The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia, primarily during the medieval ages.
The Armenian calendar is based on an invariant year length of 365 days. Because a solar day is about 365.25 days and not 365 days, the correspondence between it and both the solar year and the Julian calendar slowly drifted over time, shifting across a year of the Julian calendar once in 1,461 calendar years (see Sothic cycle). Thus, the Armenian year 1461 (Gregorian & Julian 2011) completed the first Sothic cycle, and the Armenian Calendar was one year off.
In A.D. 352, tables compiled by Andreas of Byzantium were introduced in Armenia to determine the religious holidays. When those tables exhausted on 11 July 552 (Julian Calendar), the Armenian calendar was introduced.
Year 1 of the Armenian calendar began on 11 July 552 of the Julian calendar.Armenian year 1462 (the first year of the second cycle) began on 11 July 2012 of the Julian calendar (24 July 2012 of the Gregorian calendar).
An analytical expression of the Armenian date includes the ancient names of days of the week, Christian names of the days of the week, days of the month, Date/Month/Year number after 552 A.D., and the religious feasts.
The Armenian calendar is divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus an additional (epagomenal) five days, called aweleacʿ ("superfluous").
Years in the Armenian era are usually given in Armenian numerals (written in Armenian letters) preceded by the abbreviation ԹՎ, for t’vin (թուին, meaning "in the year"). For example, ԹՎՌՆԾԵ, which means "the year 1455." Another prefix is Թ.Հ., standing for t’vin Hayocʿ (թուին Հայոց "in the Armenian year").
The Armenian month names show influence of the Zoroastrian calendarand Kartvelian influence in two cases (2nd and 3rd months). There are different systems for transliterating the names; the forms below are transliterated according to the Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste system:
|1||նաւասարդ||nawasard||new year||Avestan *nava sarəδa|
|2||հոռի||hoṙi||two||From Georgian ორი (ori) meaning "two"|
|3||սահմի||sahmi||three||From Georgian სამი (sami) meaning "three"|
|5||քաղոց||kʿałocʿ||month of crops||From Old Armenian քաղեմ (kʿałem) meaning "to gather" from PIE *kʷl̥-|
|6||արաց||aracʿ||harvest-time||From old armenian արաց (aracʿ), meaning harvest time, harvest of grape/fruit|
|7||մեհեկան||mehekan||festival of Mithra||Iranian *mihrakān-; Zoroastrian Mitrō|
|8||արեգ||areg||sun month||From Old Armenian արեւ (arew) meaning "sun" from PIE *h₂rew-i- also meaning sun|
|9||ահեկան||ahekan||fire festival||Iranian *āhrakān-; Zoroastrian Ātarō|
|10||մարերի||mareri||mid-year||Avestan maiδyaīrya; Zoroastrian Dīn|
|12||հրոտից||hroticʿ||Pahlavi *fravartakān; Zoroastrian Spendarmat̰|
|13||աւելեաց||aweleacʿ||redundant, superfluous||Epagomenal days|
The Armenian calendar gives the days of the month names instead of numbering them – something also found in the Avestan calendars.
Zoroastrian influence is evident in five names:
|2||Hrand||Հրանդ||earth mixed with fire|
|8||Mihr||Միհր||Mihr (Armenian deity)|
|12||Ani||Անի||name of a city|
|14||Vanat||Վանատ||host, refectioner of a monastery|
|19||Anahit||Անահիտ||Anahit (Armenian goddess)|
|21||Gorgor||Name of a mountain|
|22||Kordvik||6th province in Armenia Major|
|27||Vahagn||Վահագն||Zoroastrian Vahrām; Avestan Verethragna, name of the 20th day|
|29||Varag||Վարագ||name of a mountain|
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