The traditional Korean calendar or Dangun calendar (단군;檀君) is a lunisolar calendar. Like most traditional calendars of other East Asian countries, the Korean Calendar is mainly derived from the Chinese calendar. Dates are calculated from Korea's meridian (135th meridian east in modern time for South Korea), and observances and festivals are based in Korean culture.
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the Moon phase and the time of the solar year. If the solar year is defined as a tropical year, then a lunisolar calendar will give an indication of the season;if it is taken as a sidereal year, then the calendar will predict the constellation near which the full moon may occur.As with all calendars which divide the year into months there is an additional requirement that the year have a whole number of months. In this case ordinary years consist of twelve months but every second or third year is an embolismic year, which adds a thirteenth intercalary, embolismic, or leap month.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia and Taiwan. People indigenous to the region are called East Asians. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere.
The traditional China calendar, or Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar or Lunar Calendar, is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena. It is defined by GB/T 33661-2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on 12 May 2017.
The Gregorian calendar was officially adopted in 1896, but traditional holidays and age-reckoning for older generations are still based on the old calendar.The biggest festival in Korea today is Seollal, the first day of the traditional Korean New Year. Other important festivals include Daeboreum also referred to as Boreumdaal (the first full moon), Dano (spring festival) and Chuseok (harvest moon festival), and Samjinnal (spring-opening festival). Other minor festivals include Yudu (summer festival), and Chilseok (monsoon festival).
The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:
Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.
Korean New Year is the first day of the Korean lunar calendar. It is one of the most important traditional Korean holidays. The celebration usually lasts three days: the day before Korean New Year, Korean New Year itself, and the day after Korean New Year. During this time, many Koreans visit family, perform ancestral rites, wear hanbok(한복), eat traditional food, and play folk games. Additionally, children often receive money from their elders after performing a formal bow.
Daeboreum is a Korean holiday that celebrates the first full moon of the new year of the lunar Korean calendar which is the Korean version of the First Full Moon Festival. This holiday is accompanied by many traditions.
The Korean calendar is derived from the Chinese calendar. The traditional calendar designated its years via Korean era names from 270 to 963, then Chinese era names with Korean era names were used a few times until 1894. In 1894 and 1895, the lunar calendar was used with years numbered from the foundation of the Joseon Dynasty in 1392.
Korean era names were used during the period of Silla, Goguryeo, Balhae, Taebong, Goryeo, Joseon, and the Korean Empire. Dangun-giwon, the era name originating from the foundation of Gojoseon is also widely used in Korea as an indication of long civilisation of Korea.
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers. Some emperors have several era names, one after another, where each beginning of a new era resets the numbering of the year back to year one or yuán (元). The numbering of the year increases on the first day of the Chinese calendar each year. The era name originated as a motto or slogan chosen by an emperor.
The Joseon dynasty was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. Joseon was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty.
The Gregorian calendar was adopted on 1 January 1896, with Korean era name "Geonyang (건양 / 建陽, "adopting solar calendar")."
From 1945 until 1961 in South Korea, Gregorian calendar years were counted from the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BC (regarded as year one), the date of the legendary founding of Korea by Dangun, hence these Dangi (단기 / 檀紀) years were 4278 to 4294. This numbering was informally used with the Korean lunar calendar before 1945 but has only been occasionally used since 1961, and mostly in North Korea prior to 1997.
South Korea is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and sharing a land border with North Korea. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia under Gwanggaeto the Great. Its capital, Seoul, is a major global city and half of South Korea's over 51 million people live in the Seoul Capital Area, the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world.
Gojoseon, originally named Joseon, was an ancient kingdom on the Korean Peninsula. The addition of Go, meaning "ancient", is used to distinguish it from the later Joseon kingdom (1392–1897).
Dangun or Dangun Wanggeom was the legendary founder and god-king of Gojoseon, the first Korean kingdom, around present-day Liaoning, Manchuria, and the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. He is said to be the "grandson of heaven" and "son of a bear", and to have founded the kingdom in 2333 BC. The earliest recorded version of the Dangun legend appears in the 13th-century Samguk Yusa, which cites China's Book of Wei and Korea's lost historical record Gogi.
Although not being an official calendar, in South Korea, the traditional Korean calendar is still maintained by the government. The current version is based on China's Shixian calendar ("siheonnyeok 시헌력(時憲暦)" in Korean), which was in turn developed by Jesuit scholars. However, because the Korean calendar is now based on the moon's shape seen from Korea, occasionally the calendar diverges from the traditional Chinese calendar by one day, even though the underlying rule is the same. As a result, sometime the New Year's Day differ by one between the two countries, which last happened in 1997.
In North Korea, the Juche calendar has been used since 1997 to number its years, based on the birth of the state's founder Kim Il-sung.
Note that traditional Korean calendar has no concept of "weekdays": the following are names of weekdays in the modern (Western) calendar.
In modern Korean language, the months of both the traditional lunisolar and Western calendars are named by prefixing Sino-Korean numerals to wol, the Sino-Korean word for "month". Traditionally, when speaking of individuals' birth months, the months of the lunisolar calendar were named by prefixing the native Korean name of the animal associated with each Earthly Branch in the Chinese zodiac to dal, the native Korean word for "month". Additionally, the first, eleventh, and twelfth months have other Korean names which are similar to traditional Chinese month names.However, the other traditional Chinese month names, such as Xìngyuè ("apricot month") for the second month, are not used in Korean.
|Modern name||Traditional name||Notes|
|Month 1||1월 (일월)||Ilwol||Tiger Month||호랑이달||Horangidal|
|Primary Month||정월 (正月)||Jeong-wol||A loanword from Chinese Zhēngyuè|
|Month 2||2월 (이월)||Iwol||Rabbit Month||토끼달||Tokkidal|
|Month 3||3월 (삼월)||Samwol||Dragon Month||용달||Yongdal|
|Month 4||4월 (사월)||Sawol||Snake Month||뱀달||Baemdal|
|Month 5||5월 (오월)||Owol||Horse Month||말달||Maldal|
|Month 6||6월 (유월)||Yuwol||Sheep Month||양달||Yangdal|
|Month 7||7월 (칠월)||Chilwol||Monkey Month||원숭이달||Wonseung-idal|
|Month 8||8월 (팔월)||Palwol||Rooster Month||닭달||Dakdal|
|Month 9||9월 (구월)||Guwol||Dog Month||개달||Gaedal|
|Month 10||10월 (시월)||Siwol||Pig Month||돼지달||Dwaejidal|
|Month 11||11월 (십일월)||Sibilwol||Rat Month||쥐달||Jwidal|
|Winter Solstice Month||동짓달||Dongjitdal||Compare Chinese Dōngyuè , "Winter Month"|
|Month 12||12월 (십이월)||Sibiwol||Ox Month||소달||Sodal|
|섣달||Seotdal||Compare Chinese Làyuè , "preservation month"|
The lunar calendar is used for the observation of traditional festivals, such as Seollal, Chuseok, and Buddha's Birthday. It is also used for jesa memorial services for ancestors and the marking of birthdays by older Koreans.
|Seollal (설날)||Lunar New Year's Day||An ancestral service is offered before the grave of the ancestors, New Year's greetings are exchanged with family, relatives and neighbors; bows to elders (sebae, 세배, 歲拜), yut nori (윷놀이).||Day 1 of Month 1||rice cake soup ( tteokguk , 떡국), honey cakes ( yakgwa , 약과, 藥果).|
|Daeboreum (대보름, 大보름)||First full moon||Greeting of the moon (dalmaji, 달맞이), kite-flying, burning talismans to ward off evil spirits (aengmagi taeugi, 액막이 태우기), bonfires (daljip taeugi, 달집 태우기)||Day 15 of Month 1||rice boiled with five grains (ogokbap, 오곡밥, 五穀-), eating nuts, e.g. walnuts, pine nuts, peanuts, chestnuts ( bureom , 부럼), wine drinking (gwibalgisul)|
|Meoseumnal ( 머슴날 )||Festival for servants||Housecleaning, coming of age ceremony, fishermen's shaman rite (yeongdeunggut, 영등굿)||Day 1 of Month 2||stuffed pine-flavored rice cakes ( songpyeon , 송편)|
|Samjinnal (삼짇날)||Migrant swallows return||Leg fighting, fortune telling||Day 3 of Month 3||azalea wine (dugyeonju, 두견주, 杜鵑酒), azalea rice cake (dugyeon hwajeon , 두견화전, 杜鵑花煎)|
|Hansik (한식, 寒食)||Beginning of farming season||Visit to ancestral grave for offering rite, and cleaning and maintenance.||Day 105 after winter solstice||cold food only: mugwort cake (ssuktteok, 쑥떡), mugwort dumplings (ssukdanja, 쑥단자), mugwort soup (ssuktang, 쑥탕)|
|Chopail (釋迦誕生日)||Buddha's birthday||Lotus Lantern festival||Day 8 of Month 4||rice cake (jjintteok, 찐떡), flower rice cake ( hwajeon , 화전, 花煎)|
|Dano (단오, 端午, or 수릿날）||Spring festival||Washing hair with iris water, wrestling ( ssireum , 씨름), swinging, giving fans as gifts||Day 5 of Month 5||rice cake with herbs (surichwitteok, 수리취떡), herring soup (junchiguk, 준치국)|
|Yudu (유두, 流頭)||Water greeting||Water greeting, washing hair to wash away bad luck||Day 15 of Month 6||Five coloured noodles (yudumyeon, 유두면), cooked rice cake (sudan, 수단, 水團)|
|Chilseok (칠석, 七夕)||Meeting day of Gyeonwoo and Jiknyeo, in Korean folk tale||Fabric weaving||Day 7 of Month 7||wheat pancake (miljeonbyeong, 밀전병), steamed rice cake with red beans ( sirutteok , 시루떡)|
|Baekjung (백중, 百中)||Worship to Buddha||Worship to Buddha||Day 15 of Month 7||mixed rice cake (seoktanbyeong, 석탄병, 惜呑餠)|
|Chuseok (추석, 秋夕)||Harvest festival||Visit to ancestral grave, ssireum, offering earliest rice grain (olbyeosinmi, 올벼신미, --新味), circle dance (ganggang sullae, 강강술래)||Day 15 of Month 8||pine-flavored rice cake stuffed with chestnuts, sesame or beans ( songpyeon , 송편), taro soup (torantang, 토란탕)|
|Jungyangjeol (중양절, 重陽節)||Migrant sparrows leave||Celebrating autumn with poetry and painting, composing poetry, enjoying nature.||Day 9 of Month 9||chrysanthemum pancake (gukhwajeon, 국화전, 菊花煎), fish roe (eoran, 어란, 魚卵), honey citron tea ( yuja-cheong , 유자청, 柚子淸)|
|Dongji (동지, 冬至)||Winter Solstice||Rites to dispel bad spirits||Around December 22 in the solar calendar||red bean porridge with rice dumplings ( patjuk , 팥죽)|
|Seotdal Geumeum (섣달그믐)||New Year's Eve||Staying up all night long with all doors open to receive ancestral spirits||Last day of Month 12||mixed rice with vegetables ( bibimbap , 비빔밥), bean powder rice cakes ( injeolmi , 인절미), traditional biscuits ( hangwa , 한과, 韓菓)|
There are also many regional festivals celebrated according to the lunar calendar.
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also a physical record of such a system. A calendar can also mean a list of planned events, such as a court calendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases, in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year. The most commonly used calendar, the Gregorian calendar, is a solar calendar system that originally evolved out of a lunar calendar system. A purely lunar calendar is also distinguished from a lunisolar calendar, whose lunar months are brought into alignment with the solar year through some process of intercalation. The details of when months begin varies from calendar to calendar, with some using new, full, or crescent moons and others employing detailed calculations.
Vesak, also known as Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, is a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus on different days in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, and in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam as "Buddha's Birthday" as well as in other parts of the world. The festival commemorates the birth, enlightenment (Buddhahood), and death (Parinirvāna) of Gautama Buddha in the Theravada or southern tradition.
Chinese astrology is based on the traditional astronomy and calendars. Chinese astrology came to flourish during the Han Dynasty .
New Year's Day, also simply called New Year or New Year's, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems. At present, Japan uses the Gregorian calendar together with year designations stating the year of the reign of the current Emperor.
Hindu calendar is a collective term for the various lunisolar calendars traditionally used in the Indian subcontinent. They adopt a similar underlying concept for timekeeping, but differ in their relative emphasis to moon cycle or the sun cycle and the names of months and when they consider the New Year to start. Of the various regional calendars, the most studied and known Hindu calendars are the Shalivahana Shaka found in South India, Vikram Samvat (Bikrami) found in North and Central regions of India, Tamil calendar used in Tamil Nadu, and the Bengali calendar used in the Bengal – all of which emphasize the lunar cycle. Their new year starts in spring. In contrast, in regions such as Kerala, the solar cycle is emphasized and this is called the Malayalam calendar, their new year starts in autumn, and these have origins in the second half of the 1st millennium CE. A Hindu calendar is sometimes referred to as Panchanga (पञ्चाङ्ग).
Lunar New Year is the beginning of a calendar year whose months are coordinated by the cycles of the moon. The relevant calendar may be a purely lunar calendar or a lunisolar calendar.
Calendar reform or calendrical reform, is any significant revision of a calendar system. The term sometimes is used instead for a proposal to switch to a different calendar design.
The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars primarily used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they also have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar.
Losar is a festival in Tibetan Buddhism. The holiday is celebrated on various dates depending on location tradition. The holiday is a new year's festival, celebrated on the first day of the lunisolar Tibetan calendar, which corresponds to a date in February or March in the Gregorian calendar. In 2018, the new year commenced on the 16th of February and celebrations will run until the 18th of the same month. It also commenced the Year of the Male Earth Dog.
Buddha's birthday is a holiday traditionally celebrated in most of East Asia to commemorate the birth of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama, later the Gautama Buddha and founder of Buddhism. It is also celebrated in South and Southeast Asia as Vesak which also acknowledges the enlightenment and death of the Buddha. According to the Theravada Tripitaka scriptures, Gautama was born c. 563/480 BCE in Lumbini in modern-day Nepal, and raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilavastu, in the present-day Piprahwa, India or Tilaurakot, Nepal. At the age of thirty five, he attained enlightenment (nirvana) underneath a Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya. He delivered his first sermon at Sarnath, India. At the age of eighty, he died at Kushinagar, India.
The Vietnamese calendar is a lunisolar calendar that is mostly based on the Chinese calendar. As Vietnam's official calendar has been the Gregorian calendar since 1954, the Vietnamese calendar is used mainly to observe lunisolar holidays and commemorations, such as Tết and Mid-Autumn Festival.
In Thailand, two main calendar systems are used alongside each other: the Thai solar calendar, based on the Gregorian calendar, used for official and most day-to-day purposes, and the Thai lunar calendar, used for traditional events and Buddhist religious practices.
The adoption of the Gregorian Calendar was an event in the modern history of most nations and societies, marking a change from their traditional dating system to the modern dating system that is widely used around the world today. Some countries adopted the new calendar from 1582, some did not do so before the early twentieth century, and others did so at various dates between; however a number continue to use a different civil calendar. For many the new style calendar is only used for civil purposes and the old style calendar remains used in religious contexts. Today, the Gregorian calendar is the world's most widely used civil calendar. During – and for some time after – the change between systems, it has been common to use the terms Old Style and New Style when giving dates, to indicate which calendar was used to reckon them.
...Korean calendars Calendars were adopted from China...
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