18th century

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Political boundaries at the beginning of year 1700 1700 CE world map.PNG
Political boundaries at the beginning of year 1700
Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution Prise de la Bastille.jpg
Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution
Development of the Watt steam engine in the late 18th century was an important element in the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. Maquina vapor Watt ETSIIM.jpg
Development of the Watt steam engine in the late 18th century was an important element in the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.
The American Revolutionary War took place in the late 18th century. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis.jpg
The American Revolutionary War took place in the late 18th century.

The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800. During the 18th century, elements of Enlightenment thinking culminated in the American, French, and Haitian revolutions. The age saw violent slave trading and human trafficking on a global scale. The reactions against monarchical and aristocratic power helped fuel the revolutionary responses against it throughout the century.

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The period is also known as the "century of lights" or the "century of reason". In continental Europe, philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. For some, this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789, though this was later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but in the wake of the French Revolution they feared loss of power and formed broad coalitions for counter-revolution. The Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. As a consequence the empire did not share in Europe's military improvements during the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), causing its military to fall behind and suffer defeats against Russia in the second half of the century.

18th century music includes works characteristic of the Late Baroque period (including Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel) and the classical period (including Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart).

The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The formerly powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years.

European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued.

Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the French and Indian War in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India, especially Bengal. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution and Indian wars.

In Central Asia, Nader Shah caused major invasions and led successful military campaigns and the Durrani Empire was founded.

In the Indian subcontinent, the death of the Islamic Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb marks the end of the medieval India and the beginning of the modern India and the beginning of European invasion India. The victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and their French allies [1] in the Battle of Plassey caused the deindustrialization of Bengal and the beginning of the British Industrial Revolution which radically changed human society and the environment. The British invasion since then expanded to cover much of South Asia.

French-Italian emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, formed one of the Franco-Indian alliances with the major economic power Kingdom of Mysore, [2] governed by Tipu Sultan and his father Hyder Ali, who pioneered the use of Rocket artillery and the world's first iron-cased rockets, the Mysorean rockets, through the compilation of the Fathul Mujahidin. [3] [4] The Anglo-Mysore Wars were fought and the Treaty of Mangalore was initiated in 1784.

The defeat of the British resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States.

Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events. [5] [6] To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century [7] may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 [8] or even later. [9]

Events

1701–1750

Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700 Europe, 1700 - 1714.png
Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700
The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian Empire into a European power. Marten's Poltava.jpg
The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian Empire into a European power.
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough Marlborough-duke-first.jpg
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah with the Persian invader Nader Shah. 7 Muhammad Shah and Nadir Shah. 1740, Musee Guimet, Paris.jpg
Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah with the Persian invader Nader Shah.
Qianlong Emperor Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor in Court Dress.jpg
Qianlong Emperor
The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. The Battle of Culloden.jpg
The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.

1751–1800

Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia. Catherinethegreatroslin.jpg
Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.
Encyclopedie, ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers Encyclopedie de D'Alembert et Diderot - Premiere Page - ENC 1-NA5.jpg
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers
George Washington Portrait of George Washington-transparent.png
George Washington
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789.jpg
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Napoleon at the Bridge of the Arcole 1801 Antoine-Jean Gros - Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole.jpg
Napoleon at the Bridge of the Arcole

Significant people

World leaders, politicians, military

Peter the Great Jean-Marc Nattier, Pierre Ier (1717).jpg
Peter the Great
Louis XV Hyacinthe Rigaud 009.jpg
Louis XV
Frederick II the Great Frederick II of Prussia Coloured drawing.png
Frederick II the Great
Joseph II of Austria HGM Weikert Portrait Joseph II.jpg
Joseph II of Austria
Queen Marie Antoinette Elisabeth Vigee Le Brun - Marie-Antoinette au livre - 1785.jpg
Queen Marie Antoinette
Charles III of Spain Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III of Spain
Prince Alexander Suvorov Joseph Kreutzinger - Alexander Suvorov.jpg
Prince Alexander Suvorov
Horatio Nelson HoratioNelson1.jpg
Horatio Nelson
Toussaint Louverture General Toussaint Louverture.jpg
Toussaint Louverture
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin by Joseph Duplessis 1778.jpg
Benjamin Franklin
Robespierre Robespierre.jpg
Robespierre

Show business, theatre, entertainers

Farinelli Bartolomeo Nazari - Portrait of Farinelli 1734 - Royal College of Music London.jpg
Farinelli
Beaumarchais Beaumarchais.jpg
Beaumarchais

Musicians, composers

Johann Sebastian Bach Young Bach2.jpg
Johann Sebastian Bach
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Mozart (unfinished) by Lange 1782.jpg
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
George Frideric Handel Georg Friedrich Handel.jpg
George Frideric Händel

Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers, architects

Antoine Watteau Rosalba Carriera Portrait Antoine Watteau.jpg
Antoine Watteau
Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin Chardin pastel selfportrait.jpg
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin
Joshua Reynolds Gilbert Stuart Sir Joshua Reynolds.jpg
Joshua Reynolds
Louise Elisabeth Vigee Le Brun Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun - selfportrait (Kimbell Art Museum, 1781-2).jpg
Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
Jacques-Louis David David Self Portrait.jpg
Jacques-Louis David

Writers, poets

Voltaire D'apres Maurice Quentin de La Tour, Portrait de Voltaire (c. 1737, musee Antoine Lecuyer).jpg
Voltaire
Alexander Pope Alexander Pope by Michael Dahl.jpg
Alexander Pope
Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. 1797).jpg
Mary Wollstonecraft
Friedrich Schiller Gerhard von Kugelgen 001.jpg
Friedrich Schiller

Philosophers, theologians

Montesquieu Montesquieu 1.png
Montesquieu
Denis Diderot Louis-Michel van Loo 001.jpg
Denis Diderot
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (painted portrait).jpg
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
John Wesley John Wesley by George Romney crop.jpg
John Wesley

Scientists, researchers

Jean le Rond d'Alembert Alembert.jpg
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
Alessandro Volta Alessandro Volta.jpeg
Alessandro Volta
Carl Linnaeus Carl von Linne.jpg
Carl Linnaeus
Leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler.jpg
Leonhard Euler
Mikhail Lomonosov Lomonosovportrait.jpg
Mikhail Lomonosov
James Watt James Watt by Henry Howard.jpg
James Watt

Other

Edward Teach Blackbeard.gif
Edward Teach

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

The Spinning Jenny Spinning jenny.jpg
The Spinning Jenny
The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. Red building Putuo Zongcheng Temple.JPG
The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

Literary and philosophical achievements

Musical works

Related Research Articles

15th century Century

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500.

17th century Century

The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company and megacorporation known as the Dutch East India Company, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, Mughal–Safavid Wars (Mughal–Safavid War, Mughal–Safavid War ), Mughal-Maratha Wars, and the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.

1756 1756

1756 (MDCCLVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1756th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 756th year of the 2nd millennium, the 56th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1756, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

11th century Century

The 11th century is the period from 1001 to 1100 in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the 1st century of the 2nd millennium.

1707 1707

1707 (MDCCVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1707th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 707th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1707, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1796 1796

1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1796th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 796th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1796, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1695 1695

1695 (MDCXCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1695th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 695th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1695, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1680 1680

1680 (MDCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1680th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 680th year of the 2nd millennium, the 80th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1680, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1657 1657

1657 (MDCLVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1657th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 657th year of the 2nd millennium, the 57th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1657, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1685 1685

1685 (MDCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1685th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 685th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1685, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1803 1803

1803 (MDCCCIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1803rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 803rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 3rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1803, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1630 1630

1630 (MDCXXX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1630th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 630th year of the 2nd millennium, the 30th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1630, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Template:Use this dates

1768 1768

1768 (MDCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1768th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 768th year of the 2nd millennium, the 68th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1768, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1654 1654

1654 (MDCLIV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1654th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 654th year of the 2nd millennium, the 54th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1654, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1664 1664

1664 (MDCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1664th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 664th year of the 2nd millennium, the 64th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1664, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1713 1713

1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1713th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 713th year of the 2nd millennium, the 13th year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1713, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1708 1708

1708 (MDCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1708th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 708th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1708, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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Further reading