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Establishments – Disestablishments
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from January 1, 1301 (MCCCI), through December 31, 1400 (MCD). The term is often used to refer to the 1300s, the century between 1300 and 1399. It is estimated that the century witnessed the death of more than 45 million lives from political and natural disasters in both Europe and the Mongol Empire.[ citation needed ] West Africa and the Indian Subcontinent experienced economic growth and prosperity.
In Europe , the Black Death claimed 25 million lives – wiping out one third of the European population – while the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV, King of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III, King of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France as well as the foundation of the Italian Renaissance and Ottoman Empire.
In Asia , Tamerlane (Timur), established the Timurid Empire, history's third largest empire to have been ever established by a single conqueror.[ citation needed ] Scholars estimate that Timur's military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time. Synchronously, the Timurid Renaissance emerged. In the Arab world, historian and political scientist Ibn Khaldun and explorer Ibn Battuta made significant contributions. In India , the Bengal Sultanate got divided from the Delhi Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world. The sultanate described by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with. The Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe.
In Africa , the wealthy Mali Empire, a global leader of gold production, reached its territorial and economic height under the reign of Mansa Musa I of Mali, the wealthiest individual of the medieval times, and according to various sources as history's ever.
The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 (MCDI) to 1500 (MD). The term is often used to refer to the 1400s, the century between 1400 and 1499.
The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 (MDI) and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (MDC). The term is often used to refer to the 1500s, the century between January 1, 1500 and December 31, 1599.
The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601 (MDCI), to December 31, 1700 (MDCC). The term is often used to refer to the 1600s, the century between January 1, 1600, and December 31, 1699. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company and megacorporation known as the Dutch East India Company, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, Mughal–Safavid Wars (Mughal–Safavid War, Mughal–Safavid War ), Anglo-Mughal Indian War, and the Dutch–Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.
The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 (MCCI) through December 31, 1300 (MCCC) in accordance with the Julian calendar. The term is often used to refer to the 1200s, the century between 1200 and 1299.
The 1300s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1300, and ended on December 31, 1309.
The 1320s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1320, and ended on December 31, 1329.
The 1380s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1380, and ended on December 31, 1389.
The 1350s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1350, and ended on December 31, 1359.
The 1360s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1360, and ended on December 31, 1369.
The 1410s decade ran from January 1, 1410, to December 31, 1419.
The 1390s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1390, and ended on December 31, 1399.
The 1370s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1370, and ended on December 31, 1379.
The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.
The 1290s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1290, and ended on December 31, 1299.
Year 1356 (MCCCLVI) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1399 (MCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1258 (MCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
A puppet monarch is a majority figurehead who is installed or patronized by an imperial power to provide the appearance of local authority but to allow political and economic control to remain among the dominating nation.
The 1400s ran from January 1, 1400, to December 31, 1409.
Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
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