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In Hinduism, Kali Yuga (Sanskrit : कलियुग, romanized: kaliyuga, lit. 'age of Kali ') is the last of the four stages (or ages or yugas) the world goes through as part of a 'cycle of yugas' (i.e. mahayuga ) described in the Sanskrit scriptures. The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, and Dvapara Yuga. The "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife", "discord", "quarrel" or "contention" and Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali (not to be confused with the goddess Kali).
According to Puranic sources, BCE.Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, which is dated to 17/18 February 3102
Based on a start year of 3102 BCE and a duration of 432,000 years (1200 divine years), Kali Yuga started roughly 5,121 years ago with 426,879 years remaining as of 2020 CE.
According to the Surya Siddhanta , Kali Yuga began at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BCE.This is also considered the date on which Krishna left the earth to return to Vaikuntha. This information is placed at the temple of Bhalka, the place of this incident (see photo).
According to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhata the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE. He finished his book Aryabhattiyam in 499 CE, in which he gives the exact year of the beginning of Kali Yuga. He writes that he wrote the book in the "year 3600 of the Kali Age" at the age of 23. As it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, and given that Aryabhata was born in 476 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga would come to (3600 - (476 + 23) + 1 (As only one year elapses between 1 BCE and 1 CE)) = 3102 BCE.
According to K.D. Abhyankar,[ disambiguation needed ] the starting point of Kali Yuga is an extremely rare planetary alignment, which is depicted in the Mohenjo-daro seals. Going by this alignment the year 3102 BCE is slightly off. The actual date for this alignment is 7 February 3104 BCE. There is also sufficient proof to believe that Vrdhha Garga knew of precession at least by 500 BCE. Garga had calculated the rate of precession to within 30% of what the modern scholars estimate.
The common belief until Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri had analyzed the dating of the yuga cycles was that the Kali Yuga would last for roughly 432,000 years after the end of the Dwapara Yuga (3102 BCE). This originated during the puranic times when the famous astronomer Aryabhatarecalculated the timeline by artificially inflating the traditional 12,000 year figure with a multiplication of 360, which was represented as the number of "human years" that make up a single "divine year". This was likely a purposeful miscalculation due to conflicts with one of the preeminent astronomer of the time Brahmagupta. However, both the Mahabharata (which was used by Aryabhata in his calculations) and the Manu Smriti have the original value of 12,000 years for one half of the yuga cycle.
Contemporary analysis of historical data from the last 11 millenniamatches with the indigenous Saptarishi Calendar. The length of the transitional periods between each yuga is unclear, and can only be estimated based on historical data of past cataclysmic events. Using a 300 year (10% of the length of a particular yuga) period for transitions, Kali Yuga has either ended recently in the past 100 to 200 years, or is to end soon sometime in the next 100 years.
Other authors, such as the revered Hindu guru Swami Sri Yukteswarin his book The Holy Science , as well as the influential Yogi Paramhansa Yogananda, believe that the Kali Yuga has already ended, and that we are now in an ascending Dvapara Yuga. This calculation is also supported by modern-day self-styled spiritual promoters such as Jaggi Vasudev.
Hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga.Common attributes and consequences are spiritual bankruptcy, mindless hedonism, breakdown of all social structure, greed and materialism, unrestricted egotism, afflictions and maladies of mind and body.
Hinduism often symbolically represents morality ( dharma ) as an Indian bull. In Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter. By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, so that the bull of Dharma has only one leg.
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The Kurukshetra War and the decimation of Kauravas thus happened at the Yuga-Sandhi, the point of transition from one yuga to another. The scriptures mention Narada as having momentarily intercepted the demon Kali on his way to the Earth when Duryodhana was about to be born in order to make him an embodiment of arishadvargas and adharma in preparation of the era of decay in values and the consequent havoc.
A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga.
In relation to rulers, it lists:
With regard to human relationships, Markandeya's discourse says:[ citation needed ]
It is also scheduled that the Bhagavata Purana will be composed.
The Brahma Vaivarta Purana (related to Rathantara kalpa) mentions a ten thousand-year period, starting from the traditional dating of the Kali Yuga epoch, during which bhakti yogis will be present.Krishna foretold that Kali Yuga will be full of extreme hardships for people with ideals and values.
The Brahma-vaivarta Purana has words spoken by Krishna to Mother Ganga just before the beginning of the Kali Yuga (the age of quarrel and strife). The Kali Yuga began approximately five thousand years ago, that golden age is being described below by Krishna. Predicted in Brahma-vaivarta Purana 4.129. The fourth part of the Brahma-vaivarta is called Kṛṣṇa-janma-khanda. Chapter 129 is called Golokarohanam, because it describes how Krishna returns to His abode. This specific dialogue is between Krishna and Mother Ganga. Verse 49 is a question by Ganga, verses 50–60 are Krishna's answer.
This text is taken from the Brahma-vaivarta Purana  Text 59:
madbhaktāḥ santi bhūtale
madbhakteṣu gateṣu ca
"For 10,000 years of Kali such devotees of Mine will be present on earth. After the departure of My devotees there will be only one varna."
The above is supported in 4.90.32–33:
haris tiṣṭhati medinī
devānām pratimā pūjyā
śāstrāni ca purāṇakam
"(Sri Krisna said:) Lord Hari will stay on this earth for the first ten-thousand years of Kali-yuga. Till then gods will be worshipped and the Puranas and scriptures will also be present."
Kali is the reigning lord of Kali Yuga and his nemesis is Kalki, the tenth and final Avatar of Vishnu. According to the Vishnu Purana, Kali is a negative manifestation working towards the cause of 'the end' or rather towards eventual rejuvenation of the universe.
Kali also serves as an antagonistic force in the Kalki Purana. It is said that towards the end of this yuga, Kalki will return riding on a white horse to battle with Kali and his dark forces. The world will suffer a fiery cataclysm that will destroy all evil, and Shiva will destroy the universe. Brahma will create the universe anew, and then a new age (the next Satya Yuga of the following Mahayuga), will begin.
Some Shaivites maintain that the ill effects of Kali Yuga can only be moderated by the manifestation of Shiva himself. Shastriji, one of the followers of Haidakhan Babaji, gave the following narration: "Once Parvati asked Lord Shiva, her husband: 'You have done good work for the people in all ages, but I am afraid for the people in the Kali Yuga; how will they safeguard themselves?' Then Lord Shiva told Parvati: 'I will appear in the Kali Yuga and I will create a new state, a new centre of religion - a most important place, where I will live and establish all the Gods there.'"
Shastriji went further to suggest that this promise manifested through the person of Haidakhan Babaji.One of the central tenets of Haidakhan Babaji's teachings is the message of Karma Yoga or hard work. In the context of Kali Yuga Haidakhan Babaji explained:
"As I have told you before, the thing needed in this Age is work (karma). In every Age people have reached salvation through different types of action and sadhana (spiritual discipline), but in this Age one can reach liberation only through hard work. I want real, practical human beings and only he is a true human being who lives in accordance with this Age. We need not consider religion or caste, but look only to hard work."
In Sikhism, Kali Yuga is metaphorically used to describe the state of the world as was commonly understood in the 16th century.[ citation needed ] It is stressed that one should meditate as much as possible to reach the state of mukti and be liberated or be one with God.
Guru Granth Sahib on Ang:1185 says:
ab kaloo aaeiou rae : Now, the Dark Age of Kali Yuga has come.
eik naam bovahu bovahu : Plant the Name, the Name of the One Lord.
an rooth naahee naahee : It is not the season to plant other seeds.
math bharam bhoolahu bhoolahu : Do not wander lost in doubt and delusion.
The Kali Yuga is an important concept in both Theosophy and Anthroposophy,and in the writings of Helena Blavatsky, W.Q. Judge, Rudolf Steiner, and Traditionalist philosophers such as René Guénon and Julius Evola, among others. Rudolf Steiner believed that the Kali Yuga ended in 1900. The Traditionalists describe modern Western civilization as being in its Kali Yuga phase, in a state of degeneration and eventual collapse.
Kalki, also called Kalkin or Karki, is the tenth avatar of Hindu god Vishnu to end the Kali Yuga, one of the four periods in the endless cycle of existence (krita) in Vaishnavism cosmology. He is described in the Puranas as the avatar who rejuvenates existence by ending the darkest and destructive period to remove adharma and ushering in the Satya Yuga, while riding a white horse with a fiery sword. The description and details of Kalki are inconsistent among the Puranic texts. He is, for example, only an invisible force destroying evil and chaos in some texts, while an actual person who kills those who persecute others, and portrayed as someone leading an army of dharmic warriors in some.
Yuga in Hinduism is an epoch or era within a four-age cycle. A complete Yuga cycle starts with the Satya Yuga, via Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga into a Kali Yuga. According to the epic Mahabharata, the current age is Kali Yuga and it started in the year 3102 BCE after lord Krishna left this world.
Vyasa is the legendary author of the Mahabharata, Vedas and Puranas, some of the most important works in the Hindu tradition. He is also called Veda Vyāsa or Krishna Dvaipāyana.
Chiranjivi are seven immortal living beings in Hinduism who are to remain alive on Earth until the end of the current Kali Yuga.
Hindu eschatology is linked in the Vaishnavite tradition to the figure of Kalki, or the tenth and last avatar of Vishnu or Shiva names of the Supreme Being in Hinduism and before the age draws to a close, and Harihara simultaneously dissolves and regenerates the universe.
The Dvapara Yuga, also spelled as Dwapara Yuga, is the third out of four Yugas, or ages, described in the scriptures of Hinduism. Dvapara in Sanskrit literally means "two ahead", that is, something in the third place. The Dvapara Yuga follows the Treta Yuga and precedes the Kali Yuga. According to the Puranas, this yuga ended at the moment when Krishna returned to his eternal abode of Vaikuntha. According to the Bhagavata Purana, the Dvapara Yuga lasts 864,000 years or 2400 divine years.
In Hindu cosmology, the universe is cyclically created and destroyed. Its cosmology divides time into four epochs or Yuga, of which the current period is the Kali Yuga.
The Saptarishi are the seven rishis in ancient India, who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and other Hindu literature. The Vedic Samhitas never enumerate these rishis by name, though later Vedic texts such as the Brahmanas and Upanisads do so. They are regarded in the Vedas as the patriarchs of the Vedic religion.
According to Hindus, Kali is the reigning lord of the Kali Yuga and archenemy of Kalki, the 10th and final avatar of the Hindu God Vishnu. In the Kalki Purana, he is portrayed as a male mortal demon and he is the source of all evil. In the Mahabharata, he was a gandharva. In the Mahabharat, he created the war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas in a game of Chaupar.
In Hinduism, the river Ganga is considered sacred and is personified as the goddess Gaṅgā. She is worshiped by Hindus and Buddhists who believe that bathing in the river causes the remission of sins and facilitates Moksha, and that the water of the Ganges is considered very pure. Pilgrims immerse the ashes of their kin in the river Ganga, which is considered by them to bring the spirits closer to moksha.
Kalpa is a Sanskrit word meaning a relatively long period of time in Buddhist cosmology and Hindu cosmology.
Koka and Vikoka are figures from Hindu mythology, twin generals who will aid the demon Kali in his battle against Kalki, the 10th and final avatar of the god Vishnu, whose coming will herald the end of the age. The story is told in the Kalki Purana.
The Kumaras are four sages (rishis) who roam the universe as children from the Puranic texts of Hinduism, generally named Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanandana, and Sanatkumara. They are described as the first mind-born creations and sons of the creator-god Brahma. Born from Brahma's mind, the four Kumaras undertook lifelong vows of celibacy (brahmacharya) against the wishes of their father. They are said to wander throughout the materialistic and spiritualistic universe without any desire but with purpose to teach. All four brothers studied Vedas from their childhood, and always travelled together.
Goloka also known as Gauloka, Goloka Vrindavana, Krishnaloka or Gokula, is the eternal supreme abode of Lord Krishna and Radha. In the Bhagavata Purana, Krishna is especially portrayed as the highest person who resides in Goloka.
Hindu texts describe units of Kala measurements, from microseconds to Trillions of years. According to these texts, time is cyclic, which repeats itself forever.
Adi Parashakti is considered the Supreme Being in the Shaktism sect of Hinduism. She is also popularly referred to as "Parama Shakti", "Adi Shakti", "Mahashakti", "Mahadevi", "Mahagauri", "Mahasaraswati", "Mahalakshmi", "Mahakali", Satyam Shakti or even simply as "Shakti". "Parama" means absolute, "Satya" means the Truth as per many Shakta texts. The Devi-Bhagavata Purana states that Adi Parashakti is the original creator, observer and destroyer of the whole universe. It is also believed that Goddess Parvati is the complete and direct incarnation of Adi Parashakti.
The Puranic chronology gives a timeline of Hindu history according to the Hindu scriptures. Two central dates are the Mahabharata War, which according to this chronology happened at 3138 BCE, and the start of the Kali Yuga, which according to this chronology started at 3102 BCE. The Puranic chronology is referred to by proponents of Indigenous Aryans to propose an earlier dating of the Vedic period, and the spread of Indo-European languages out of India. The debate mostly exists among the scholars of Hindu religion and the history and archaeology of India, whereas historical linguists nearly unanimously accept the migration model of Indic origins.
Vyasa is the title given to the sage or Rishi who divides the Hindu holy scripture Vedas in every Dvapara Yuga of every Yuga cycle. Vyasa is a central and revered figure in most Hindu traditions. He is also sometimes called Veda Vyāsa, the one who divides the Vedas into four parts. The name of Rishi who currently holds the Vyasa title is Krishna Dvaipāyana Vyasa, referring to his complexion and birthplace and sometimes he is simply called Vyasa. According to Hindu beliefs, Krishna Dvaipāyana Vyasa is an incarnation of the god Vishnu. During each Dvapara Yuga, in every Kalpa, Lord takes incarnation as Veda Vyasa and effects the division of Vedas for the benefit of human beings. Guru Drona's son Rishi Aswatthama will become the next Vyasa, who in turn divide the Veda in 29th Mahayuga of 7th Manvantara.
Bhalka Tirtha, located in the Veraval in Saurashtra on the western coast of Gujarat, India, is the place where Krishna was hit by an arrow shot by a hunter named Jara, after which he is said to have left the earth for the heavenly abode, an act referred to in the Puranas as Shri Krishn Neejdham Prasthan Leela .
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