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The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia.
The older Armenian calendar was based on an invariant year length of 365 days. As a result, the correspondence between it and both the solar year and the Julian calendar slowly drifted over time, shifting across a year of the Julian calendar once in 1,461 calendar years (see Sothic cycle). Thus, the Armenian year 1461 (Gregorian 2010/2011) completed the first full cycle.
Armenian year 1 began on 11 July 552 of the Julian calendar, and Armenian year 1462 began on 11 July 2012 of the Julian calendar which coincided with 24 July 2012 of the Gregorian calendar.
An analytical expression of the Armenian date includes ancient name of Day of week, Christian name of Day of week, named Day of month, Date, Month, Year number after 552 A.D. and the religious feasts.
The Armenian calendar is divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus an additional (epagomenal) five days are called aweleacʿ ("superfluous"). Years are usually given in Armenian numerals, letters of the Armenian alphabet preceded by the abbreviation ԹՎ for t’vin "in the year" (for example, ԹՎՌՆԾԵ "in the year 1455"). One may observe the real start date in future centuries in a Gregorian to Armenian Date Converter.
The Armenian month names show influence of the Zoroastrian calendar, [ citation needed ] Kartvelian influence in two cases. There are different systems for transliterating the names; the forms below are transliterated according to the Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste system.and, as noted by Antoine Meillet,
|1||նաւասարդ||nawasard||new year||Avestan *nava sarəδa|
|2||հոռի||hoṙi||two||From Georgian ორი (ori) meaning "two"|
|3||սահմի||sahmi||three||From Georgian სამი (sami) meaning "three"|
|5||քաղոց||kʿałocʿ||month of crops||From Old Armenian քաղեմ (kʿałem) meaning "to gather" from PIE *kʷl̥-|
|6||արաց||aracʿ||From old armenian արաց (aracʿ), meaning harvest time, harvest of grape/fruit|
|7||մեհեկան||mehekan||festival of Mithra||Iranian *mihrakān-; Zoroastrian Mitrō|
|8||արեգ||areg||sun month||From Old Armenian արեւ (arew) meaning "sun" from PIE *h₂rew-i- also meaning sun|
|9||ահեկան||ahekan||fire festival||Iranian *āhrakān-; Zoroastrian Ātarō|
|10||մարերի||mareri||mid-year||Avestan maiδyaīrya; Zoroastrian Dīn|
|12||հրոտից||hroticʿ||Pahlavi *fravartakān; Zoroastrian Spendarmat̰|
|13||աւելեաց||aweleacʿ||redundant, superfluous||Epagomenal days|
The Armenian calendar names the days of the month instead of numbering them – a peculiarity also found in the Avestan calendars. Zoroastrian influence is evident in five names.
|2||Hrand||earth mixed with fire|
|12||Ani||name of a city|
|14||Vanat||host, refectioner of a monastery|
|21||Gorgor||name of a mountain|
|22||Kordvik||6th province in Armenia Major|
|27||Vahagn||Zoroastrian Vahrām; Avestan Verethragna, name of the 20th day|
|29||Varag||name of a mountain|
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also a physical record of such a system. A calendar can also mean a list of planned events, such as a court calendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 708 Ab urbe condita (46 BC), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 709 AUC (45 BC), by edict. It was designed with the aid of Greek mathematicians and Greek astronomers such as Sosigenes of Alexandria.
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Mitra is the name of an Indo-Iranian divinity from which the names and some characteristics of Rigvedic Mitrá and Avestan Mithra derive.
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Mehregān is a Zoroastrian and Persian festival celebrated to honor the yazata Mithra, which is responsible for friendship, affection and love. It is also widely referred to as the Persian Festival of Autumn.
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The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is also known as the fellaḥi. The calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works.
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The Cappadocian calendar was a solar calendar that was derived from the Persian Zoroastrian calendar. It is named after the historic region Cappadocia in present-day Turkey, where it was used. The calendar, which had 12 months of 30 days each and five epagomenal days, originated between 550 and 330 BC, when Cappadocia was part of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. The Cappadocian calendar was identical to the Zoroastrian calendar; this can be seen in its structure, in the Avestan names and in the order of the months. The Cappadocian calendar reflects the Iranian cultural influence in the region. Extant evidence of the calendar dates back to Late Antiquity through the accounts of Greek astronomers, by which time it had already been adapted to the Julian calendar.
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