18th century

Last updated
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments
Political boundaries at the beginning of year 1700 1700 CE world map.PNG
Political boundaries at the beginning of year 1700
Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution Prise de la Bastille.jpg
Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution
Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah with the Persian invader Nader Shah. 7 Muhammad Shah and Nadir Shah. 1740, Musee Guimet, Paris.jpg
Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah with the Persian invader Nader Shah.
Development of the Watt steam engine in the late 18th century was an important element in the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. Maquina vapor Watt ETSIIM.jpg
Development of the Watt steam engine in the late 18th century was an important element in the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.
Indian emperor Tipu Sultan seated on his throne, by Anna Tonneli Tipu Sultan seated on his throne.jpg
Indian emperor Tipu Sultan seated on his throne, by Anna Tonneli
The American Revolutionary War took place in the late 18th century. Canadian militiamen and British soldiers repulse the American assault at Sault-au-Matelot.jpg
The American Revolutionary War took place in the late 18th century.

The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800. During the 18th century, elements of Enlightenment thinking culminated in the American, French, and Haitian revolutions. This was an age of violent slave trading, and global human trafficking. The reactions against monarchical and aristocratic power helped fuel the revolutionary responses against it throughout the century.

1701 Year

1701 (MDCCI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1701st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 701st year of the 2nd millennium, the 1st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1701, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Tuesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1800 Year

1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1800th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 800th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1, when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 12 days until February 28, 1900.

Age of Enlightenment European cultural movement of the 18th century

The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy".

Contents

In continental Europe, philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. For some, this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror (1793–1794) under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution. The Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. As a consequence the empire did not share in Europe's military improvements during the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), causing its military to fall behind and suffer defeats against Russia in the second half of the century.

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Reign of Terror Period during the French Revolution

The Reign of Terror, or The Terror, refers to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.

Maximilien Robespierre French revolutionary lawyer and politician

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution. As a member of the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, he campaigned for universal manhood suffrage, abolition of celibacy and of slavery. Robespierre was an outspoken advocate for the citizens without a voice, for their unrestricted admission to the National Guard, to public offices, and for the right to carry a weapon to defend the revolution. Robespierre played an important part in the agitation which brought about the fall of the French monarchy in August 1792 and the summoning of a National Convention.

18th century music included the Late Baroque period (including Johan Sebastian Bach and George Frederic Handel) and the classical period (including Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart).

Baroque music Style of Western art music

Baroque music is a period or style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750. This era followed the Renaissance music era, and was followed in turn by the Classical era. Baroque music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, and is now widely studied, performed, and listened to. Key composers of the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Claudio Monteverdi, Domenico Scarlatti, Alessandro Scarlatti, Henry Purcell, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Arcangelo Corelli, Tomaso Albinoni, François Couperin, Giuseppe Tartini, Heinrich Schütz, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Dieterich Buxtehude, and Johann Pachelbel.

Classical period (music) genre of Western music (c.1730-1820)

The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 and 1820.

Joseph Haydn Austrian composer

Franz Joseph Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio. His contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet".

The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Former European state

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered almost 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million.

Kingdom of Prussia Former German state (1701–1918)

The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin.

Russian Empire former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued.

European colonization of the Americas settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Western Europe.

Age of Sail Era dominated by sailing vesels out at sea

The Age of Sail was a period roughly corresponding to the early modern period in which international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships, lasting from the mid-16th to the mid-19th century.

Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the French and Indian War in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India, especially Bengal. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution and Indian wars.

Kingdom of Great Britain Constitutional monarchy in Western Europe between 1707 and 1801

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 1 January 1801. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover.

French and Indian War North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years War

The French and Indian War (1754–1763) pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of roughly 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies. The outnumbered French particularly depended on the Indians.

Company rule in India rule or dominion of the British East India Company on the Indian subcontinent

Company rule in India refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent. This is variously taken to have commenced in 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, when the Nawab of Bengal Sirajuddaulah surrendered his dominions to the Company, in 1765, when the Company was granted the diwani, or the right to collect revenue, in Bengal and Bihar, or in 1773, when the Company established a capital in Calcutta, appointed its first Governor-General, Warren Hastings, and became directly involved in governance, and by 1818, with the defeat of Marathas followed by the pensioning of the Peshwa and the annexation of his territories, British supremacy in India was complete.

In Central Asia, Nader Shah caused major invasions and successfull military campaigns.

In the Indian subcontinent, the death of the Islamic Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb marks the end of the medieval India and the beginning of the modern India and the beginning of European India. The victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies [1] in the Battle of Plassey caused the deindustrialization of Bengal and the beginning of the British Industrial Revolution. The British invasion since then expanded to cover much of South Asia.

French-Italian leader Napoleon Bonaparte, formed the Franco-Indian alliances with the major economic power Kingdom of Mysore, [2] governed by Tipu Sultan and his father Hyder Ali, who pioneered the use of Rocket artillery and the world's first iron-cased rockets, the Mysorean rockets, through the compilation of the Fathul Mujahidin. [3] [4] The Anglo-Mysore Wars were fought and the Treaty of Mangalore was initiated in 1784.

The defeat of the British resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States. The Industrial Revolution, after the invasion of the major trading nation Bengal Subah, started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society and the environment.

Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events. [5] [6] To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century [7] may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 [8] or even later. [9]

Events

1701–1750

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough Marlborough-duke-first.jpg
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian Empire into a European power. Marten's Poltava.jpg
The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian Empire into a European power.
Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700 Europe, 1700 - 1714.png
Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700
Qianlong Emperor Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor in Court Dress.jpg
Qianlong Emperor
Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia Frederick II of Prussia Coloured drawing.png
Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia
The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. The Battle of Culloden.jpg
The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.
The Death of General Wolfe Benjamin West 005.jpg
The Death of General Wolfe

1751–1800

Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia. Catherinethegreatroslin.jpg
Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.
George III, King of Great Britain. Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg
George III, King of Great Britain.
Encyclopedie, ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers Encyclopedie de D'Alembert et Diderot - Premiere Page - ENC 1-NA5.jpg
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers
Rejtan and the Partitions of Poland on a painting by Jan Matejko Rejtan Upadek Polski Matejko.jpg
Rejtan and the Partitions of Poland on a painting by Jan Matejko
George Washington Portrait of George Washington-transparent.png
George Washington
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789.jpg
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Napoleon at the Bridge of the Arcole 1801 Antoine-Jean Gros - Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole.jpg
Napoleon at the Bridge of the Arcole

Significant people

World leaders, politicians, military

Peter the Great Jean-Marc Nattier, Pierre Ier (1717).jpg
Peter the Great
Louis XV Hyacinthe Rigaud 009.jpg
Louis XV
Queen Anne Anniex.jpg
Queen Anne
Marie Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria Elisabeth Vigee Le Brun - Marie-Antoinette au livre - 1785.jpg
Marie Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria
Ferdinand VI, King of Spain Ferdinand VI 2.jpg
Ferdinand VI, King of Spain
Prince Alexander Suvorov Joseph Kreutzinger - Alexander Suvorov.jpg
Prince Alexander Suvorov
Horatio Nelson, Vice Admiral in the British navy HoratioNelson1.jpg
Horatio Nelson, Vice Admiral in the British navy
Toussaint Louverture General Toussaint Louverture.jpg
Toussaint Louverture
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin by Jean-Baptiste Greuze.jpg
Benjamin Franklin
Joseph II of Austria HGM Weikert Portrait Joseph II.jpg
Joseph II of Austria
Louis XVI Louis16-1775.jpg
Louis XVI
Robespierre Robespierre.jpg
Robespierre
Yeongjo, King of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea Korea-Yeongjo-King of Joseon-c1.jpg
Yeongjo, King of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea

Show business, theatre, entertainers

Farinelli Bartolomeo Nazari - Portrait of Farinelli 1734 - Royal College of Music London.jpg
Farinelli
Beaumarchais Beaumarchais.jpg
Beaumarchais

Musicians, composers

Johann Sebastian Bach Young Bach2.jpg
Johann Sebastian Bach
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Mozart (unfinished) by Lange 1782.jpg
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
George Frideric Handel Georg Friedrich Handel.jpg
George Frideric Händel

Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers, architects

Antoine Watteau Rosalba Carriera Portrait Antoine Watteau.jpg
Antoine Watteau
Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin Chardin pastel selfportrait.jpg
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin
Joshua Reynolds Gilbert Stuart Sir Joshua Reynolds.jpg
Joshua Reynolds
Louise Elisabeth Vigee Le Brun Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun - selfportrait (Kimbell Art Museum, 1781-2).jpg
Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
Jacques-Louis David David Self Portrait.jpg
Jacques-Louis David

Writers, poets

Voltaire D'apres Maurice Quentin de La Tour, Portrait de Voltaire (c. 1737, musee Antoine Lecuyer).jpg
Voltaire
Alexander Pope Alexander Pope by Michael Dahl.jpg
Alexander Pope
Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. 1797).jpg
Mary Wollstonecraft
Friedrich Schiller Gerhard von Kugelgen 001.jpg
Friedrich Schiller

Philosophers, theologians

Montesquieu Montesquieu 1.png
Montesquieu
Denis Diderot Louis-Michel van Loo 001.jpg
Denis Diderot
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (painted portrait).jpg
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Scientists, researchers

Jean le Rond d'Alembert Alembert.jpg
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
Alessandro Volta Alessandro Volta.jpeg
Alessandro Volta
Carl Linnaeus Carl von Linne.jpg
Carl Linnaeus
Leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler.jpg
Leonhard Euler
Mikhail Lomonosov Lomonosovportrait.jpg
Mikhail Lomonosov
James Watt James Watt by Henry Howard.jpg
James Watt

Other

Edward Teach Blackbeard.gif
Edward Teach

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

The Spinning Jenny Spinning jenny.jpg
The Spinning Jenny
The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. Red building Putuo Zongcheng Temple.JPG
The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

Literary and philosophical achievements

Musical works

See Also

Related Research Articles

September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 108 days remain until the end of the year.

15th century Century

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500.

17th century Century

The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company Dutch East India, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, Mughal–Safavid War, Mughal-Maratha Wars, and the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.

1756 Year

1756 (MDCCLVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1756th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 756th year of the 2nd millennium, the 56th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1756, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400. During this period, political and natural disasters ravaged both Europe and the four khanates of the Mongol Empire. Consequently, the Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Krishnagiri Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe.

1707 Year

1707 (MDCCVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1707th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 707th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1707, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Tuesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1796 Year

1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1796th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 796th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1796, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1695 Year

1695 (MDCXCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1695th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 695th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1695, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It was also a particularly cold and wet year. Contemporary records claim that wine froze in the glasses in the Palace of Versailles.

1792 Year

1792 (MDCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1792nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 792nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 92nd year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1792, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1680 Year

1680 (MDCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1680th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 680th year of the 2nd millennium, the 80th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1680, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1830 Year

1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1830th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 830th year of the 2nd millennium, the 30th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1830, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is known in European history as a rather tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 in France, Belgium, Poland, Switzerland and Italy.

1803 Year

1803 (MDCCCIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1803rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 803rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 3rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1803, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1630 Year

1630 (MDCXXX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1630th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 630th year of the 2nd millennium, the 30th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1630, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1768 Year

1768 (MDCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1768th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 768th year of the 2nd millennium, the 68th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1768, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1654 Year

1654 (MDCLIV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1654th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 654th year of the 2nd millennium, the 54th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1654, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1717 Year

1717 (MDCCXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1717th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 717th year of the 2nd millennium, the 17th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1717, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1713 Year

1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1713th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 713th year of the 2nd millennium, the 13th year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1713, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1708 Year

1708 (MDCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1708th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 708th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1708, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a leap year starting on Wednesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

References

  1. Campbell & Watts 1760, .
  2. Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 207, ISBN   978-1-139-49889-0
  3. Allana, Gulam (1988). Muslim political thought through the ages: 1562–1947 (2 ed.). Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania: Royal Book Company. p. 78. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  4. http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/exhibits/show/liberty--equality--fraternity/item/2938
  5. Anderson, M. S. (1979). Historians and Eighteenth-Century Europe, 1715–1789. Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-822548-5. OCLC   185538307.
  6. Ribeiro, Aileen (2002). Dress in Eighteenth-Century Europe 1715–1789 (revised edition). Yale University Press. ISBN   978-0-300-09151-9. OCLC   186413657.
  7. Baines, Paul (2004). The Long 18th Century. London: Arnold. ISBN   978-0-340-81372-0.
  8. Marshall, P. J., ed. (2001). The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford History of the British Empire). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN   978-0-19-924677-9. OCLC   174866045., "Introduction" by P. J. Marshall, page 1
  9. O'Gorman, Frank (1997). The Long Eighteenth Century: British Political and Social History 1688–1832 (The Arnold History of Britain Series). A Hodder Arnold Publication. ISBN   978-0-340-56751-7. OCLC   243883533.
  10. "War of the Spanish Succession, 1701–1714". Historyofwar.org. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  11. Ricklefs (1991), page 82
  12. Historic uk – heritage of britain accommodation guide (2007-05-03). "The history of Scotland – The Act of Union 1707". Historic-uk.com. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  13. Ricklefs (1991), page 84
  14. "Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History". Britannica.com. 1910-01-31. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  15. "List of Wars of the Crimean Tatars". Zum.de. Archived from the original on 12 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  16. "Len Milich: Anthropogenic Desertification vs 'Natural' Climate Trends". Ag.arizona.edu. 1997-08-10. Archived from the original on 2012-02-11. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  17. "A guide to Scottish clans". Unique-cottages.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  18. Wadsworth, Alfred P.; Mann, Julia De Lacy (1931). The Cotton Trade and Industrial Lancashire, 1600–1780. Manchester University Press. p. 433. OCLC   2859370.
  19. "Saudi Arabia – The Saud Family and Wahhabi Islam". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  20. "History". Columbia University.
  21. Ricklefs (1991), page 102
  22. "Sufism in the Caucasus". Islamicsupremecouncil.org. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  23. "Yellow Fever Attacks Philadelphia, 1793". EyeWitness to History. Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-22.
  24. Riedel S (2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination". Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 18 (1): 21–5. doi:10.1080/08998280.2005.11928028. PMC   1200696 . PMID   16200144.
  25. Ricklefs (1991), page 106
  26. Porter, Roy, ed. (2003). The Cambridge History of Science, Volume 4: The Eighteenth Century (The Cambridge History of Science). Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-57243-9. OCLC   123123201., "The Philosopher's Beard: Women and Gender in Science" by Londra Schiebinger, pages 184–210
  27. Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions, Encyclopædia Britannica Archived August 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  28. Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. (1998) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p 146 ISBN   978-0-471-29198-5

Further reading