The traditional Korean calendar or Dangun calendar (단군;檀君) is a lunisolar calendar. Like most traditional calendars of other East Asian countries, the Korean Calendar is mainly derived from the Chinese calendar. Dates are calculated from Korea's meridian (135th meridian east in modern time for South Korea), and observances and festivals are based in Korean culture.
The Gregorian calendar was officially adopted in 1896, but traditional holidays and age-reckoning for older generations are still based on the old calendar.The biggest festival in Korea today is Seollal, the first day of the traditional Korean New Year. Other important festivals include Daeboreum also referred to as Boreumdaal (the first full moon), Dano (spring festival) and Chuseok (harvest moon festival), and Samjinnal (spring-opening festival). Other minor festivals include Yudu (summer festival), and Chilseok (monsoon festival).
The Korean calendar is derived from the Chinese calendar. The traditional calendar designated its years via Korean era names from 270 to 963, then Chinese era names with Korean era names were used a few times until 1894. In 1894 and 1895, the lunar calendar was used with years numbered from the foundation of the Joseon Dynasty in 1392.
The Gregorian calendar was adopted on 1 January 1896, with Korean era name "Geon-yang (건양 / Hanja: 建陽, "adopting solar calendar")."
From 1945 until 1961 in South Korea, Gregorian calendar years were counted from the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BC (regarded as year one), the date of the legendary founding of Korea by Dangun, hence these Dangi (단기 / Hanja: 檀紀) years were 4278 to 4294. This numbering was informally used with the Korean lunar calendar before 1945 but has only been occasionally used since 1961, and mostly in North Korea prior to 1997.
Although not being an official calendar, in South Korea, the traditional Korean calendar is still maintained by the government. The current version is based on China's Shixian calendar ("shi-heon-nyeok 시헌력 (時憲暦)" in Korean), which was in turn developed by Jesuit scholars. However, because the Korean calendar is now based on the moon's shape seen from Korea, occasionally the calendar diverges from the traditional Chinese calendar by one day, even though the underlying rule is the same. As a result, sometime the New Year's Day differ by one between the two countries, which last happened in 1997.
In North Korea, the Juche calendar has been used since 1997 to number its years, based on the birth of the state's founder Kim Il-sung.
Note that traditional Korean calendar has no concept of "weekdays": the following are names of weekdays in the modern (Western) calendar.
|English||Hangul||Hanja||Transliteration||Heavenly body||5 Elements|
In modern Korean language, the months of both the traditional lunisolar and Western calendars are named by prefixing Sino-Korean numerals to wol, the Sino-Korean word for "month". Traditionally, when speaking of individuals' birth months, the months of the lunisolar calendar were named by prefixing the native Korean name of the animal associated with each Earthly Branch in the Chinese zodiac to dal, the native Korean word for "month". Additionally, the first, eleventh, and twelfth months have other Korean names which are similar to traditional Chinese month names.However, the other traditional Chinese month names, such as Xìngyuè ("apricot month") for the second month, are not used in Korean.
|Modern name||Traditional name||Notes||Chinese Equivalent|
|Translation||Hangul||RR||Translation||Hangul||RR||Month number||Earthly Branch name||Modern name||Starts on Gregorian date |
(annually the dates shifts due to the lunar cycle)
|Month 1||1월 (일월)||Ir-wol||Tiger Month||호랑이달||Ho-rang-i-wol||1||寅月; yínyuè; 'tiger month'||正月; zhēngyuè; 'first month'||between 21 January – 20 February|
|Primary Month||정월 (正月)||Jeong-wol||A loanword from Chinese Zhēngyuè|
|Month 2||2월 (이월)||I-wol||Rabbit Month||토끼달||To-kki-wol||2||卯月; mǎoyuè; 'rabbit month'||二月; èryuè; 'second month'||between 20 February – 21 March|
|Month 3||3월 (삼월)||Sam-wol||Dragon Month||용달||Yong-dal||3||辰月; chényuè; 'dragon month'||三月; sānyuè; 'third month'||between 21 March – 20 April|
|Month 4||4월 (사월)||Sa-wol||Snake Month||뱀달||Baem-dal||4||巳月; sìyuè; 'snake month'||四月; sìyuè; 'fourth month'||between 20 April – 21 May|
|Month 5||5월 (오월)||O-wol||Horse Month||말달||Mal-dal||5||午月; wǔyuè; 'horse month'||五月; wǔyuè; 'fifth month'||between 21 May – 21 June|
|Month 6||6월 (유월)||Yu-wol||Sheep Month||양달||Yang-dal||6||未月; wèiyuè; 'goat month'||六月; liùyuè; 'sixth month'||between 21 June – 23 July|
|Month 7||7월 (칠월)||Chir-wol||Monkey Month||원숭이달||Won-sung-i-dal||7||申月; shēnyuè; 'monkey month'||七月; qīyuè; 'seventh month'||between 23 July – 23 August|
|Month 8||8월 (팔월)||Par-wol||Rooster Month||닭달||Dak-dal||8||酉月; yǒuyuè; 'rooster month'||八月; bāyuè; 'eighth month'||between 23 August – 23 September|
|Month 9||9월 (구월)||Gu-wol||Dog Month||개달||Gae-dal||9||戌月; xūyuè; 'dog month'||九月; jiǔyuè; 'ninth month'||between 23 September – 23 October|
|Month 10||10월 (시월)||Shi-wol/ Si-wol||Pig Month||돼지달||Dwae-ji-dal||10||亥月; hàiyuè; 'pig month'||十月; shíyuè; 'tenth month'||between 23 October – 22 November|
|Month 11||11월 (십일월)||Shi-bir-wol/ Shib-ir-wol||Rat Month||쥐달||Jwi-dal||11||子月; zǐyuè; 'rat month'||十一月; shíyīyuè; 'eleventh month'||between 22 November – 22 December|
|Winter Solstice Month||동짓달||Dong-jit-dal||Compare Chinese Dōngyuè , "Winter Month"|
|Month 12||12월 (십이월)||Shib-i-wol||Ox Month||소달||So-dal||12||丑月; chǒuyuè; 'ox month'||臘月; 腊月; làyuè; 'end-of-year month'||between 22 December – 21 January|
|섣달||Seot-dal||Compare Chinese Làyuè , "preservation month"|
The lunar calendar is used for the observation of traditional festivals, such as Seollal, Chuseok, and Buddha's Birthday. It is also used for jesa memorial services for ancestors and the marking of birthdays by older Koreans.
|Seollal (설날)||Lunar New Year's Day||An ancestral service is offered before the grave of the ancestors, New Year's greetings are exchanged with family, relatives and neighbors; bows to elders (sebae, 세배, Hanja: 歲拜), yut nori (윷놀이). Generally from the Chinese Lunar New Year||Day 1 of Month 1||rice cake soup ( tteokguk , 떡국), honey cakes ( yakgwa , 약과, Hanja: 藥果).|
|Daeboreum (대보름, 大보름)||First full moon||Greeting of the moon (dalmaji, 달맞이), kite-flying, burning talismans to ward off evil spirits (aengmagi taeugi, 액막이 태우기), bonfires (daljip taeugi, 달집 태우기). Generally from the Chinese Lantern Festival||Day 15 of Month 1||rice boiled with five grains (o-gok-bap, 오곡밥, Hanja: 五穀飯), eating nuts, e.g. walnuts, pine nuts, peanuts, chestnuts ( bureom , 부럼), wine drinking (gwibalgisul)|
|Meoseumnal ( 머슴날 )||Festival for servants||Housecleaning, coming of age ceremony, fishermen's shaman rite (yeongdeunggut, 영등굿)||Day 1 of Month 2||stuffed pine-flavored rice cakes ( songpyeon , 송편)|
|Samjinnal (삼짇날)||Migrant swallows return||Leg fighting, fortune telling||Day 3 of Month 3||azalea wine (dugyeonju, 두견주, Hanja: 杜鵑酒), azalea rice cake (dugyeon hwajeon , 두견화전, Hanja: 杜鵑花煎)|
| Hansik/ Hanshik |
(한식, Hanja: 寒食)
|Beginning of farming season||Visit to ancestral grave for offering rite, and cleaning and maintenance. Generally from the Chinese Qingming Festival||Day 105 after winter solstice||cold food only: mugwort cake (ssuktteok, 쑥떡), mugwort dumplings (ssukdanja, 쑥단자), mugwort soup (ssuktang, 쑥탕)|
| Chopail (Cho-pa-il) |
(초파일, Hanja: 初八日)
or Seok-ga Tan-shin-il
(석가탄신일; Hanja: 釋迦誕生日)
|Buddha's Birthday||Lotus Lantern festival||Day 8 of Month 4||rice cake (jjintteok, 찐떡), flower rice cake ( hwajeon , 화전, Hanja: 花煎)|
| Dano |
(단오, Hanja: 端午) or Surit-nal (수릿날)
|Spring festival||Washing hair with iris water, wrestling ( ssireum , 씨름), swinging, giving fans as gifts; generally from the Chinese Dragon Boat Festival||Day 5 of Month 5||rice cake with herbs (surichwitteok, 수리취떡), herring soup (junchiguk, 준치국)|
(유두, Hanja: 流頭)
|Water greeting||Water greeting, washing hair to wash away bad luck||Day 15 of Month 6||Five coloured noodles (yudumyeon, 유두면), cooked rice cake (sudan, 수단, Hanja: 水團)|
| Chilseok |
(칠석, Hanja: 七夕)
|Meeting day of Gyeonwoo and Jiknyeo, in Korean folk tale||Fabric weaving - generally from the Chinese Qixi Festival||Day 7 of Month 7||wheat pancake (miljeonbyeong, 밀전병), steamed rice cake with red beans ( sirutteok , 시루떡)|
| Baekjung |
(백중, Hanja: 百中)
|Worship to Buddha||Worship to Buddha||Day 15 of Month 7||mixed rice cake (seoktanbyeong, 석탄병, Hanja: 惜呑餠)|
| Chuseok |
(추석, Hanja: 秋夕)
|Harvest festival||Visit to ancestral grave, ssireum, offering earliest rice grain (olbyeosinmi, 올벼신미, --新味), circle dance (ganggang sullae, 강강술래)||Day 15 of Month 8||pine-flavored rice cake stuffed with chestnuts, sesame or beans ( songpyeon , 송편), taro soup (torantang, 토란탕)|
| Jungyangjeol |
(중양절, Hanja: 重陽節)
|Migrant sparrows leave||Celebrating autumn with poetry and painting, composing poetry, enjoying nature; generally the Chinese Double Ninth Festival||Day 9 of Month 9||chrysanthemum pancake (gukhwajeon, 국화전, 菊花煎), fish roe (eo-ran, 어란, Hanja: 魚卵), honey citron tea ( yuja-cheong , 유자청, Hanja: 柚子淸)|
| Dongji |
(동지, Hanja: 冬至)
|Winter Solstice||Rites to dispel bad spirits||Around December 22 in the solar calendar||red bean porridge with rice dumplings ( patjuk , 팥죽)|
|New Year's Eve||Staying up all night long with all doors open to receive ancestral spirits - the concept is from the Chinese during Chinese Lunar New Year||Last day of Month 12||mixed rice with vegetables ( bibimbap , 비빔밥), bean powder rice cakes ( injeolmi , 인절미), traditional biscuits ( han-gwa , 한과, Hanja: 韓菓)|
There are also many regional festivals celebrated according to the lunar calendar.
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also a physical record of such a system. A calendar can also mean a list of planned events, such as a court calendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills.
The traditional Chinese calendar, Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar or Lunar Calendar, is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena. In modern days, it is defined in China by GB/T 33661-2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on 12 May 2017.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases, in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year. The most commonly used calendar, the Gregorian calendar, is a solar calendar system that originally evolved out of a lunar calendar system. A purely lunar calendar is also distinguished from a lunisolar calendar, whose lunar months are brought into alignment with the solar year through some process of intercalation. The details of when months begin varies from calendar to calendar, with some using new, full, or crescent moons and others employing detailed calculations.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also simply called New Year, is observed on 1 January, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems. At present, Japan uses the Gregorian calendar together with year designations stating the year of the reign of the current Emperor.
Lunar New Year is the beginning of a calendar year whose months are cycles of the moon. The relevant calendar may be a purely lunar calendar or a lunisolar calendar.
Dangun or Dangun Wanggeom was the legendary founder and god-king of Gojoseon, the first Korean kingdom, around present-day Liaoning, Manchuria, and the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. He is said to be the "grandson of heaven" and "son of a bear", and to have founded the kingdom in 2333 BC. The earliest recorded version of the Dangun legend appears in the 13th-century Samguk Yusa, which cites China's Book of Wei and Korea's lost historical record Gogi.
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The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars primarily used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they also have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar.
Losar is a festival in Tibetan Buddhism. The holiday is celebrated on various dates depending on location tradition. The holiday is a new year's festival, celebrated on the first day of the lunisolar Tibetan calendar, which corresponds to a date in February or March in the Gregorian calendar. In 2018, the new year commenced on the 16th of February and celebrations will run until the 18th of the same month. It also commenced the Year of the Male Earth Dog.
Vikram Samvat or Bikram Samvat, abbreviated V.S. and B.S. )
Gaecheonjeol is a public holiday in South and North Korea on 3 October. Also known by the English name National Foundation Day, this holiday celebrates the legendary formation of the first Korean state of Gojoseon in 2333 BC. This date has traditionally been regarded as the date for the founding of the Korean people.
The Vietnamese calendar is a lunisolar calendar that is mostly based on the Chinese calendar. As Vietnam's official calendar has been the Gregorian calendar since 1954, the Vietnamese calendar is used mainly to observe lunisolar holidays and commemorations, such as Tết and Mid-Autumn Festival.
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Korean New Year is the first day of the Korean lunar calendar. It is one of the most important traditional Korean holidays. The celebration usually lasts three days: the day before Korean New Year, Korean New Year itself, and the day after Korean New Year. During this time, many Koreans visit family, perform ancestral rites, wear hanbok(한복), eat traditional food, and play folk games. Additionally, children often receive money from their elders after performing a formal bow.
The Republic of China calendar is the official calendar of the Republic of China. It is used to number the years for official purposes only in the Taiwan area since 1949. It was used in the Chinese mainland from 1912 until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
Dual dating is the practice, in historical materials, to indicate some dates with what appears to be duplicate, or excessive digits, sometimes separated by a hyphen or a slash. This is also often referred to as double dating. The need for double dating arose from the transition from an older calendar to a newer one. For example, in "10/21 February 1750/51", the dual day of the month is due to the correction for excess leap years in the Julian calendar by the Gregorian calendar, and the dual year is due to some countries beginning their numbered year on 1 January while others were still using another date.
The adoption of the Gregorian Calendar was an event in the modern history of most nations and societies, marking a change from their traditional dating system to the modern dating system that is widely used around the world today. Some countries adopted the new calendar from 1582, some did not do so before the early twentieth century, and others did so at various dates between; however a number continue to use a different civil calendar. For many the new style calendar is only used for civil purposes and the old style calendar remains used in religious contexts. Today, the Gregorian calendar is the world's most widely used civil calendar. During – and for some time after – the change between systems, it has been common to use the terms Old Style and New Style when giving dates, to indicate which calendar was used to reckon them.
...Korean calendars Calendars were adopted from China...
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