Khan and considered the sixth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
Africa
Asia
Europe and Near East

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Related Research Articles

15th century Century

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 (MCDI) to 1500 (MD). The term is often used to refer to the 1400s, the century between 1400 and 1499.

16th century Century

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 (MDI) and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (MDC). The term is often used to refer to the 1500s, the century between January 1, 1500 and December 31, 1599.

17th century Century

The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601 (MDCI), to December 31, 1700 (MDCC). The term is often used to refer to the 1600s, the century between January 1, 1600, and December 31, 1699. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company and megacorporation known as the Dutch East India Company, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, Mughal–Safavid Wars (Mughal–Safavid War, Mughal–Safavid War ), Anglo-Mughal Indian War, and the Dutch–Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.

13th century Century

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 (MCCI) through December 31, 1300 (MCCC) in accordance with the Julian calendar. The term is often used to refer to the 1200s, the century between 1200 and 1299.

The 1300s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1300, and ended on December 31, 1309.

The 1320s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1320, and ended on December 31, 1329.

The 1380s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1380, and ended on December 31, 1389.

The 1350s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1350, and ended on December 31, 1359.

The 1360s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1360, and ended on December 31, 1369.

The 1410s decade ran from January 1, 1410, to December 31, 1419.

The 1390s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1390, and ended on December 31, 1399.

The 1370s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1370, and ended on December 31, 1379.

The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.

The 1290s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1290, and ended on December 31, 1299.

Year 1356 (MCCCLVI) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1399 (MCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

1258

Year 1258 (MCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

A puppet monarch is a majority figurehead who is installed or patronized by an imperial power to provide the appearance of local authority but to allow political and economic control to remain among the dominating nation.

1400s (decade)

The 1400s ran from January 1, 1400, to December 31, 1409.

References

  1. Black Death, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  2. Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN   978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  3. Thad Morgan, "This 14th-Century African Emperor Remains the Richest Person in History" Archived 2019-05-01 at the Wayback Machine , History.com, March 19, 2018
  4. Davidson, Jacob (July 30, 2015). "The 10 Richest People of All Time". Time. Archived from the original on August 24, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  5. Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1900). " Sanskrit Literature and the West.". A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 420.
  6. YLE: Kenelle kellot soivat? (in Finnish)
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Ricklefs (1991), page 18
  8. Kern, J.H.C., (1907), De wij-inscriptie op het Amoghapāça-beeld van Padang Candi(Batang Hari-districten); 1269 Çaka, Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde.
  9. Drs. R. Soekmono; et al. (1988) [1973]. Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 72.
  10. Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p.23, ISBN   0-8063-1750-7
  11. Pound lock