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The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia.
The older Armenian calendar was based on an invariant year length of 365 days. As a result, the correspondence between it and both the solar year and the Julian calendar slowly drifted over time, shifting across a year of the Julian calendar once in 1,461 calendar years (see Sothic cycle). Thus, the Armenian year 1461 (Gregorian 2010/2011) completed the first full cycle.
Armenian year 1 began on 11 July 552 of the Julian calendar, and Armenian year 1462 began on 11 July 2012 of the Julian calendar which coincided with 24 July 2012 of the Gregorian calendar.
An analytical expression of the Armenian date includes ancient name of Day of week, Christian name of Day of week, named Day of month, Date, Month, Year number after 552 A.D. and the religious feasts.
The Armenian calendar is divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus an additional (epagomenal) five days are called aweleacʿ ("superfluous"). Years are usually given in Armenian numerals, letters of the Armenian alphabet preceded by the abbreviation ԹՎ for t’vin "in the year" (for example, ԹՎՌՆԾԵ "in the year 1455"). One may observe the real start date in future centuries in a Gregorian to Armenian Date Converter.
The Armenian month names show influence of the Zoroastrian calendar, [ citation needed ] Kartvelian influence in two cases. There are different systems for transliterating the names; the forms below are transliterated according to the Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste system.and, as noted by Antoine Meillet,
|1||նաւասարդ||nawasard||new year||Avestan *nava sarəδa|
|2||հոռի||hoṙi||two||From Georgian ორი (ori) meaning "two"|
|3||սահմի||sahmi||three||From Georgian სამი (sami) meaning "three"|
|5||քաղոց||kʿałocʿ||month of crops||From Old Armenian քաղեմ (kʿałem) meaning "to gather" from PIE *kʷl̥-|
|6||արաց||aracʿ||From old armenian արաց (aracʿ), meaning harvest time, harvest of grape/fruit|
|7||մեհեկան||mehekan||festival of Mithra||Iranian *mihrakān-; Zoroastrian Mitrō|
|8||արեգ||areg||sun month||From Old Armenian արեւ (arew) meaning "sun" from PIE *h₂rew-i- also meaning sun|
|9||ահեկան||ahekan||fire festival||Iranian *āhrakān-; Zoroastrian Ātarō|
|10||մարերի||mareri||mid-year||Avestan maiδyaīrya; Zoroastrian Dīn|
|12||հրոտից||hroticʿ||Pahlavi *fravartakān; Zoroastrian Spendarmat̰|
|13||աւելեաց||aweleacʿ||redundant, superfluous||Epagomenal days|
The Armenian calendar names the days of the month instead of numbering them – a peculiarity also found in the Avestan calendars. Zoroastrian influence is evident in five names.
|2||Hrand||earth mixed with fire|
|12||Ani||name of a city|
|14||Vanat||host, refectioner of a monastery|
|21||Gorgor||name of a mountain|
|22||Kordvik||6th province in Armenia Major|
|27||Vahagn||Zoroastrian Vahrām; Avestan Verethragna, name of the 20th day|
|29||Varag||name of a mountain|
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also a physical record of such a system. A calendar can also mean a list of planned events, such as a court calendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills.
The French Republican calendar, also commonly called the French Revolutionary calendar, was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871. The revolutionary system was designed in part to remove all religious and royalist influences from the calendar, and was part of a larger attempt at decimalisation in France. It was used in government records in France and other areas under French rule, including Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Malta, and Italy.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 708 Ab urbe condita (46 BC), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 709 AUC (45 BC), by edict. It was designed with the aid of Greek mathematicians and Greek astronomers such as Sosigenes of Alexandria.
The Revised Julian calendar, also known as the Milanković calendar, or, less formally, new calendar, is a calendar proposed by the Serbian scientist Milutin Milanković in 1923, which effectively discontinued the 340 years of divergence between the naming of dates sanctioned by those Eastern Orthodox churches adopting it and the Gregorian calendar that has come to predominate worldwide. This calendar was intended to replace the ecclesiastical calendar based on the Julian calendar hitherto in use by all of the Eastern Orthodox Church. From 1 March 1600 through 28 February 2800, the Revised Julian calendar aligns its dates with the Gregorian calendar, which was proclaimed in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII for adoption by the Christian world. The calendar has been adopted by the Orthodox churches of Constantinople, Albania, Alexandria, Antioch, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, and Romania.
A week is a time unit equal to seven days. It is the standard time period used for cycles of rest days in most parts of the world, mostly alongside—although not strictly part of—the Gregorian calendar.
A year is the orbital period of Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by change in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn, and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions, several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in Avestan language.
The Iranian calendars or Iranian chronology are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran, also known as Persia. One of the longest chronological records in human history, the Iranian calendar has been modified time and time again during its history to suit administrative, climatic, and religious purposes.
Mitra is the name of an Indo-Iranian divinity from which the names and some characteristics of Rigvedic Mitrá and Avestan Mithra derive.
Adherents of Zoroastrianism use three distinct versions of traditional calendars for liturgical purposes, all derived from medieval Iranian calendars, ultimately based on the Babylonian calendar as used in the Achaemenid empire. "Qadimi" ("ancient") is a traditional reckoning introduced in 1006. "Shahanshahi" ("imperial") is a calendar reconstructed from the 10th-century text Denkard. "Fasli" is a term for a 1906 adaptation of the 11th-century Jalali calendar, following a proposal by Kharshedji Rustomji Cama made in the 1860s.
The history of calendars, that is, of people creating and using methods for keeping track of days and larger divisions of time, covers a practice with ancient roots.
A calendar era is the period of time elapsed since one epoch of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one. For example, the Gregorian calendar numbers its years in the Western Christian era.
In astronomy, a Julian year is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of 86400 SI seconds each. The length of the Julian year is the average length of the year in the Julian calendar that was used in Western societies until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar, and from which the unit is named. Nevertheless, because astronomical Julian years are measuring duration rather than designating dates, this Julian year does not correspond to years in the Julian calendar or any other calendar. Nor does it correspond to the many other ways of defining a year.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.
The intercalary month or epagomenal days of the ancient Egyptian, Coptic, and Ethiopian calendars are a period of five days in common years and six days in leap years in addition to those calendars' 12 standard months, sometimes reckoned as their thirteenth month. They originated as a periodic measure to ensure that the heliacal rising of Sirius would occur in the 12th month of the Egyptian lunar calendar but became a regular feature of the civil calendar and its descendants. Coptic and Ethiopian leap days occur in the year preceding Gregorian leap years.
Mehregān is a Zoroastrian and Persian festival celebrated to honor the yazata Mithra, which is responsible for friendship, affection and love. It is also widely referred to as the Persian Festival of Autumn.
Dual dating is the practice, in historical materials, to indicate some dates with what appears to be duplicate, or excessive digits, sometimes separated by a hyphen or a slash. This is also often referred to as double dating. The need for double dating arose from the transition from an older calendar to a newer one. For example, in "10/21 February 1750/51", the dual day of the month is due to the correction for excess leap years in the Julian calendar by the Gregorian calendar, and the dual year is due to some countries beginning their numbered year on 1 January while others were still using another date.
The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582.
The adoption of the Gregorian Calendar was an event in the modern history of most nations and societies, marking a change from their traditional dating system to the modern dating system that is widely used around the world today. Some countries adopted the new calendar from 1582, some did not do so before the early twentieth century, and others did so at various dates between; however a number continue to use a different civil calendar. For many the new style calendar is only used for civil purposes and the old style calendar remains used in religious contexts. Today, the Gregorian calendar is the world's most widely used civil calendar. During – and for some time after – the change between systems, it has been common to use the terms Old Style and New Style when giving dates, to indicate which calendar was used to reckon them.
The Cappadocian calendar was a solar calendar that was derived from the Persian Zoroastrian calendar. It is named after the historic region Cappadocia in present-day Turkey, where it was used. The calendar, which had 12 months of 30 days each and five epagomenal days, originated between 550 and 330 BC, when Cappadocia was part of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. The Cappadocian calendar was identical to the Zoroastrian calendar; this can be seen in its structure, in the Avestan names and in the order of the months. The Cappadocian calendar reflects the Iranian cultural influence in the region. Extant evidence of the calendar dates back to Late Antiquity through the accounts of Greek astronomers, by which time it had already been adapted to the Julian calendar.
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