Kali Yuga

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In Hinduism, Kali Yuga (Sanskrit : कलियुग, romanized: kaliyuga, lit.  'age of Kali ') is the last of the four stages (or ages or yugas) the world goes through as part of a 'cycle of yugas' (i.e. mahayuga ) described in the Sanskrit scriptures. [1] The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, and Dvapara Yuga. The "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife", "discord", "quarrel" or "contention" and Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali (not to be confused with the goddess Kali).

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, and flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India.

Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time with or without conveying the sense of the original whole.

Kali (demon) demon in Hindu mythology

According to Hindus, Kali is the reigning lord of the Kali Yuga and archenemy of Kalki, the 10th and final avatar of the Hindu God Vishnu. In the Kalki Purana, he is portrayed as a mortal demon and he is the source of all evil. In the Mahabharata, he was a gandharva. In the Mahabharat, he created the war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas in a game of Chaupar.

Contents

According to Puranic sources, [2] Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, which is dated to 17/18 February 3102  BCE. [3]

Dvapara Yuga The third out of four Yugas described in the scriptures of Hinduism

The Dvapara Yuga, also spelled as Dwapara Yuga, is the third out of four Yugas, or ages, described in the scriptures of Hinduism. Dvapara in Sanskrit literally means "two ahead", that is, something in the third place. The Dvapara Yuga follows the Treta Yuga and precedes the Kali Yuga. According to the Puranas, this yuga ended at the moment when Krishna returned to his eternal abode of Vaikuntha. According to the Bhagavata Purana, the Dvapara Yuga lasts 864,000 years.

Common Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era. BCE is the era before CE. BCE and CE are alternatives to the Dionysian BC and AD system respectively. The Dionysian era distinguishes eras using AD and BC. Since the two notation systems are numerically equivalent, "2019 CE" corresponds to "AD 2019" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC". Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar. The year-numbering system used by the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, and is an international standard for civil calendars.

Possible starting and ending dates

Information kiosk at Bhalka, the place from where Krishna returned to his heavenly abode BHALKA-03.jpg
Information kiosk at Bhalka, the place from where Krishna returned to his heavenly abode

According to the Surya Siddhanta , Kali Yuga began at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BCE. [4] This is also considered the date on which Krishna left the earth to return to Vaikuntha. [5] This information is placed at the temple of Bhalka, the place of this incident (see photo).

<i>Surya Siddhanta</i> an ancient Sanskrit text on astronomy

The Surya Siddhanta is the name of a Sanskrit treatise in Indian astronomy from the late 4th-century or early 5th-century CE. The text survives in several versions, was cited and extensively quoted in a 6th-century CE text by Varahamihira, was likely revised for several centuries under the same title. It has fourteen chapters. A 12th-century manuscript of the text was translated into English by Burgess in 1860.

Krishna Major deity in Hinduism

Krishna is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshipped as the eighth avatar of the god Vishnu and also as the supreme God in his own right. He is the god of compassion, tenderness, and love in Hinduism, and is one of the most popular and widely revered among Indian divinities. Krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus on Krishna Janmashtami according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar, which falls in late August or early September of the Gregorian calendar. Krishna is usually depicted with a flute in his hand.

Vaikuntha Celestial abode of Vishnu

Vaikuntha, Vaikunthaloka, Vishnuloka, Paramam padam, Nitya Vibhuti or Vaikuntha Sagar is the celestial abode of Vishnu who is the principal deity of the Universes and known to be Godhead, as revered by all of pre-Battle Of Kuruksetra, and the supreme being in Vedic, Hinduism, and its Vaishnavism traditions.

According to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhata the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE. He finished his book Aryabhattiyam in 499 CE, in which he gives the exact year of the beginning of Kali Yuga. He writes that he wrote the book in the "year 3600 of the Kali Age" at the age of 23. As it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, and given that Aryabhata was born in 476 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga would come to (3600 - (476 + 23) + 1 (As only one year elapses between 1 BCE and 1 CE)) = 3102 BCE. [6]

Aryabhata Indian mathematician-astronomer

Aryabhata or Aryabhata I was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. His works include the Āryabhaṭīya and the Arya-siddhanta.

According to KD Abhyankar, the starting point of Kali Yuga is an extremely rare planetary alignment, which is depicted in the Mohenjo-Daro seals. [7] Going by this alignment the year 3102 BCE is slightly off. The actual date for this alignment is 7 February 3104 BCE. There is also sufficient proof to believe that Vrdhha Garga knew of precession at least by 500 BCE. Garga had calculated the rate of precession to within 30% of what the modern scholars estimate. [8] [9]

Rishi (Saint) Garga was one of the most revered Vedic sages in ancient India, who was a preeminent scholar and a major benefactor to the field of Ayurveda. Author of Garga Samhita, he is considered one of the 18 most important contributors to the subject of astrology.

Precession periodic change in direction of an axis

Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In an appropriate reference frame it can be defined as a change in the first Euler angle, whereas the third Euler angle defines the rotation itself. In other words, if the axis of rotation of a body is itself rotating about a second axis, that body is said to be precessing about the second axis. A motion in which the second Euler angle changes is called nutation. In physics, there are two types of precession: torque-free and torque-induced.

The common belief until Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri had analyzed the dating of the yuga cycles was that the Kali Yuga would last for roughly 432,000 years after the end of the Dwapara Yuga (3102 BCE). This originated during the puranic times when the famous astronomer Aryabhata [10] recalculated the timeline by artificially inflating the traditional 12,000 year figure with a multiplication of 360, which was represented as the number of "human years" that make up a single "divine year". This was likely a purposeful miscalculation due to conflicts with one of the preeminent astronomer of the time Brahmagupta. [11] However, both the Mahabharata (which was used by Aryabhata in his calculations) and the Manu Smriti have the original value of 12,000 years for one half of the yuga cycle.

Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri Indian yogi and guru

Sri Yukteswar Giri is the monastic name of Priya Nath Karar, an Indian monk and yogi, and the guru of Paramahansa Yogananda and Satyananda Giri. Sri Yukteswar was a Kriya yogi, a Jyotisha, a scholar of the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads, an educator and an astronomer. He was a disciple of Lahiri Mahasaya of Varanasi and a member of the Giri branch of the swami order. Yogananda considered Sri Yukteswar as a Jnanavatar, or "Incarnation of Wisdom".

Brahmagupta was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. He is the author of two early works on mathematics and astronomy: the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta, a theoretical treatise, and the Khaṇḍakhādyaka, a more practical text.

Contemporary analysis of historical data from the last 11 millennia [12] matches with the indigenous Saptarishi Calendar. [13] The length of the transitional periods between each yuga is unclear, and can only be estimated based on historical data of past cataclysmic events. Using a 300 year (10% of the length of a particular yuga) period for transitions, Kali Yuga has either ended recently in the past 100 to 200 years, or is to end soon sometime in the next 100 years.

Other authors, such as the revered Hindu guru Swami Sri Yukteswar [14] in his book The Holy Science, as well as the influential Yogi Paramhansa Yogananda, [15] believe that the Kali Yuga has already ended, and that we are now in an ascending Dvapara Yuga. This calculation is also supported [16] by modern day spiritual masters such as Jaggi Vasudev.


Attributes

Hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga. [17] Common attributes and consequences are spiritual bankruptcy, mindless hedonism, breakdown of all social structure, greed and materialism, unrestricted egotism, afflictions and maladies of mind and body.

Hinduism often symbolically represents morality ( dharma ) as an Indian bull. In Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter. By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, so that the bull of Dharma has only one leg. [18] [19]

References in the Mahabharata

The Kurukshetra War and the decimation of Kauravas thus happened at the Yuga-Sandhi, the point of transition from one yuga to another. The scriptures mention Narada as having momentarily intercepted the demon Kali on his way to the Earth when Duryodhana was about to be born in order to make him an embodiment of arishadvargas and adharma in preparation of the era of decay in values and the consequent havoc.

Prophesied events

A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga. [20]

In relation to rulers, it lists:

  • Rulers will become unreasonable: they will levy taxes unfairly.
  • Rulers will no longer see it as their duty to promote spirituality, or to protect their subjects: they will become a danger to the world.
  • People will start migrating, seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source.
  • "At the end of Kali-yuga, when there exist no topics on the subject of God, even at the residences of so-called saints and respectable gentlemen of the three higher varnas ( guna or temperament) and when nothing is known of the techniques of sacrifice, even by word, at that time the Lord will appear as the supreme chastiser." (Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.7)

With regard to human relationships, Markandeya's discourse says:[ citation needed ]

  • Avarice and wrath will be common. Humans will openly display animosity towards each other. Ignorance of dharma will occur.
  • People will have thoughts of murder with no justification and will see nothing wrong in that.
  • Lust will be viewed as socially acceptable and sexual intercourse will be seen as the central requirement of life.
  • Sin will increase exponentially, while virtue will fade and cease to flourish.
  • People will become addicted to intoxicating drinks and drugs.
  • Gurus will no longer be respected and their students will attempt to injure them. Their teachings will be insulted, and followers of Kama will wrest control of the mind from all human beings.
  • Women will no longer get married.

10,000 year "Golden Age"

The Brahma Vaivarta Purana (related to Rathantara kalpa) mentions a ten thousand-year period, starting from the traditional dating of the Kali Yuga epoch, during which bhakti yogis will be present. [21] Krishna foretold that Kali Yuga will be full of extreme hardships for people with ideals and values.

The Brahma-vaivarta Purana has words spoken by Krishna to Mother Ganga just before the beginning of the Kali Yuga (the age of quarrel and strife). The Kali Yuga began approximately five thousand years ago, that golden age is being described below by Krishna. Predicted in Brahma-vaivarta Purana 4.129. The fourth part of the Brahma-vaivarta is called Kṛṣṇa-janma-khanda. Chapter 129 is called Golokarohanam, because it describes how Krishna returns to His abode. This specific dialogue is between Krishna and Mother Ganga. Verse 49 is a question by Ganga, verses 50–60 are Krishna's answer.

This text is taken from the Brahma-vaivarta Purana [14] Text 59:

kaler daṣa-sahasrāṇi

madbhaktāḥ santi bhūtale

ekavarṇā bhaviṣyanti

madbhakteṣu gateṣu ca

"For 10,000 years of Kali such devotees of Mine will be present on earth. After the departure of My devotees there will be only one varna."

The above is supported in 4.90.32–33:

kalau daṣa-sahasrāṇi

haris tiṣṭhati medinī

devānām pratimā pūjyā

śāstrāni ca purāṇakam

"(Sri Krisna said:) Lord Hari will stay on this earth for the first ten-thousand years of Kali-yuga. Till then gods will be worshipped and the Puranas and scriptures will also be present."

Hence to protect ourselves from Kaliman, it is believed that we should start doing japa, meditation, or any yoga such as Bhakti yoga, karma yoga, Raja yoga, and jnana yoga. But, chanting the holy name of God is the best path in Kali Yuga.

Personification

Kalki and his horse, Devadatta. Kalki1790s.jpg
Kalki and his horse, Devadatta.

Kali is the reigning lord of Kali Yuga and his nemesis is Kalki, the tenth and final Avatar of Vishnu. According to the Vishnu Purana, Kali is a negative manifestation working towards the cause of 'the end' or rather towards eventual rejuvenation of the universe. [22]

Kali also serves as an antagonistic force in the Kalki Purana. It is said that towards the end of this yuga, Kalki will return riding on a white horse to battle with Kali and his dark forces. The world will suffer a fiery cataclysm that will destroy all evil, and Shiva will destroy the universe. Brahma will create the universe anew, and then a new age (the next Satya Yuga of the following Mahayuga), will begin.

In Shaivism

Some Shaivites maintain that the ill effects of Kali Yuga can only be moderated by the manifestation of Shiva himself. Shastriji, one of the followers of Haidakhan Babaji, gave the following narration: "Once Parvati asked Lord Shiva, her husband: 'You have done good work for the people in all ages, but I am afraid for the people in the Kali Yuga; how will they safeguard themselves?' Then Lord Shiva told Parvati: 'I will appear in the Kali Yuga and I will create a new state, a new centre of religion - a most important place, where I will live and establish all the Gods there.'" [23]

Shastriji went further to suggest that this promise manifested through the person of Haidakhan Babaji. [24] One of the central tenets of Haidakhan Babaji's teachings is the message of Karma Yoga or hard work. In the context of Kali Yuga Haidakhan Babaji explained:

"As I have told you before, the thing needed in this Age is work (karma). In every Age people have reached salvation through different types of action and sadhana (spiritual discipline), but in this Age one can reach liberation only through hard work. I want real, practical human beings and only he is a true human being who lives in accordance with this Age. We need not consider religion or caste, but look only to hard work." [25]

In Sikhism

In Sikhism, Kali Yuga is metaphorically[ citation needed ] used to describe the state of the world as was commonly understood in the 16th century. It is stressed that one should meditate as much as possible to reach the state of Murti and be liberated or be one with God. Guru Granth Sahib Ji on Ang:1185 says:

ab kaloo aaeiou rae : Now, the Dark Age of Kali Yuga has come.

eik naam bovahu bovahu : Plant the Name, the Name of the One Lord.

an rooth naahee naahee : It is not the season to plant other seeds.

math bharam bhoolahu bhoolahu : Do not wander lost in doubt and delusion. [26]

Other usage

The Kali Yuga is an important concept in both Theosophy and Anthroposophy, [27] [28] and in the writings of Helena Blavatsky, W.Q. Judge, Rudolf Steiner, and traditionalist ideologues such as René Guénon and Julius Evola, among others. Rudolf Steiner believed that the Kali Yuga ended in 1900. [29] The traditionalists describe modern Western civilization as being in its Kali Yuga phase, in a state of degeneration and eventual collapse.

See also

Related Research Articles

Kalki Tenth incarnation of Vishnu in Hinduism

Kalki, also called Kalkin or Karki, is the tenth avatar of Hindu god Vishnu to end the Kali Yuga, one of the four periods in the endless cycle of existence (krita) in Vaishnavism cosmology. He is described in the Puranas as the avatar who rejuvenates existence by ending the darkest and destructive period to remove adharma and ushering in the Satya Yuga, while riding a white horse with a fiery sword. The description and details of Kalki are inconsistent among the Puranic texts. He is, for example, only an invisible force destroying evil and chaos in some texts, while an actual person who kills those who persecute others, and some texts portrayed him as someone leading an army of Naga warriors to eliminate adharma from the world. His mythology has been compared to the concepts of Messiah, Apocalypse, Frashokereti and Maitreya in other religions.

Yuga Epoch or era in a four age cycle in Hinduism

Yuga in Hinduism is an epoch or era within a four-age cycle. A complete Yuga starts with the Satya Yuga, via Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga into a Kali Yuga. Our present time is ascending Kali yuga.

Vyasa central and revered figure in most Hindu traditions

Vyasa is the legendary author of the Mahabharata, Vedas and Puranas, some of the most important works in the Hindu tradition. He is also called Veda Vyāsa or Krishna Dvaipāyana.

Chiranjivi are seven immortal living beings in Hinduism who are to remain alive on Earth until the end of the current Kali Yuga.

Mahavatar Babaji Hindu Yogi

Mahāvatār Bābājī is the name given to an Indian yogi by Yogiraj Lahiri Mahasaya, and several of his disciples, who reported meeting him between 1861, 1935 and 1980. Some of these meetings were described by Paramahansa Yogananda in his book Autobiography of a Yogi, including a report of Yogananda's own meeting with the yogi. Another account was given by Sri Yukteswar Giri in his book The Holy Science. According to Sri M's autobiography, Babaji was Lord Shiva. In the second last chapter of his book, he mentions Babaji changing his form to that of Lord Shiva. All of these accounts, along with additional reported meetings, are described in various biographies. According to Yogananda's autobiography, Babaji has resided for at least hundreds of years in the remote Himalayan regions of India, seen in person by only a small number of disciples and others.

Hindu eschatology is linked in the Vaishnavite tradition to the figure of Kalki, or the tenth and last avatar of Vishnu or Shiva names of the Supreme Being in Hinduism and before the age draws to a close, and Harihara simultaneously dissolves and regenerates the universe.

Satya Yuga The first of the four eras in Hinduism

The Satya Yuga, also called Sat Yuga, or Kṛta Yuga in Hinduism, is the first of the four Yugas, the "Yuga of Truth", when humanity is governed by gods, and every manifestation or work is close to the purest ideal and humanity will allow intrinsic goodness to rule supreme. It is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Age". The Satya Yuga lasts 1,728,000 years. The goddess Dharma, which symbolises morality, stood on all four legs during this period. Later on in the Treta Yuga, it would become three, followed by two in the Dvapara Yuga. Currently, in the immoral age of Kali, it stands on one leg.

In Hindu cosmology, the universe is cyclically created and destroyed. Its cosmology divides time into four epochs or Yuga, of which the current period is the Kali Yuga.

Saptarishi Seven rishis in ancient India

The Saptarishi are the seven rishis in ancient India, who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and other Hindu literature. The Vedic Samhitas never enumerate these rishis by name, though later Vedic texts such as the Brahmanas and Upanisads do so. They are regarded in the Vedas as the patriarchs of the Vedic religion.

<i>Kali-Saṇṭāraṇa Upaniṣad</i> Sanskrit text

The Kali-Santarana Upanishad, also called Kalisantaraṇopaniṣad, is a Sanskrit text attached to the Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda. It is a minor Upanishad of Hinduism.

Kalpa is a Sanskrit word meaning a relatively long period of time in Hindu and Buddhist cosmology. The concept is first mentioned in the Mahabharata.

Koka and Vikoka are figures from Hindu mythology, twin generals who will aid the demon Kali in his battle against Kalki, the 10th and final avatar of the god Vishnu, whose coming will herald the end of the age. The story is told in the Kalki Purana.

Four Kumaras four sages from the Puranic texts of Hinduism

The Kumaras are four sages (rishis) who roam the universe as children from the Puranic texts of Hinduism, generally named Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanandana, and Sanatkumara. They are described as the first mind-born creations and sons of the creator-god Brahma. Born from Brahma's mind, the four Kumaras undertook lifelong vows of celibacy (brahmacharya) against the wishes of their father. They are said to wander throughout the materialistic and spiritualistic universe without any desire but with purpose to teach. All four brothers studied Vedas from their childhood, and always travelled together.

Goloka also known as Goloka Vrindavana, Krishnaloka or Gokula, is the eternal supreme abode of Lord Krishna and Radha. In the Bhagavata Purana,Krishna is especially portrayed as the highest person who resides in Goloka.

Hindu texts describe units of Kala measurements, from microseconds to Trillions of years. According to these texts, time is cyclic, which repeats itself forever.

Puranic chronology

The Puranic chronology gives a timeline of Hindu history according to the Hindu scriptures. Two central dates are the Mahabharata War, which according to this chronology happened at 3138 BCE, and the start of the Kali Yuga, which according to this chronology started at 3102 BCE. The Puranic chronology is referred to by proponents of Indigenous Aryans to propose an earlier dating of the Vedic period, and the spread of Indo-European languages out of India.

Vyasa (title)

Vyasa is the title given to the sage or Rishi who divides the Hindu holy scripture Vedas in every Dvapara Yuga of every Yuga cycle. Vyasa is a central and revered figure in most Hindu traditions. He is also sometimes called Veda Vyāsa, the one who divides the Vedas into four parts. The name of Rishi who currently holds the Vyasa title is Krishna Dvaipāyana Vyasa, referring to his complexion and birthplace and sometimes he is simply called Vyasa. He was born in Tanahun district of Nepal, in a city currently named Damauli. According to Hindu beliefs, Krishna Dvaipāyana Vyasa is an incarnation of the god Vishnu. During each Dvapara Yuga, in every Kalpa, Lord takes incarnation as Veda Vyasa and effects the division of Vedas for the benefit of human beings. Guru Drona's son Rishi Aswatthama will become the next Vyasa, who in turn divide the Veda in 29th Mahayuga of 7th Manvantara.

Bhalka Place where Krishna is said to have left the earth for the heavenly abode

Bhalka Tirtha, located in the Veraval in Saurashtra on the western coast of Gujarat, India, is the place where Krishna was hit by an arrow shot by a hunter named Jara, after which he is said to have left the earth for the heavenly abode, an act referred to in the Puranas as Shri Krishn Neejdham Prasthan Leela .

References

  1. Smith, John D. (2009). The Mahābhārata: an abridged translation . Penguin Classics ( ISBN   978-0-670-08415-9), p. 200
  2. The Bhagavata Purana (1.18.6), Vishnu Purana (5.38.8), and Brahma Purana (212.8), the day Krishna left the earth was the day that the Dvapara Yuga ended and the Kali Yuga began.
  3. See: Matchett, Freda, "The Puranas", p 139 and Yano, Michio, "Calendar, astrology and astronomy" in Flood, Gavin (Ed) (2003). Blackwell companion to Hinduism. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN   978-0-631-21535-6.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  4. The Induand the Rg-Veda, Page 16, By Egbert Richter-Ushanas, ISBN   81-208-1405-3
  5. "Lord Krishna lived for 125 years". The Times of India. 8 September 2004. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  6. H.D. Dharm Chakravarty Swami Prakashanand Saraswati. Encyclopedia Of Authentic Hinduism The True History and the Religion of India, Hardbound, 2nd Edition, 2003, ISBN   0967382319 Retrieved 2015-01-21
  7. Abhyankar, K. D. (1993). "Astronomical significance to two Mohenjodaro seals". Astronomical Society of India, Bulletin. 21 (3–4): 477. Bibcode:1993BASI...21..475A.
  8. Abhyankar, K. D. (1993). "Astronomical significance to two Mohenjodaro seals". Astronomical Society of India, Bulletin. 21 (3–4): 475. Bibcode:1993BASI...21..475A.
  9. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. burgess, Ebenezer (1978). "Translation of the Surya-Siddhanta, A Text-Book of Hindu Astronomy With Notes, and an Appendix". Journal of the American Oriental Society. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 6 (1858 - 1860). 6: 141–498. Bibcode:1978tsth.book.....B. doi:10.2307/592174. JSTOR   592174.
  11. Alberuni's India, Chapter XLII. p. 375.
  12. Bibhu Misra Dev (15 July 2012). "The end of the Kali Yuga in 2025: Unraveling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle" . Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  13. Sankara Balkrishna Dikshit, Robert Sewell. "The Indian Calendar: With tables for the conversion of Hindu and Muhammadan into A.D. dates, and vice-versa": 45.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  14. The Holy Science, by Jnanavatar Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri, Yogoda Sat-Sanga Society of India, 1949
  15. Yogananda, Paramhansa (August 2008). Autobiography of a Yogi. BiblioBazaar. pp. 200–201. ISBN   978-0-554-22466-4.
  16. Sadhguru (12 September 2017), The Great Cycles or 'YUGAS' Isha Fondation Sadhguru , retrieved 12 April 2019
  17. Dimitri Kitsikis, L'Orocc, dans l'âge de Kali, Editions Naaman,1985, ISBN   2-89040-359-9
  18. "The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva: Markandeya-Samasya Parva: Section CLXXXIX". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  19. Bhāgavata Purāṇa 1.16.20
  20. Mahabharata SECTION CLXXXIX
  21. Ramesh Chaturvedi, Shantilal Nagar. Brahmavaivarta Purana. Parimal Publications. ISBN   978-81-7110-170-2. Online Book 4, Chapter 129, versus 49–60
  22. "Chap. Vii". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  23. The Teachings of Babaji, 25 December 1981.
  24. "Having some doubt, Kartikeya, son of Lord Shiva, once asked what would happen to man during the Kali Yuga when there would be so much trouble in the world. The Holy utterance of Lord Shiva was that he would manifest in the Kali Yuga to uplift the world and liberate those who turn to God. Shiva now lives among us in Shri Babaji, who is doing the services for mankind now from Herakhan Vishwa Mahadham." The Teachings of Babaji. 30 October 1982.
  25. The Teachings of Babaji. 21 March 1983.
  26. "Enabling Gurmat Knowledge". SikhiToTheMAX. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  27. Christopher Bamford (ed.). Spiritualism, Madame Blavatsky & Theosophy: An Eyewitness View of Occult History : Lectures by Rudolf Steiner.
  28. Kevin T. Dann (2000). Across the Great Border Fault: The Naturalist Myth in America. Rutgers University Press.
  29. Christopher Bamford (ed.). Spiritualism, Madame Blavatsky & Theosophy: An Eyewitness View of Occult History : Lectures by Rudolf Steiner.

Further reading

Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg The dictionary definition of Kali Yuga at Wiktionary