18th century

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Political boundaries at the beginning of year 1700 1700 CE world map.PNG
Political boundaries at the beginning of year 1700
Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution Prise de la Bastille.jpg
Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution
Development of the Watt steam engine in the late 18th century was an important element in the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. Maquina vapor Watt ETSIIM.jpg
Development of the Watt steam engine in the late 18th century was an important element in the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.
The American Revolutionary War took place in the late 18th century. Canadian militiamen and British soldiers repulse the American assault at Sault-au-Matelot.jpg
The American Revolutionary War took place in the late 18th century.

The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, elements of Enlightenment thinking culminated in the American, French, and Haitian revolutions. This was an age of violent slave trading, and global human trafficking. The reactions against monarchical and aristocratic power helped fuel the revolutionary responses against it throughout the century.

1701 Year

1701 (MDCCI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1701st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 701st year of the 2nd millennium, the 1st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1701, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Tuesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1800 Year

1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1800th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 800th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1, when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 12 days until 1899.

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

Contents

In continental Europe, philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. For some, this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror (1793–1794) under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution. The Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. As a consequence the empire did not share in Europe's military improvements during the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), causing its military to fall behind and suffer defeats against Russia in the second half of the century.

French Revolution social and political revolution in France and its colonies occurring from 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Reign of Terror period during the french revolution

The Reign of Terror, or The Terror, is the label given by most historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.

Maximilien Robespierre French revolutionary lawyer and politician

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution. As a member of the Estates-General, the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, Robespierre was an outspoken advocate for the citizen without a voice, for unrestricted admission to the National Guard, to public offices, and for the right to petition. He campaigned for universal suffrage, abolition of celibacy, religious tolerance and the abolition of slavery in the French colonies. He played an important role after the Storming of the Tuileries, which led to the establishment of a French Republic on 22 September 1792.

18th century music included the Baroque period (including Johan Sebastian Bach and George Frederic Handel) and the classical period (including Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart).

Baroque music style of Western art music

Baroque music is a period or style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750. This era followed the Renaissance music era, and was followed in turn by the Classical era. Baroque music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, and is now widely studied, performed, and listened to. Key composers of the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Claudio Monteverdi, Domenico Scarlatti, Alessandro Scarlatti, Henry Purcell, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Arcangelo Corelli, Tomaso Albinoni, François Couperin, Giuseppe Tartini, Heinrich Schütz, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Dieterich Buxtehude, and Johann Pachelbel.

Classical period (music) genre of Western music (c.1730-1820)

The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 and 1820.

Joseph Haydn Austrian composer

(Franz) Joseph Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio. His contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet".

The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Former European state

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th– to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered almost 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million.

Kingdom of Prussia Former German state (1701–1918)

The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin.

Russian Empire Former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society and the environment.

European colonization of the Americas settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Western Europe.

Age of Sail era dominated by sailing vesels out at sea

The Age of Sail was a period roughly corresponding to the early modern period in which international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships, lasting from the mid-16th to the mid-19th century.

Kingdom of Great Britain constitutional monarchy in Western Europe between 1707–1801

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. It also did not include Ireland, which remained a separate realm. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover.

Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events. [1] [2] To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century [3] may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 [4] or even later. [5]

Louis XIV of France King of France and Navarra, from 1643 to 1715

Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power.

Glorious Revolution 17th Century British revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as William III of England jointly with his wife, Mary II, James's daughter, after the Declaration of Right, leading to the Bill of Rights 1689.

Battle of Waterloo battle of the Napoleonic Wars in which Napoleon was defeated

The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in Belgium, part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands at the time. A French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: a British-led allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, and a Prussian army under the command of Field Marshal Blücher. The battle marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

Events

1701–1750

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough Marlborough-duke-first.jpg
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian Empire into a European power. Marten's Poltava.jpg
The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian Empire into a European power.
Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700 Europe, 1700 - 1714.png
Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700
Qianlong Emperor Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor in Court Dress.jpg
Qianlong Emperor
Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia Frederick II of Prussia Coloured drawing.png
Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia
The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. The Battle of Culloden.jpg
The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.
The Death of General Wolfe Benjamin West 005.jpg
The Death of General Wolfe

1751–1800

Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia. Catherinethegreatroslin.jpg
Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.
George III, King of Great Britain. Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg
George III, King of Great Britain.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers Encyclopedie de D'Alembert et Diderot - Premiere Page - ENC 1-NA5.jpg
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers
Rejtan and the Partitions of Poland on a painting by Jan Matejko Rejtan Upadek Polski Matejko.jpg
Rejtan and the Partitions of Poland on a painting by Jan Matejko
George Washington Portrait of George Washington-transparent.png
George Washington
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789.jpg
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Napoleon at the Bridge of the Arcole 1801 Antoine-Jean Gros - Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole.jpg
Napoleon at the Bridge of the Arcole

Significant people

World leaders, politicians, military

Peter the Great Jean-Marc Nattier, Pierre Ier (1717).jpg
Peter the Great
Louis XV Hyacinthe Rigaud 009.jpg
Louis XV
Queen Anne Anniex.jpg
Queen Anne
Marie Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun - Marie-Antoinette au livre - 1785.jpg
Marie Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria
Ferdinand VI, King of Spain Ferdinand VI 2.jpg
Ferdinand VI, King of Spain
Prince Alexander Suvorov Joseph Kreutzinger - Alexander Suvorov.jpg
Prince Alexander Suvorov
Horatio Nelson, Vice Admiral in the British navy HoratioNelson1.jpg
Horatio Nelson, Vice Admiral in the British navy
Toussaint Louverture Général Toussaint Louverture.jpg
Toussaint Louverture
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin by Jean-Baptiste Greuze.jpg
Benjamin Franklin
Joseph II of Austria HGM Weikert Portrait Joseph II.jpg
Joseph II of Austria
Louis XVI Louis16-1775.jpg
Louis XVI
Robespierre Robespierre.jpg
Robespierre
Yeongjo, King of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea Korea-Yeongjo-King of Joseon-c1.jpg
Yeongjo, King of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea

Show business, theatre, entertainers

Farinelli CarloBroschi.JPG
Farinelli
Beaumarchais Beaumarchais.jpg
Beaumarchais

Musicians, composers

Johann Sebastian Bach Young Bach2.jpg
Johann Sebastian Bach
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Mozart (unfinished) by Lange 1782.jpg
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
George Frideric Händel Georg Friedrich Händel.jpg
George Frideric Händel

Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers, architects

Antoine Watteau Rosalba Carriera Portrait Antoine Watteau.jpg
Antoine Watteau
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin Chardin pastel selfportrait.jpg
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin
Joshua Reynolds Gilbert Stuart Sir Joshua Reynolds.jpg
Joshua Reynolds
Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun - selfportrait (Kimbell Art Museum, 1781-2).jpg
Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
Jacques-Louis David David Self Portrait.jpg
Jacques-Louis David

Writers, poets

Voltaire D'après Maurice Quentin de La Tour, Portrait de Voltaire (c. 1737, musée Antoine Lécuyer).jpg
Voltaire
Alexander Pope Alexander Pope by Michael Dahl.jpg
Alexander Pope
Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. 1797).jpg
Mary Wollstonecraft
Friedrich Schiller Gerhard von Kügelgen 001.jpg
Friedrich Schiller

Philosophers, theologians

Montesquieu Montesquieu 1.png
Montesquieu
Denis Diderot Louis-Michel van Loo 001.jpg
Denis Diderot
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (painted portrait).jpg
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Scientists, researchers

Jean le Rond d'Alembert Alembert.jpg
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
Alessandro Volta Alessandro Volta.jpeg
Alessandro Volta
Carl Linnaeus Carl von Linné.jpg
Carl Linnaeus
Leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler.jpg
Leonhard Euler
Mikhail Lomonosov Lomonosovportrait.jpg
Mikhail Lomonosov
James Watt James Watt by Henry Howard.jpg
James Watt

Other

Edward Teach Blackbeard.gif
Edward Teach

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

The Spinning Jenny Spinning jenny.jpg
The Spinning Jenny
The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. Red building Putuo Zongcheng Temple.JPG
The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

Literary and philosophical achievements

Musical works

See Also

Related Research Articles

15th century Century

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500.

16th century Century

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600.

17th century Century

The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, and the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.

1756 Year

1756 (MDCCLVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1756th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 756th year of the 2nd millennium, the 56th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1756, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400. Political and natural disasters ravaged both Europe and the four khanates of the Mongol Empire. Consequently, the Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed in Persia, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe.

1707 Year

1707 (MDCCVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1707th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 707th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1707, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Tuesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1796 Year

1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1796th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 796th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1796, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1829 Year

1829 (MDCCCXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1829th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 829th year of the 2nd millennium, the 29th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1829, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1695 Year

1695 (MDCXCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1695th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 695th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1695, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It was also a particularly cold and wet year. Contemporary records claim that wine froze in the glasses in the Palace of Versailles.

1680 Year

1680 (MDCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1680th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 680th year of the 2nd millennium, the 80th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1680, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1830 Year

1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1830th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 830th year of the 2nd millennium, the 30th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1830, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is known in European history as a rather tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 in France, Belgium, Poland, Switzerland and Italy.

1803 Year

1803 (MDCCCIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1803rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 803rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 3rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1803, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1639 Year

1639 (MDCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1639th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 639th year of the 2nd millennium, the 39th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1639, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1768 Year

1768 (MDCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1768th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 768th year of the 2nd millennium, the 68th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1768, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1717 Year

1717 (MDCCXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1717th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 717th year of the 2nd millennium, the 17th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1717, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1713 Year

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1708 Year

1708 (MDCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1708th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 708th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1708, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a leap year starting on Wednesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1699 Year

1699 (MDCXCIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1699th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 699th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1699, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1684 Year

1684 (MDCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1684th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 684th year of the 2nd millennium, the 84th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1684, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

References

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Further reading