1918

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1918 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1918
MCMXVIII
Ab urbe condita 2671
Armenian calendar 1367
ԹՎ ՌՅԿԷ
Assyrian calendar 6668
Bahá'í calendar 74–75
Balinese saka calendar 1839–1840
Bengali calendar 1325
Berber calendar 2868
British Regnal year 8  Geo. 5   9  Geo. 5
Buddhist calendar 2462
Burmese calendar 1280
Byzantine calendar 7426–7427
Chinese calendar 丁巳(Fire  Snake)
4614 or 4554
     to 
戊午年 (Earth  Horse)
4615 or 4555
Coptic calendar 1634–1635
Discordian calendar 3084
Ethiopian calendar 1910–1911
Hebrew calendar 5678–5679
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1974–1975
 - Shaka Samvat 1839–1840
 - Kali Yuga 5018–5019
Holocene calendar 11918
Igbo calendar 918–919
Iranian calendar 1296–1297
Islamic calendar 1336–1337
Japanese calendar Taishō 7
(大正7年)
Javanese calendar 1848–1849
Juche calendar 7
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar 4251
Minguo calendar ROC 7
民國7年
Nanakshahi calendar 450
Thai solar calendar 2460–2461
Tibetan calendar 阴火蛇年
(female Fire-Snake)
2044 or 1663 or 891
     to 
阳土马年
(male Earth-Horse)
2045 or 1664 or 892

1918 ( MCMXVIII ) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar , the 1918th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 918th year of the 2nd millennium , the 18th year of the 20th century , and the 9th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1918, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F. The current year, 2019, is a common year starting on Tuesday in the Gregorian calendar. The last such year was 2013 and the next such year will be 2030, or, likewise, 2014 and 2025 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Leap years starting on Monday share this characteristic. From July of the year that precedes this year until September in this type of year is the longest period that occurs without a Friday the 13th. Leap years starting on Saturday share this characteristic, from August of the common year that precedes it to October in that type of year.

Contents

This year is famous for the end of the First World War, on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, as well as for the Spanish flu pandemic, that killed 50-100 million people worldwide.

Spanish flu 1918 influenza pandemic

The 1918 influenza pandemic was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus. It infected 500 million people around the world, including people on remote Pacific islands and in the Arctic. Probably 50 million and possibly as many as 100 million died, making it one of the deadliest epidemics in human history.

Events

Below, events of World War I have the "WWI" prefix.

World War I 1914–1918 global war starting in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the resulting 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

February 16: The Act of Independence of Lithuania Nepriklausomybes aktas.gif
February 16: The Act of Independence of Lithuania

January

January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.

Influenza infectious disease

Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, sneezing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. The cough, however, may last for more than two weeks. In children, there may be diarrhea and vomiting, but these are not common in adults. Diarrhea and vomiting occur more commonly in gastroenteritis, which is an unrelated disease and sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or the "24-hour flu". Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure.

Haskell County, Kansas County in the United States

Haskell County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 4,256. Its county seat and most populous city is Sublette.

February

February 23: Estonian Declaration of Independence Declaration of Estonian independence in Parnu.jpg
February 23: Estonian Declaration of Independence

March

April

Styles of Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon, as presented in a vaudeville circuit pantomime and sketched by Marguerite Martyn of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch in April 1918 Lady Duff Gordon styles sketched by Marguerite Martyn, 1918.jpg
Styles of Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon, as presented in a vaudeville circuit pantomime and sketched by Marguerite Martyn of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch in April 1918

May

June

June 10: Austro-Hungarian battleship Szent Istvan sunk by Italian torpedo boats Bundesarchiv Bild 134-C1133, Szent Istvan, Sinkendes Linienschiff.jpg
June 10: Austro-Hungarian battleship Szent István sunk by Italian torpedo boats
Szent Istvan Bundesarchiv Bild 134-C2280, Szent Istvan, Sinkendes Linienschiff.jpg
Szent István

July

July 17: Execution of the Romanov family Family in 1913.jpg
July 17: Execution of the Romanov family

August

August 30: Attempted assassination of Lenin, depicted by Vladimir Pchelin Lenin attempt.jpg
August 30: Attempted assassination of Lenin, depicted by Vladimir Pchelin

September

October

November

November 9: Proclamation of German Republic by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin on the Reichstag balcony Ausrufung Republik Scheidemann.jpg
November 9: Proclamation of German Republic by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin on the Reichstag balcony
Signatories to the Armistice of 11 November 1918 with Germany, ending WWI, pose outside Marshal Foch's railway carriage Armisticetrain.jpg
Signatories to the Armistice of 11 November 1918 with Germany, ending WWI, pose outside Marshal Foch's railway carriage
November 11: Front page of The New York Times on Armistice Day NYTimes-Page1-11-11-1918.jpg
November 11: Front page of The New York Times on Armistice Day

December

Flag of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes Flag of Yugoslavia (1918-1943).svg
Flag of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes

Date unknown

Births

Births
January  · February  · March  · April  · May  · June  · July  · August  · September  · October  · November  · December

January

Joao Figueiredo Figueiredo (colour).jpg
João Figueiredo
Gamal Abdel Nasser Nasser portrait2.jpg
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Kamal Amrohi Kamal Amrohi (28553611573).jpg
Kamal Amrohi
Nicolae Ceausescu Nicolae Ceausescu.jpg
Nicolae Ceaușescu
Bazilije Pandzic Bazilije Stjepan Pandzic Zagreb 2011-06-24.JPG
Bazilije Pandžić

February

Joey Bishop Joey Bishop 1967.JPG
Joey Bishop
Julian Schwinger Schwinger.jpg
Julian Schwinger
Fay McKenzie Fay McKenzie (cropped).jpg
Fay McKenzie
Otis R. Bowen Otis R. Bowen.jpg
Otis R. Bowen

March

Joao Goulart Jango.jpg
João Goulart
James Tobin James Tobin.png
James Tobin
Frederick Reines Frederick Reines.jpg
Frederick Reines
Cheddi Jagan President Cheddi Jagan.png
Cheddi Jagan
Howard Cosell Howard cosell 1975.JPG
Howard Cosell
Pearl Bailey Pearl Bailey - publicity.jpg
Pearl Bailey

April

Betty Ford Betty Ford, official White House photo color, 1974.jpg
Betty Ford
William Holden Holden-portrait.jpg
William Holden
Kai Siegbahn Kai Manne Borje Siegbahn 2.jpg
Kai Siegbahn

May

Kakuei Tanaka Kakuei Tanaka cropped 1 Kakuei Tanaka 19720707.jpg
Kakuei Tanaka
Mike Wallace Mike Wallace Interviews 1957 (4).jpg
Mike Wallace
Richard Feynman Richard Feynman Nobel.jpg
Richard Feynman
Eddy Arnold Eddie Arnold 1969.JPG
Eddy Arnold
Yasuhiro Nakasone Yasuhiro Nakasone.jpg
Yasuhiro Nakasone

June

Robert Preston Robert Preston-publicity.jpg
Robert Preston
Patachou Patachou (1961).jpg
Patachou
Francois Tombalbaye Francois Tombalbaye 1959.jpg
François Tombalbaye
Franco Modigliani Franco Modigliani.jpg
Franco Modigliani
Francis W. Nye Maj Gen Francis Walter Nye.jpg
Francis W. Nye

July

Zakaria Mohieddin Zakaria Mohiedin as Interior Minister.jpg
Zakaria Mohieddin
Sebastian Cabot Sebastian Cabot 1964.JPG
Sebastian Cabot
Francisco Moncion Portrait of Francisco Moncion, in Sebastian LCCN2004663346.tif
Francisco Moncion
Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Smultronstallet.jpg
Ingmar Bergman
Bertram Brockhouse Bertram Brockhouse.jpg
Bertram Brockhouse
Paul Farnes Paul Farnes Portrait.jpg
Paul Farnes
Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio Carlos Arana Osorio.png
Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio
Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela-2008 (edit).jpg
Nelson Mandela
Pee Wee Reese Pee Wee Reese 1956.jpg
Pee Wee Reese
Antonio Candido AntonioCandido (cropped).jpg
Antonio Candido
Paul D. Boyer Paul D. Boyer.jpg
Paul D. Boyer
Hank Jones Hank Jones MJF.jpg
Hank Jones

August

Frederick Sanger Frederick Sanger2.jpg
Frederick Sanger
Shankar Dayal Sharma Shankar Dayal Sharma 36.jpg
Shankar Dayal Sharma
Leonard Bernstein Leonard Bernstein by Jack Mitchell.jpg
Leonard Bernstein
Katherine Johnson Katherine Johnson 1983.jpg
Katherine Johnson
Alejandro Agustin Lanusse Alejandro Agustin Lanusse.jpg
Alejandro Agustín Lanusse

September

Paul Harvey HarveyPaul.jpg
Paul Harvey
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro 8SCALFARO01gr.jpg
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Nipsey Russell Nipsey Russell 1971.jpg
Nipsey Russell
Chaim Herzog Chaim-herzog.jpg
Chaim Herzog

October

Jens Christian Skou Skou2008crop.jpg
Jens Christian Skou
Rita Hayworth Hayworth-Gilda-1946-Color.jpg
Rita Hayworth
Diana Serra Cary Baby-Peggy 2012-07-01.jpg
Diana Serra Cary
Konstantinos Mitsotakis Constantine Mitsotakis.jpg
Konstantinos Mitsotakis

November

Art Carney Art Carney - 1959.jpg
Art Carney
Billy Graham Billy Graham bw photo, April 11, 1966.jpg
Billy Graham
Spiro Agnew Spiro Agnew.jpg
Spiro Agnew
Patricio Aylwin Presidente Patricio Aylwin cropped.jpg
Patricio Aylwin

December

B. K. S. Iyengar BKS Iyengar.jpg
B. K. S. Iyengar
Jeff Chandler Jeff Chandler - 1958.jpg
Jeff Chandler
Kurt Waldheim Kurt Waldheim 1971b.jpg
Kurt Waldheim
Helmut Schmidt Verteidigungsminister Helmut Schmidt.jpg
Helmut Schmidt
Anwar Sadat Anwar Sadat cropped.jpg
Anwar Sadat

Date Unknown

Deaths

January

Georg Cantor Georg Cantor2.jpg
Georg Cantor
Maria Dolores Rodriguez Sopena Dolores sopena pensativa.jpg
María Dolores Rodríguez Sopeña

February

Gustav Klimt Klimt.jpg
Gustav Klimt
Sultan Abdul Hamid II Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire.jpg
Sultan Abdul Hamid II

March

Claude Debussy Claude Debussy ca 1908, foto av Felix Nadar.jpg
Claude Debussy
Martin Sheridan Martin Sheridan.jpg
Martin Sheridan

April

Karl Ferdinand Braun Ferdinand Braun.jpg
Karl Ferdinand Braun
Manfred von Richthofen Manfred von Richthofen.jpg
Manfred von Richthofen
Gavrilo Princip Gavrilloprincip.jpg
Gavrilo Princip

May

Maria Magdalena Merten Blandine Merten.jpg
Maria Magdalena Merten

June

Kyrion II of Georgia Patriarch Kyrion II of Georgia.jpg
Kyrion II of Georgia

July

Sultan Mehmed V Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire cropped.jpg
Sultan Mehmed V
James McCudden McCuddenportrait.jpg
James McCudden
Quentin Roosevelt Quentin Roosevelt in Uniform 1917.jpg
Quentin Roosevelt
Emperor Nicholas II of Russia Face Nicholas II.jpg
Emperor Nicholas II of Russia
Henry Macintosh Henry Macintosh 1913.jpg
Henry Macintosh

August

Marianne Cope Mother Marianne Cope in her youth.jpg
Marianne Cope

September

George Reid George Reid cph.3c31684.jpg
George Reid
Eduard, Duke of Anhalt EduardDukeAnhalt.jpg
Eduard, Duke of Anhalt
Prince Erik, Duke of Vastmanland Eriksweden18894qr.jpg
Prince Erik, Duke of Vastmanland

October

November

Wilfred Owen Wilfred Owen plate from Poems (1920).jpg
Wilfred Owen

December

Sidonio Pais Sidonio Pais.jpg
Sidónio Pais
Sultan Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar Zanz-Ali II.jpg
Sultan Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

Related Research Articles

1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1917th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 917th year of the 2nd millennium, the 17th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1917, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1908 Year

1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1908th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 908th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1908, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1912th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 912th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1912, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1943rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 943rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1940s decade.

1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1941st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 941st year of the 2nd millennium, the 41st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1940s decade.

1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1905th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 905th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1905, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1903rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 903rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 3rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1903, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1907th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 907th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1907, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1906th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 906th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1906, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1902nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 902nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 2nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1902, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1919th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 919th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1919, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1896th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 896th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1896, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1916th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 916th year of the 2nd millennium, the 16th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1916, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1915th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 915th year of the 2nd millennium, the 15th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1915, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1910th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 910th year of the 2nd millennium, the 10th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1910, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1940th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 940th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1940s decade.

1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1897th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 897th year of the 2nd millennium, the 97th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1897, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1881st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 881st year of the 2nd millennium, the 81st year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1880s decade. As of the start of 1881, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1921st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 921st year of the 2nd millennium, the 21st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1920s decade. As of the start of 1921, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1877th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 877th year of the 2nd millennium, the 77th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1877, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

References

  1. Barry, John M. (2005). The Great Influenza; The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN   978-0143036494.
  2. "Historical Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans". World Digital Library. February 10, 2014. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
  3. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN   0-14-102715-0.
  4. Shores, Christopher (1969). Finnish Air Force, 1918–1968. Reading, Berkshire, UK: Osprey Publications Ltd. p. 3. ISBN   978-0668021210.
  5. Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 355–356. ISBN   0-7126-5616-2.
  6. Royal Canadian Legion Branch # 138."2-Minute Wave of Silence" Revives a Time-honoured Tradition. Accessed on 5 June 2014.
  7. The first was from Allahabad to Naini Junction in India on 18 February 1911, and the second from London to Windsor Castle on 22 June 1911.
  8. "Women's Right to Vote in Canada". lop.parl.ca. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  9. "La Grippe Espagnole de 1918". Institut Pasteur. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
  10. "Carpathia Sunk; 5 of Crew Killed" (PDF). The New York Times . July 20, 1918. p. 4.
  11. "Warilda". Uboat.net. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
  12. Lichfield, John (July 7, 2014). "A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: The 'blackest day' of the German army". The Independent . London. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  13. Werth, Nicolas; Bartosek, Karel; Panne, Jean-Louis; Margolin, Jean-Louis; Paczkowski, Andrzej; Courtois, Stephane (1999). The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 74. ISBN   0-674-07608-7.
  14. Pitt, Barrie (2003). 1918: The Last Act. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. ISBN   0-85052-974-3.
  15. Massie, Robert K. (2004). Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea . New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN   0-345-40878-0.
  16. Biger, Gideon (2004). The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840–1947. London: Routledge. pp. 55, 164. ISBN   978-0-7146-5654-0 . Retrieved May 2, 2009.
  17. Wainwright, Martin (August 23, 2010). "British warships sunk 90 years ago found off Estonian coast". The Guardian . London. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
  18. Ward, Margaret (1983). Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish nationalism. London: Pluto Press. p. 137. ISBN   0-86104-700-1.

Further reading

Primary sources and year books