Assyrian calendar

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The Assyrian calendar is a solar calendar used by modern Assyrian people. The year begins with the first sight of Spring.

A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the apparent position of the Sun relative to the stars. The Gregorian calendar, widely accepted as standard in the world, is an example of a solar calendar. The main other type of calendar is a lunar calendar, whose months correspond to cycles of Moon phases. The months of the Gregorian calendar do not correspond to cycles of Moon phase.

Assyrian people Ethnic group indigenous to the Near East

Assyrian people, are a Semitic ethnic group indigenous to Assyria, a region in the Middle East. Some self-identify as Syriacs, Arameans, and Chaldeans. Speakers of Neo-Aramaic languages as well as the primary languages in their countries of residence, modern Assyrians are Syriac Christians who claim descent from Assyria, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, dating back to 2500 BC in ancient Mesopotamia.

Kha b-Nisan

Kha b-Nisan, Ha b-Nisin, or Ha b-Nison, also known as Resha d-Sheta and as Akitu, or Assyrian New Year, is the spring festival among the indigenous Assyrians of northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and northwestern Iran, celebrated on 1 April.

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4750 BC was set as its first year in the 1950s, [1] based on a series of articles published in the Assyrian nationalist magazine Gilgamesh; the first came in 1952 and written by Nimrod Simono and dealt with the Akitu festival, then an article by Jean Alkhas in 1955 (April, issue 34) fixed the year 4750 BC as the starting point. [2] Alkhas refrenced his information to a French archaeologist, whom he did not name, as stating that a cuneifurm tablet dating to 4750 BC mentioned the year of the calming of the great flood and beginning of life. [3]

The Assyrian new year is still celebrated every year with festivals and gatherings. As of April 2019 AD, it is the 6769th year of the Assyrian calendar, and this calendar is used among many Assyrian communities. It begins 4,750 years before the Gregorian calendar. For example, it is set out like this: 2019+4750 = Assyrian year 6769.

<i>Anno Domini</i> Western calendar era

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ".

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582.

The Assyrian month names are also used in the Arabic Gregorian solar calendar in the Levant and Mesopotamia (Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine).

Levant Region in the eastern Mediterranean

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean, primarily in Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the eastern Mediterranean with its islands; that is, it included all of the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica.

Mesopotamia Historical region within the Tigris–Euphrates river system

Mesopotamia is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

Iraq Republic in Western Asia

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 99% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with tiny minorities of Christians, Yarsans, Yezidis and Mandeans also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

Months

Assyrian calendar [4] [ unreliable source? ]
Season Syriac Transliteration Arabic InfoBlessed byDaysGregorian calendar
SpringܢܝܣܢNisanنَيْسَان
naysān
Month of Happiness Enlil 31April
ܐܝܪIyarأَيَّار
ʾayyār
Month of LoveKhaya31May
ܚܙܝܪܢHzirinحَزِيرَان
ḥazīrān
Month of Building Sin 31June
SummerܬܡܘܙTammuzتَمُّوز
tammūz
Month of Harvesting Tammuz 31July
ܐܒ/ܛܒܚAb / Tibbakhآب
ʾāb
Month of Ripening of Fruits Shamash 31August
ܐܝܠܘܠIloolأَيْلُول
ʾaylūl
Month of Sprinkling of Seeds Ishtar 31September
Autumnܬܫܪܝܢ ܐTishrin Iتِشْرِين ٱلْأَوَّل
tišrīn al-ʾawwal
Month of Giving Anu 30October
ܬܫܪܝܢ ܒTishrin IIتِشْرِين ٱلثَّانِي
tišrīn ath-thānī
Month of Awakening of Buried Seeds Marduk 30November
ܟܢܘܢ ܐKanoon I (Chisleu)كَانُون ٱلْأَوَّل
kānūn al-ʾawwal
Month of Conceiving Nergal 30December
Winterܟܢܘܢ ܒKanoon II (Tebet)كَانُون ٱلثَّانِي
kānūn ath-thānī
Month of RestingNasho30January
ܫܒܛShebatشُبَاط
šubāṭ
Month of Flooding Raman 30February
ܐܕܪAdaarآذَار
ʾāḏār
Month of Evil SpiritsRokhaty29March

See also

Assyrian nationalism

Assyrian nationalism or Assyrianism increased in popularity in the late 19th century in a climate of increasing ethnic and religious persecution of the Assyrians of what is today central Iraq, south-east Turkey and north-west Iran.

Assyrian continuity is the claim by modern Assyrians and supporting academics that they are at root the direct descendants of the Semitic inhabitants who spoke originally Akkadian and later Imperial Aramaic of ancient Assyria, Babylonia and their immediate surrounds. Modern Assyrians are accepted to be an indigenous ethnic minority of modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeastern Syria and border areas of northwest Iran, a region that is roughly what was once ancient Assyria.

Assyrian Church of the East Ancient Christian religious body from Assyria

The Assyrian Church of the East, officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East, is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East. It belongs to the eastern branch of Syriac Christianity, and uses the Divine Liturgy of Saints Mar Addai and Mar Mari belonging to the East Syrian Rite liturgy. Its main spoken language is Syriac, a dialect of Eastern Aramaic, and the majority of its adherents are ethnic Assyrians.

Related Research Articles

Calendar system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial, or administrative purposes.

A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also a physical record of such a system. A calendar can also mean a list of planned events, such as a court calendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills.

Chinese calendar Lunisolar calendar from China

The traditional China calendar, or Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar or Lunar Calendar, is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena. It is defined by GB/T 33661-2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on 12 May 2017.

Lunar calendar type of calendar

A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases, in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year. The most commonly used calendar, the Gregorian calendar, is a solar calendar system that originally evolved out of a lunar calendar system. A purely lunar calendar is also distinguished from a lunisolar calendar, whose lunar months are brought into alignment with the solar year through some process of intercalation. The details of when months begin varies from calendar to calendar, with some using new, full, or crescent moons and others employing detailed calculations.

New Year first day of a calendar year, in particular, January 1 in the Julian and Gregorian calendar

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

Week unit of time

A week is a time unit equal to seven days. It is the standard time period used for cycles of rest days in most parts of the world, mostly alongside—although not strictly part of—the Gregorian calendar.

The Iranian calendars or Iranian chronology are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran also known as Persia. One of the longest chronological records in human history, the Iranian calendar has been modified time and time again during its history to suit administrative, climatic, and religious purposes.

The history of calendars, that is, of people creating and using methods for keeping track of days and larger divisions of time, covers a practice with ancient roots.

The Babylonian calendar was a lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset, plus an intercalary month inserted as needed by decree. The calendar is based on a Sumerian predecessor preserved in the Umma calendar of Shulgi.

A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar. For example, the Gregorian calendar numbers its years in the Western Christian era. The instant, date, or year from which time is marked is called the epoch of the era. There are many different calendar eras.

The Attic calendar or Athenian calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis. It is sometimes called the Greek calendar because of Athens's cultural importance, but it is only one of many ancient Greek calendars.

Babylonian religion

Babylonian religion is the religious practice of Babylonia. Babylonian mythology was greatly influenced by their Sumerian counterparts, and was written on clay tablets inscribed with the cuneiform script derived from Sumerian cuneiform. The myths were usually either written in Sumerian or Akkadian. Some Babylonian texts were translations into Akkadian from the Sumerian language of earlier texts, although the names of some deities were changed.

Islamic New Year holiday

The Islamic New Year, also known as the Hijri New Year or Arabic New Year, is the day that marks the beginning of a new Hijri year, and is the day on which the year count is incremented. The first day of the Islamic year is observed by Muslims on the first day of the month of Muharram. The epoch of the Islamic era was set as 622 Common Era (CE), the year of the emigration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra. All religious duties, such as prayer, fasting in the month of Ramadan, and pilgrimage, and the dates of significant events, such as celebration of holy nights and festivals, are calculated according to the Islamic calendar.

Ancient Church of the East Eastern Christian denomination founded by Thoma Darmo in 1968

The Ancient Church of the East, officially the Ancient Holy Apostolic Catholic Church of the East, is an Eastern Christian denomination founded by Thoma Darmo in 1968.

The Kurdish calendar was originally a lunisolar calendar related to the Babylonian calendar, but is now a solar calendar related to the Iranian calendar. The current year will begin on 21 March 2019.

The Eponym dating system was a calendar system for Assyria, for a period of over one thousand years. Every year was associated with the name, an eponym, of the Limmu, the individual holding office.

The Arabic names of the months of the Gregorian calendar are usually phonetic Arabic pronunciations of the corresponding month names used in European languages. An exception is the Syriac calendar used in Mesopotamia and the Levant, which is inherited from Classical Arabic and correspond to roughly the same time of year.

Tishri-years, often called the Jewish Civil Calendar, is an ancient calendar system used in Israel/Judea, and the Jewish diaspora. It is based on, and is a variation of, the Nisan-years, which is often called the Jewish Religious Calendar. Tishri-years is similar to, and sometimes equivalent to, the Ancient Macedonian calendar used by the Hellenistic empires. They are all lunisolar years beginning from Autumn, but could differ by a month.

References

  1. Wozniak, Marta (2012). "Far from Aram-Nahrin: The Suryoye Diaspora Experience". In Eamer, Allyson (ed.). Border Terrains: World Diasporas in the 21st Century. Inter-Disciplinary Press, Oxford. p. 78. ISBN   978-1-84888-117-4.
  2. Paulissian, Robert (1999). "Tasheeta d'zoyakha d'rish sheta Khatta d'Atoraye w'Bawlaye (Part II) [Assyrian and Babylonian New Year Celebrations (Part II)]". Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. 13 (2): 35. ISSN   1055-6982.
  3. Daniel, Sennacherib (2001). "Modern Festival, Ancient Tradition" (PDF). Nakosha. 39: 3. OCLC   49885037.
  4. "The True Assyrian Calendar - Assyrian Knowledge". Archived from the original on 2010-07-28. Retrieved 2012-11-25.