Holocene calendar

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The Holocene calendar, also known as the Holocene Era or Human Era (HE), is a year numbering system that adds exactly 10,000 years to the currently dominant (AD/BC or CE/BCE) numbering scheme, placing its first year near the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch and the Neolithic Revolution, when humans shifted from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to agriculture and fixed settlements. The current year by the Gregorian calendar, AD 2022, is 12022 HE in the Holocene calendar. The HE scheme was first proposed by Cesare Emiliani in 1993 (11993 HE), [1] though similar proposals to start a new calendar at the same date have been put forward decades earlier. [2] [3]

Contents

Overview

Cesare Emiliani's proposal for a calendar reform sought to solve a number of alleged problems with the current Anno Domini era, which number the years of the commonly accepted world calendar. These issues include:

Instead, HE uses the "beginning of human era" as its epoch, arbitrarily defined as 10,000 BC and denoted year 1 HE, so that AD 1 matches 10,001 HE. [1] This is a rough approximation of the start of the current geologic epoch, the Holocene (the name means entirely recent). The motivation for this is that human civilization (e.g. the first settlements, agriculture, etc.) is believed to have arisen within this time. Emiliani later proposed that the start of the Holocene should be fixed at the same date as the beginning of his proposed era. [5]

Benefits

Human Era proponents claim that it makes for easier geological, archaeological, dendrochronological, anthropological and historical dating, as well as that it bases its epoch on an event more universally relevant than the birth of Jesus. All key dates in human history can then be listed using a simple increasing date scale with smaller dates always occurring before larger dates. Another gain is that the Holocene Era starts before the other calendar eras, so it could be useful for the comparison and conversion of dates from different calendars.

Accuracy

When Emiliani discussed the calendar in a follow-up article in 1994, he mentioned that there was no agreement on the date of the start of the Holocene epoch, with estimates at the time ranging between 12,700 and 10,970 years BP. [5] Since then, scientists have improved their understanding of the Holocene on the evidence of ice cores and can now more accurately date its beginning. A consensus view was formally adopted by the IUGS in 2013, placing its start at 11,700 years before 2000 (9701 BC), about 300 years more recent than the epoch of the Holocene calendar. [6]

Equivalent proposals

In 1924 Gabriel Deville proposed the use of Calendrier nouveau de chronologie ancienne (CNCA), which would start 10,000 years before AD 1, which is identical to Emiliani's much later proposal. [2]

In 1963 E.R. Hope proposed the use of Anterior Epoch (AE), which also begins at the same point. [3]

Conversion

Conversion from Julian or Gregorian calendar years to the Human Era can be achieved by adding 10,000 to the AD/CE year. The present year, 2022, can be transformed into a Holocene year by adding the digit "1" before it, making it 12,022 HE. Years BC/BCE are converted by subtracting the BC/BCE year number from 10,001.

Calendar epochs and milestones in the Holocene calendar
Gregorian year ISO 8601 Holocene yearEvent
10000 BC −9999 [lower-alpha 1] 1 HEBeginning of the Holocene Era
9701 BC −9700300 HEEnd of the Pleistocene and beginning of the Holocene epoch [6]
4714 BC −47135287 HE Epoch of the Julian day system: Julian day 0 starts at Greenwich noon on January 1, 4713 BC of the proleptic Julian calendar, which is November 24, 4714 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar [7] :10
3761 BC −37606240 HEBeginning of the Anno Mundi calendar era in the Hebrew calendar [7] :11
3102 BC −31016899 HEBeginning of the Kali Yuga in Hindu cosmology [8]
2250 BC −22497751 HEBeginning of the Meghalayan age, the current and latest of the three stages in the Holocene era. [9] [10]
45 BC −00449956 HEIntroduction of the Julian calendar
1 BC +000010000 HE Year zero at ISO 8601
AD 1 +000110001 HEBeginning of the Common Era and Anno Domini, from the estimate by Dionysius of the Incarnation of Jesus
622, 1  AH +062210622 HEMigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina (Hijrah), starting the Islamic calendar [11] [12]
1582 +158211582 HEIntroduction of the Gregorian calendar [7] :47
1912 +191211912 HE Epoch of the Juche [13] and Minguo calendars [14]
1950 +195011950 HE Epoch of the Before Present dating scheme [15] :190
1960 +196011960 HE UTC Epoch
1970 +197011970 HE Unix Epoch [16]
1993 +199311993 HEPublication of the Holocene calendar
2022 +202212022 HECurrent year
10000 +1000020000 HE
  1. Emiliani [1] states his proposal would set "the beginning of the human era at 10,000 BC" but does not mention the Julian or Gregorian calendar.

See also

Related Research Articles

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The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means 'in the year of the Lord', but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to 'in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ'.

<i>Ab urbe condita</i> Ancient Roman calendar era

Ab urbe condita, or anno urbis conditae, abbreviated as AUC or AVC, expresses a date in years since 753 BC, the traditional founding of Rome. It is an expression used in antiquity and by classical historians to refer to a given year in Ancient Rome. In reference to the traditional year of the foundation of Rome, the year 1 BC would be written AUC 753, whereas AD 1 would be AUC 754. The foundation of the Roman Empire in 27 BC would be AUC 727.

Common Era (CE) and Before the Common Era (BCE) are year notations for the Gregorian calendar, the world's most widely used calendar era. Common Era and Before the Common Era are alternatives to the Anno Domini (AD) and Before Christ (BC) notations used by Dionysius Exiguus. The two notation systems are numerically equivalent: "2022 CE" and "AD 2022" each describe the current year; "400 BCE" and "400 BC" are the same year.

An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the geological eras defined for the history of Earth.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chronology</span> Science of arranging events in order of occurrence

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coptic calendar</span> Egyptian liturgical calendar

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Emiliani, Cesare (1993). "Correspondence – calendar reform". Nature. 366 (6457): 716. Bibcode:1993Natur.366..716E. doi: 10.1038/366716b0 . Setting the beginning of the human era at 10,000 BC would date [...] the birth of Christ at [25 December] 10,000.
  2. 1 2 Naudin, Claude (2001). De temps en temps: Histoires de calendrier[From time to time: Calendar stories]. ISBN   2-7028-4735-8.
  3. 1 2 Hope, E.R. (1963). "The arithmetical reform of the calendar, Part I". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 57 (1): 14–23. Bibcode:1963JRASC..57...14H.
  4. Rahner, Karl (2004). Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi. Continuum. p. 732. ISBN   978-0-86012-006-3. Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
  5. 1 2 Emiliani, Cesare (1994). "Calendar reform for the year 2000". Eos. 75 (19): 218. Bibcode:1994EOSTr..75..218E. doi:10.1029/94EO00895.
  6. 1 2 Walker, Mike; Jonsen, Sigfus; Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Popp, Trevor; Steffensen, Jørgen-Peder; Gibbard, Phil; Hoek, Wim; Lowe, John; Andrews, John; Björck, Svante; Cwynar, Les C.; Hughen, Konrad; Kershaw, Peter; Kromer, Bernd; Litt, Thomas; Lowe, David J.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Newnham, Rewi; Schwander, Jacob (2009). "Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene using the Greenland NGRIP ice core, and selected auxiliary records" (PDF). Journal of Quaternary Science. 24 (1): 3–17. Bibcode:2009JQS....24....3W. doi: 10.1002/jqs.1227 . Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-11-04.
  7. 1 2 3 Dershowitz, Nachum; Reingold, Edward M. (2008). Calendrical Calculations (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-70238-6.
  8. See: Matchett, Freda, "The Puranas", p 139 and Yano, Michio, "Calendar, astrology and astronomy" in Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003). Blackwell companion to Hinduism. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN   978-0-631-21535-6.
  9. "ICS chart containing the Quaternary and Cambrian GSSPs and new stages (v 2018/07) is now released!" . Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  10. Conners, Deanna (September 18, 2018). "Welcome to the Meghalayan age" . Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  11. Aisha El-Awady (2002-06-11). "Ramadan and the Lunar Calendar". Islamonline.net . Retrieved 2006-12-16.
  12. Hakim Muhammad Said (1981). "The History of the Islamic Calendar in the Light of the Hijra". Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project . Retrieved 2006-12-16.
  13. Hy-Sang Lee (2001). North Korea: A Strange Socialist Fortress. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 220. ISBN   978-0-275-96917-2.
  14. Endymion Wilkinson (2000). Chinese History: A Manual. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 184–185. ISBN   978-0-674-00249-4.
  15. Currie Lloyd A (2004). "The Remarkable Metrological History of Radiocarbon Dating [II]" (PDF). Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. 109 (2): 185–217. doi:10.6028/jres.109.013. PMC   4853109 . PMID   27366605. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2018-06-24.
  16. "The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Rationale, section 4.16 Seconds Since the Epoch". The OpenGroup. 2018.

Further reading