3rd century

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Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 3rd century AD. East-Hem 200ad.jpg
Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 3rd century AD.
Map of the world in AD 250. World map 250 CE.png
Map of the world in AD 250.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 3rd century AD. East-Hem 300ad.jpg
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 3rd century AD.
Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 3rd century was the period from 201 to 300 AD or CE.

Contents

In this century, the Roman Empire saw a crisis, starting with the assassination of the Roman Emperor Severus Alexander in 235, plunging the empire into a period of economic troubles, barbarian incursions, political upheavals, civil wars, and the split of the Roman Empire through the Gallic Empire in the west and the Palmyrene Empire in the east, which all together threatened to destroy the Roman Empire in its entirety, but the reconquests of the seceded territories by Emperor Aurelian and the stabilization period under Emperor Diocletian due to the administrative strengthening of the empire caused an end to the crisis by 284. This crisis would also mark the beginning of Late Antiquity.

In Persia, the Parthian Empire was succeeded by the Sassanid Empire in 224 after Ardashir I defeated and killed Artabanus V during the Battle of Hormozdgan. The Sassanids then went on to subjugate many of the western portions of the declining Kushan Empire.

In China, the chaos that had been raging since 189 would ultimately continue to persist with the decisive defeat of Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs in 208, which would increasingly end the hopes of unification and lead to the tripartite division of China into three main empires; Shu, Wu, and Wei, colloquially known as the Three Kingdoms period, which started in 220 with the formal abdication of Emperor Xian of Han to Cao Cao's son, Cao Pi, thereby founding Wei, which would go on to conquer Shu in 263, but would ultimately be united again under the Jin dynasty, headed by the Sima clan, who would usurp Wei in 266, and conquer Wu in 280.

In India, the Gupta Empire was on the rise towards the end of the century.

Korea was ruled by the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Japan entered the Kofun period. The Xiongnu formed the Tiefu state under Liu Qubei. The Southeast Asian mainland was mostly dominated by Funan; the first kingdom of the Khmer people (Cambodians).

At about this time in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Bantu expansion reached Southern Africa.

In Pre-Columbian America, the Adena culture of the Ohio River valley declined in favor of the Hopewell culture. The Maya civilization entered its Classic Era.

Roman Empire

After the death of Commodus in the late previous century the Roman Empire was plunged into a civil war. When the dust settled, Septimius Severus emerged as emperor, establishing the Severan dynasty. Unlike previous emperors, he openly used the army to back his authority, and paid them well to do so. The regime he created is known as the Military Monarchy as a result. The system fell apart in the 230s, giving way to a fifty-year period known as the Military Anarchy or the Crisis of the Third Century, following the assassination of the 28-year-old emperor Severus Alexander (the last emperor of the Severan dynasty), where no fewer than twenty emperors held the reins of power, most for only a few months. The majority of these men were assassinated, or killed in battle, and the empire almost collapsed under the weight of the political upheaval, as well as the growing Persian threat in the east. Under its new Sassanid rulers, Persia had grown into a rival superpower, and the Romans would have to make drastic reforms in order to better prepare their state for a confrontation. These reforms were finally realized late in the century under the reign of Diocletian, one of them being to divide the empire into an eastern and western half, and have a separate ruler for each.

Events

The Baths of Caracalla, in 2003 BathsOfCaracalla.jpg
The Baths of Caracalla, in 2003

Significant people

Caracalla Caracalla MAN Napoli Inv6033 n01.jpg
Caracalla
Julia Domna Julia Domna (Julia Pia), inv. 2210, Roman - Braccio Nuovo, Museo Chiaramonti - Vatican Museums - DSC00897.jpg
Julia Domna
Severus Alexander Alexander Severus Musei Capitolini MC471.jpg
Severus Alexander
Claudius Gothicus Santa Giulia 4.jpg
Claudius Gothicus
Probus Probus Musei Capitolini MC493.jpg
Probus
Shapur I with Philip the Arab and Emperor Valerian Naqsh i Rustam. Shapour.jpg
Shapur I with Philip the Arab and Emperor Valerian
Diocletian Istanbul - Museo archeol. - Diocleziano (284-305 d.C.) - Foto G. Dall'Orto 28-5-2006 (cropped enhanced).jpg
Diocletian
Plotinus Plotinos.jpg
Plotinus

Literature

Science and Philosophy

Related Research Articles

4th century Century

The 4th century was the time period which lasted from 301 to 400. In the West, the early part of the century was shaped by Constantine the Great, who became the first Roman emperor to adopt Christianity. Gaining sole reign of the empire, he is also noted for re-establishing a single imperial capital, choosing the site of ancient Byzantium in 330 to build the city soon called Nova Roma ; it was later renamed Constantinople in his honor.

2nd century Century

The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.

200s (decade) decade

The 200s decade ran from January 1, 200, to December 31, 209.

The 300s decade ran from January 1, 300, to December 31, 309.

The 170s decade ran from January 1, 170, to December 31, 179.

The 180s decade ran from January 1, 180, to December 31, 189.

The 190s decade ran from January 1, 190, to December 31, 199.

The 270s decade ran from January 1, 270, to December 31, 279.

Year 217 (CCXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Praesens and Extricatus. The denomination 217 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

The 210s decade ran from January 1, 210, to December 31, 219.

The 220s decade ran from January 1, 220, to December 31, 229.

The 230s decade ran from January 1, 230, to December 31, 239.

The 240s decade ran from January 1, 240, to December 31, 249.

The 290s decade ran from January 1, 290, to December 31, 299.

The 250s decade ran from January 1, 250, to December 31, 259.

The 260s decade ran from January 1, 260, to December 31, 269.

208 Calendar year

Year 208 (CCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aurelius and Geta. The denomination 208 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Year 211 (CCXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. At the time, in the Roman Empire it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Terentius and Bassus. The denomination 211 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Legio tertia Parthica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 197 by the emperor Septimius Severus for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence the cognomenParthica. The legion was still active in the Eastern provinces in the early 5th century. The legion's symbol was probably a bull.

References

  1. McNab, Chris (2017). Famous Battles of the Ancient World. Cavendish Square Publishing, LLC. p. 74. ISBN   9781502632456.
  2. "Han dynasty | Definition, Map, Culture, Art, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  3. "Three Kingdoms | ancient kingdoms, China". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  4. Bomgardner, David L. (2013). The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. Routledge. p. 211. ISBN   9781134707393.