Aztec calendar

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The Aztec or Mexica calendar is the calendrical system used by the Aztecs as well as other Pre-Columbian peoples of central Mexico. It is one of the Mesoamerican calendars, sharing the basic structure of calendars from throughout ancient Mesoamerica.

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Monolito de la Piedra del Sol.jpg

The Aztec sun stone, also called the calendar stone, is on display at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. The calendar consists of a 365-day calendar cycle called xiuhpōhualli (year count) and a 260-day ritual cycle called tōnalpōhualli (day count). These two cycles together form a 52-year "century", sometimes called the "calendar round". The xiuhpōhualli is considered to be the agricultural calendar, since it is based on the sun, and the tōnalpōhualli is considered to be the sacred calendar.

Tōnalpōhualli

The tōnalpōhualli ("day count") consists of a cycle of 260 days, each day signified by a combination of a number from 1 to 13, and one of the twenty day signs. With each new day, both the number and day sign would be incremented: 1 Crocodile is followed by 2 Wind, 3 House, 4 Lizard, and so forth up to 13 Reed, after which the cycle of numbers would restart (though the twenty day signs had not yet been exhausted) resulting in 1 Jaguar, 2 Eagle, and so on, as the days immediately following 13 Reed. This cycle of number and day signs would continue similarly until the 20th week, which would start on 1 Rabbit, and end on 13 Flower. It would take a full 260 days (13×20) for the two cycles (of twenty day signs, and thirteen numbers) to realign and repeat the sequence back on 1 Crocodile.

Day signs

The set of day signs used in central Mexico is identical to that used by Mixtecs, and to a lesser degree similar to those of other Mesoamerican calendars. Each of the day signs also bears an association with one of the four cardinal directions. [1] [2]

There is some variation in the way the day signs were drawn or carved. Those here were taken from the Codex Magliabechiano .

Image Nahuatl name Pronunciation English translationDirection
Cipactli.jpg Cipactli [siˈpáktɬi] Crocodile
Alligator
Caiman
Crocodilian Monster
Dragon
East
Ehecatl2.jpg Ehēcatl [eʔˈéːkatɬ] WindNorth
Calli.jpg Calli [ˈkálːi] HouseWest
Cuetzpalin.jpg Cuetzpalin [kʷetsˈpálin̥] LizardSouth
Coatl.jpg Cōātl [ˈkóːwaːtɬ] Serpent
Snake
East
Miquiztli.jpg Miquiztli [miˈkístɬi] DeathNorth
Mazatl.jpg Mazātl [ˈmásaːtɬ] Deer
Animal
West
Tochtli.jpg Tōchtli [ˈtóːtʃtɬi] RabbitSouth
Atl3.jpg Ātl [ˈaːtɬ] WaterEast
Itzcuintli.jpg Itzcuīntli [itsˈkʷíːn̥tɬi] DogNorth
Image Nahuatl name Pronunciation English translationDirection
Ozomatli.jpg Ozomahtli [osoˈmáʔtɬi] Monkey West
Malinalli.jpg Malīnalli [maliːˈnálːi] GrassSouth
Acatl.jpg Ācatl [ˈáːkatɬ] ReedEast
Ocelotl.jpg Ocēlōtl [oːˈséːloːtɬ] Ocelot
Jaguar
North
Cuauhtli.jpg Cuāuhtli [ˈkʷáːʍtɬi] EagleWest
Cozcacuauhtli.jpg Cōzcacuāuhtli [koːskaˈkʷáːʍtɬi] VultureSouth
Olin (Aztec glyph from the Codex Magliabechiano).jpg Ōlīn [ˈoːliːn̥] Movement
Quake
Earthquake
East
Tecpatl.jpg Tecpatl [ˈtékpatɬ] Flint
Flint Knife
North
Quiahuitl.jpg Quiyahuitl [kiˈjáwitɬ] RainWest
Xochitl.jpg Xōchitl [ˈʃoːtʃitɬ] FlowerSouth

Wind and Rain are represented by images of their associated gods, Ehēcatl and Tlāloc respectively.

Other marks on the stone showed the current world and also the worlds before this one. Each world was called a sun, and each sun had its own species of inhabitants. The Aztecs believed that they were in the Fifth Sun and like all of the suns before them they would also eventually perish due to their own imperfections. Every 52 years was marked out because they believed that 52 years was a life cycle and at the end of any given life cycle the gods could take away all that they have and destroy the world.

Trecenas

The 260 days of the sacred calendar were grouped into twenty periods of 13 days each. Scholars usually refer to these thirteen-day "weeks" as trecenas , using a Spanish term derived from trece "thirteen" (just as the Spanish term docena "dozen" is derived from doce "twelve"). The original Nahuatl term is not known.

Each trecena is named according to the calendar date of the first day of the 13 days in that trecena. In addition, each of the twenty trecenas in the 260-day cycle had its own tutelary deity:

TrecenaDeityTrecenaDeity
1 Crocodile Tonacatecuhtli 1 Monkey Patecatl
1 Jaguar Quetzalcoatl 1 Lizard Itztlacoliuhqui
1 Deer Tepēyōllōtl 1 Quake Tlazōlteōtl
1 Flower Huēhuecoyōtl 1 Dog Xīpe Totēc
1 Reed Chalchiuhtlicue 1 House Ītzpāpālōtl
1 Death Tōnatiuh 1 Vulture Xolotl
1 Rain Tlāloc 1 Water Chalchiuhtotolin
1 Grass Mayahuel 1 Wind Chantico
1 Snake Xiuhtecuhtli 1 Eagle Xōchiquetzal
1 Flint Mictlāntēcutli 1 Rabbit Xiuhtecuhtli

Xiuhpōhualli

In ancient times the year was composed of eighteen months, and thus it was observed by the native people. Since their months were made of no more than twenty days, these were all the days contained in a month, because they were not guided by the moon but by the days; therefore, the year had eighteen months. The days of the year were counted twenty by twenty.

Diego Durán

Xiuhpōhualli is the Aztec year ( xihuitl ) count ( pōhualli ). One year consists of 360 named days and 5 nameless ( nēmontēmi ). These 'extra' days are thought to be unlucky. The year was broken into 18 periods of twenty days each, sometimes compared to the Julian month. The Nahuatl word for moon is metztli but whatever name was used for these periods is unknown. Through Spanish usage, the 20-day period of the Aztec calendar has become commonly known as a veintena.

Each 20-day period started on Cipactli (Crocodile) for which a festival was held. The eighteen veintena are listed below. The dates are from early eyewitnesses; each wrote what they saw. Bernardino de Sahagún 's date precedes the observations of Diego Durán by several decades and is believed to be more recent to the surrender. Both are shown to emphasize the fact that the beginning of the Native new year became non-uniform as a result of an absence of the unifying force of Tenochtitlan after the Mexica defeat.

#Durán timeSahagún timeFiesta namesSymbolEnglish translation
1Mar 1 – Mar 20Feb 2 – Feb 21Atlcahualo, Cuauhitlehua MetzliAtlca.jpg Ceasing of Water, Rising Trees
2Mar 21 – Apr 9Feb 22 – Mar 13Tlacaxipehualiztli MetzliTlaca.jpg Rites of Fertility; Xipe-Totec ("the flayed one")
3Apr 10 – Apr 29Mar 14 – Apr 2 Tozoztontli MetzliToz.jpg Lesser Perforation
4Apr 30 – May 19Apr 3 – Apr 22 Huey Tozoztli MetzliToz2.jpg Greater Perforation
5May 20 – Jun 8Apr 23 – May 12 Tōxcatl MeztliToxcatl.jpg Dryness
6Jun 9 – Jun 28May 13 – Jun 1 Etzalcualiztli MeztliEtzal.jpg Eating Maize and Beans
7Jun 29 – July 18Jun 2 – Jun 21 Tecuilhuitontli MeztliTecu.jpg Lesser Feast for the Revered Ones
8July 19 – Aug 7Jun 22 – Jul 11 Huey Tecuilhuitl MeztliHTecu.jpg Greater Feast for the Revered Ones
9Aug 8 – Aug 27Jul 12 – Jul 31Tlaxochimaco, Miccailhuitontli MeztliMicc.jpg Bestowal or Birth of Flowers, Feast to the Revered Deceased
10Aug 28 – Sep 16Aug 1 – Aug 20Xócotl huetzi, Huey Miccailhuitl MeztliMiccH.jpg Feast to the Greatly Revered Deceased
11Sept 17 – Oct 6Aug 21 – Sept 9 Ochpaniztli MeztliOch.jpg Sweeping and Cleaning
12Oct 7 – Oct 26Sept 10 – Sept 29 Teotleco MeztliTeo.jpg Return of the Gods
13Oct 27 – Nov 15Sept 30 – Oct 19 Tepeilhuitl MeztliTep.jpg Feast for the Mountains
14Nov 16 – Dec 5Oct 20 – Nov 8 Quecholli MeztliQue.jpg Precious Feather
15Dec 6 – Dec 25Nov 9 – Nov 28 Pānquetzaliztli MeztliPanq.jpg Raising the Banners
16Dec 26 – Jan 14Nov 29 – Dec 18 Atemoztli MetzliAtem.jpg Descent of the Water
17Jan 15 – Feb 3Dec 19 – Jan 7Tititl MeztliTitl.jpg Stretching for Growth
18Feb 4 – Feb 23Jan 8 – Jan 27 Izcalli MeztliIzcalli.jpg Encouragement for the Land & People
18uFeb 24 – Feb 28Jan 28 – Feb 1 nēmontēmi (5 day period) MeztliNem.jpg Empty days (no specific activities or holidays)

Xiuhmolpilli

The ancient Mexicans counted their years by means of four signs combined with thirteen numbers, thus obtaining periods of 52 years, [3] which are commonly known as Xiuhmolpilli, a popular but incorrect generic name; the most correct Nahuatl word for this cycle is Xiuhnelpilli. [4] The table with the current years:

Tlalpilli TochtliTlalpilli AcatlTlalpilli TecpatlTlalpilli Calli
1 tochtli / 19741 acatl / 19871 tecpatl / 20001 calli / 2013
2 acatl / 19752 tecpatl / 19882 calli / 20012 tochtli / 2014
3 tecpatl / 19763 calli / 19893 tochtli / 20023 acatl / 2015
4 calli / 19774 tochtli / 19904 acatl / 20034 tecpatl / 2016
5 tochtli / 19785 acatl / 19915 tecpatl / 20045 calli / 2017
6 acatl / 19796 tecpatl / 19926 calli / 20056 tochtli / 2018
7 tecpatl / 19807 calli / 19937 tochtli / 20067 acatl / 2019
8 calli / 19818 tochtli / 19948 acatl / 20078 tecpatl / 2020
9 tochtli / 19829 acatl / 19959 tecpatl / 20089 calli / 2021
10 acatl / 198310 tecpatl / 199610 calli / 200910 tochtli / 2022
11 tecpatl / 198411 calli / 199711 tochtli / 201011 acatl / 2023
12 calli / 198512 tochtli / 199812 acatl / 201112 tecpatl / 2024
13 tochtli / 198613 acatl / 199913 tecpatl / 201213 calli / 2025

Reconstruction of the Solar calendar

For many centuries scholars had tried to reconstruct the Calendar. A widely accepted version was proposed by Professor Rafael Tena of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia , [5] based on the studies of Sahagún and Alfonso Caso of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. His correlation argues that the first day of the Mexica year was February 13 of the old Julian calendar or February 23 of the current Gregorian calendar. Using the same count, it has been the date of the birth of Huitzilopochtli, the end of the year and a cycle or "Tie of the Years", and the New Fire Ceremony, day-sign 1 Tecpatl of the year 2 Acatl, [6] corresponding to the date February 22. Another correlation by Ruben Ochoa uses pre-Columbian sources to reconstruct the calendar, using a method that fixes the year count to the vernal equinox and placing the first day of the year on the first day after the equinox. [7]

See also

Notes

  1. Hill Boone, Elizabeth (2016). Ciclos de tiempo y significado en los libros mexicanos del destino[Cycles of time and meaning in the Mexican books of destiny]. Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica. ISBN   9786071635020.
  2. Beuchat, Henri (1918). Manual de arqueología americana[Manual of American Archeology]. Madrid: Daniel Jorro. pp. 349–352.
  3. Tena, 2008: 103. There he shows us a table.
  4. Tena, 2008:9.
  5. The Mexica Calendar and the Chronography, Rafael Tena. INAH-CONACULTA. 2008
  6. Crónica Mexicayotl, Fernando Alvarado Tezozomoc p 36
  7. Azteca/Mexica Calendar Correlations: the Good, the Bad, and the Completely Useless, Itztli Ehecatl. http://www.calmecacanahuac.com/blog/calendar/aztecamexica-calendar-correlations-the-good-the-bad-and-the-completely-useless/. 2015

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