Armenian calendar

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The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia.

Contents

The older Armenian calendar was based on an invariant year length of 365 days. As a result, the correspondence between it and both the solar year and the Julian calendar slowly drifted over time, shifting across a year of the Julian calendar once in 1,461 calendar years (see Sothic cycle). Thus, the Armenian year 1461 (Gregorian 2010/2011) completed the first full cycle.

Armenian year 1 began on 11 July 552 of the Julian calendar, and Armenian year 1462 began on 11 July 2012 of the Julian calendar which co-incided with 24 July 2012 of the Gregorian calendar.

An analytical expression of the Armenian date includes ancient name of Day of week, Christian name of Day of week, named Day of month, Date, Month, Year number after 552 A.D. and the religious feasts.

The Armenian calendar is divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus an additional (epagomenal) five days are called aweleacʿ ("superfluous"). Years are usually given in Armenian numerals, letters of the Armenian alphabet preceded by the abbreviation ԹՎ for t’vin "in the year" (for example, ԹՎՌՆԾԵ "in the year 1455").

Months

The Armenian month names show influence of the Zoroastrian calendar, [1] and, as noted by Antoine Meillet,[ citation needed ] Kartvelian influence in two cases. There are different systems for transliterating the names; the forms below are transliterated according to the Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste system.

Months of the year
#Armenian H-M
Romaniz.
MeaningEtymology/Notes
1 նաւասարդ nawasardnew year Avestan *nava sarəδa
2 հոռի hoṙitwoFrom Georgian ორი (ori) meaning "two"
3 սահմի sahmithreeFrom Georgian სამი (sami) meaning "three"
4տրէtrē Zoroastrian Tïr
5քաղոցkʿałocʿmonth of cropsFrom Old Armenian քաղեմ (kʿałem) meaning "to gather" from PIE *kʷl̥-
6 արաց aracʿFrom old armenian արաց [2] (aracʿ),meaning harvest time, harvest of grape/fruit
7մեհեկանmehekanfestival of Mithra Iranian *mihrakān- ; Zoroastrian Mitrō
8 արեգ aregsun monthFrom Old Armenian արեւ (arew) meaning "sun" from PIE *h₂rew-i- also meaning sun
9ահեկանahekanfire festivalIranian *āhrakān- ; Zoroastrian Ātarō
10մարերիmarerimid-yearAvestan maiδyaīrya ; Zoroastrian Dīn
11մարգացmargacʿ
12հրոտիցhroticʿ Pahlavi *fravartakān ; Zoroastrian Spendarmat̰
13 աւելեաց [3] aweleacʿredundant, superfluous Epagomenal days

Days of the month

The Armenian calendar names the days of the month instead of numbering them – a peculiarity also found in the Avestan calendars. Zoroastrian influence is evident in five names. [1]

Days of the month
#NameMeaning/derivation
1Aregsun
2Hrandearth mixed with fire
3Aram
4Margarprophet
5Ahrank’half-burned
6Mazdeł
7AstłikVenus
8Mihr Mithra
9Jopabertumultuous
10Murçtriumph
11Erezhanhermit
12 Ani name of a city
13Parkhar
14Vanathost, refectioner of a monastery
15Aramazd Ahura Mazda
16Manibeginning
17Asakbeginningless
18Masis Mount Ararat
19Anahit Anahita
20Aragats Mount Aragats
21Gorgorname of a mountain
22Kordvik6th province in Armenia Major
23Tsmakeast wind
24Lusnakhalf-moon
25Tsrōndispersion
26Npat Apam Napat
27 Vahagn Zoroastrian Vahrām ; Avestan Verethragna, name of the 20th day
28Simmountain
29Varagname of a mountain
30Gišeravarevening star

See also

References

  1. 1 2 L. H. Gray, "On Certain Persian and Armenian Month- Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar," JAOS 28 (1907), 339.
  2. "արաց - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 2018-10-31.
  3. Հին հայկական տոմար

Literature