Korean calendar

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The traditional Korean calendar or Dangun calendar (단군;檀君) is a lunisolar calendar. Dates are calculated from Korea's meridian (135th meridian east in modern time for South Korea), and observances and festivals are based in Korean culture.

Contents

Koreans mostly use the Gregorian calendar, which was officially adopted in 1896. However, traditional holidays and age-reckoning for older generations are still based on the old calendar. [1] The biggest festivals in Korea today, which are also national holidays, are Seollal, the first day of the traditional Korean New Year, and Chuseok its harvest moon festival. Other important festivals include Daeboreum also referred to as Boreumdaal (the first full moon), Dano (spring festival) and Samjinnal (spring-opening festival). Other minor festivals include Yudu (summer festival), and Chilseok (monsoon festival).

History

Like most traditional calendars of other East Asian countries, the Korean Calendar is mainly derived from the Chinese calendar. [2] [3] The traditional calendar designated its years via Korean era names from 270 to 963, then Chinese era names with Korean era names at a few times until 1894. In 1894 and 1895, the lunar calendar was used with years numbered from the foundation of the Joseon Dynasty in 1392.

The Gregorian calendar was adopted on 1 January 1896, with Korean era name "Geon-yang (건양 / Hanja: 建陽, "adopting solar calendar")."

From 1945 until 1961 in South Korea, Gregorian calendar years were counted from the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BC (regarded as year one), the date of the legendary founding of Korea by Dangun, hence these Dangi (단기 / Hanja: 檀紀) years were 4278 to 4294. This numbering was informally used with the Korean lunar calendar before 1945 but has only been occasionally used since 1961, and mostly in North Korea prior to 1997.

Although not being an official calendar, in South Korea, the traditional Korean calendar is still maintained by the government. The current version is based on Asia's Shixian calendar ("shi-heon-nyeok 시헌력 (時憲暦)" in Korean), which was in turn developed by Jesuit scholars. However, because the Korean calendar is now based on the moon's shape seen from Korea, occasionally the calendar diverges from the traditional asian calendar by one day, even though the underlying rule is the same. As a result, sometime the New Year's Day differ by one between the two countries,[ which? ] which last happened in 1997. [4]

In North Korea, the Juche calendar has been used since 1997 to number its years, based on the birth of the state's founder Kim Il-sung.

Features

Weekdays

Note that traditional Korean calendar has no concept of "weekdays": the following are names of weekdays in the modern (Western) calendar.

English Hangul Hanja Transliteration Heavenly body 5 Elements

(Hanja/ Hanzi: 五行 = Korean: 오행; Chinese: Wuxing)

Sunday일요일日曜日il.yo.il: iryoil Sun
Monday월요일月曜日wŏl.yo.il: woryoil Moon
Tuesday화요일火曜日hwa.yo.il: hwayoil Mars Fire
Wednesday수요일水曜日su.yo.il: suyoil Mercury Water
Thursday목요일木曜日mok.yo.il: mogyoil Jupiter Wood
Friday금요일金曜日kŭm.yo.il: geumyoil Venus Metal
Saturday토요일土曜日tho.yo.il: toyoil Saturn Earth

Months

In modern Korean language, the months of both the traditional lunisolar and Western calendars are named by prefixing Sino-Korean numerals to wol, the Sino-Korean word for "month". Traditionally, when speaking of individuals' birth months, the months of the lunisolar calendar were named by prefixing the native Korean name of the animal associated with each Earthly Branch in the Chinese zodiac to dal, the native Korean word for "month". Additionally, the first, eleventh, and twelfth months have other Korean names which are similar to traditional Chinese month names. [5] However, the other traditional Chinese month names, such as Xìngyuè ("apricot month") for the second month, are not used in Korean.

Modern nameTraditional nameNotesChinese Equivalent
TranslationHangul RR TranslationHangul RR Month number Earthly Branch nameModern nameStarts on Gregorian date

(annually the dates shifts due to the lunar cycle)

Month 11월 (일월)Il-wol Tiger Month호랑이달Ho-rang-i-dal1寅月; yínyuè; 'tiger month'正月; zhēngyuè; 'first month'between 21 January – 20 February
Primary Month정월 (正月)Jeong-wolA loanword from Chinese Zhēngyuè
Month 22월 (이월)I-wol Rabbit Month토끼달To-kki-dal2卯月; mǎoyuè; 'rabbit month'二月; èryuè; 'second month'between 20 February – 21 March
Month 33월 (삼월)Sam-wol Dragon Month용달Yong-dal3辰月; chényuè; 'dragon month'三月; sānyuè; 'third month'between 21 March – 20 April
Month 44월 (사월)Sa-wol Snake Month뱀달Baem-dal4巳月; sìyuè; 'snake month'四月; sìyuè; 'fourth month'between 20 April – 21 May
Month 55월 (오월)O-wol Horse Month말달Mal-dal5午月; wǔyuè; 'horse month'五月; wǔyuè; 'fifth month'between 21 May – 21 June
Month 66월 (유월)Yu-wol Sheep Month양달Yang-dal6未月; wèiyuè; 'goat month'六月; liùyuè; 'sixth month'between 21 June – 23 July
Month 77월 (칠월)Chir-wol Monkey Month원숭이달Won-sung-i-dal7申月; shēnyuè; 'monkey month'七月; qīyuè; 'seventh month'between 23 July – 23 August
Month 88월 (팔월)Par-wol Rooster Month닭달Dak-dal8酉月; yǒuyuè; 'rooster month'八月; bāyuè; 'eighth month'between 23 August – 23 September
Month 99월 (구월)Gu-wol Dog Month개달Gae-dal9戌月; xūyuè; 'dog month'九月; jiǔyuè; 'ninth month'between 23 September – 23 October
Month 1010월 (시월)Shi-wol/ Si-wol Pig Month돼지달Dwae-ji-dal10亥月; hàiyuè; 'pig month'十月; shíyuè; 'tenth month'between 23 October – 22 November
Month 1111월 (십일월)Shi-bir-wol/ Shib-ir-wol Rat Month쥐달Jwi-dal11子月; zǐyuè; 'rat month'十一月; shíyīyuè; 'eleventh month'between 22 November – 22 December
Winter Solstice Month동짓달Dong-jit-dalCompare Chinese Dōngyuè , "Winter Month"
Month 1212월 (십이월)Shib-i-wol Ox Month소달So-dal12丑月; chǒuyuè; 'ox month'臘月; 腊月; làyuè; 'end-of-year month'between 22 December – 21 January
섣달Seot-dalCompare Chinese Làyuè , "preservation month"

Festivals

The lunar calendar is used for the observation of traditional festivals, such as Seollal, Chuseok, and Buddha's Birthday. It is also used for jesa memorial services for ancestors and the marking of birthdays by older Koreans.

Traditional holidays

FestivalSignificanceEventsDate (Lunar)Food
Seollal (설날)Lunar New Year's DayAn ancestral service is offered before the grave of the ancestors, New Year's greetings are exchanged with family, relatives and neighbors; bows to elders (sebae, 세배, Hanja: 歲拜), yut nori (윷놀이).Day 1 of Month 1rice cake soup ( tteokguk , 떡국), honey cakes ( yakgwa , 약과, Hanja: 藥果).
Daeboreum (대보름, 大보름)First full moonGreeting of the moon (dalmaji, 달맞이), kite-flying, burning talismans to ward off evil spirits (aengmagi taeugi, 액막이 태우기), bonfires (daljip taeugi, 달집 태우기).Day 15 of Month 1rice boiled with five grains (o-gok-bap, 오곡밥, Hanja: 五穀飯), eating nuts, e.g. walnuts, pine nuts, peanuts, chestnuts ( bureom , 부럼), wine drinking (gwibalgisul)
Meoseumnal ( 머슴날 )Festival for servantsHousecleaning, coming of age ceremony, fishermen's shaman rite (yeongdeunggut, 영등굿)Day 1 of Month 2stuffed pine-flavored rice cakes ( songpyeon , 송편)
Samjinnal (삼짇날)Migrant swallows returnLeg fighting, fortune telling.Day 3 of Month 3azalea wine (dugyeonju, 두견주, Hanja: 杜鵑酒), azalea rice cake (dugyeon hwajeon , 두견화전, Hanja: 杜鵑花煎)
Hansik/ Hanshik

(한식, Hanja: 寒食)

Beginning of farming seasonVisit to ancestral grave for offering rite, and cleaning and maintenance.Day 105 after winter solstice cold food only: mugwort cake (ssuktteok, 쑥떡), mugwort dumplings (ssukdanja, 쑥단자), mugwort soup (ssuktang, 쑥탕)
Chopail (Cho-pa-il)

(초파일, Hanja: 初八日)

or Seok-ga Tan-shin-il

(석가탄신일; Hanja: 釋迦誕生日)

Buddha's Birthday Yeondeunghoe (Lotus Lantern festival)Day 8 of Month 4rice cake (jjintteok, 찐떡), flower rice cake ( hwajeon , 화전, Hanja: 花煎)
Dano

(단오, Hanja: 端午) or Surit-nal (수릿날)

Spring festivalWashing hair with iris water, wrestling ( ssireum , 씨름), swinging, giving fans as giftsDay 5 of Month 5rice cake with herbs (surichwitteok, 수리취떡), herring soup (junchiguk, 준치국)
Yudu

(유두, Hanja: 流頭)

Water greetingWater greeting, washing hair to wash away bad luckDay 15 of Month 6Five coloured noodles (yudumyeon, 유두면), cooked rice cake (sudan, 수단, Hanja: 水團)
Chilseok

(칠석, Hanja: 七夕)

Meeting day of Gyeonwu and Jiknyeo, in Korean folk taleFabric weavingDay 7 of Month 7wheat pancake (miljeonbyeong, 밀전병), steamed rice cake with red beans ( sirutteok , 시루떡)
Baekjung

(백중, Hanja: 百中)

Worship to BuddhaWorship to Buddha.Day 15 of Month 7mixed rice cake (seoktanbyeong, 석탄병, Hanja: 惜呑餠)
Chuseok

(추석, Hanja: 秋夕)

Harvest festivalVisit to ancestral grave, ssireum, offering earliest rice grain (olbyeosinmi, 올벼신미, --新味), circle dance (ganggang sullae, 강강술래)Day 15 of Month 8pine-flavored rice cake stuffed with chestnuts, sesame or beans ( songpyeon , 송편), taro soup (torantang, 토란탕)
Jungyangjeol

(중양절, Hanja: 重陽節)

Migrant sparrows leaveCelebrating autumn with poetry and painting, composing poetry, enjoying natureDay 9 of Month 9chrysanthemum pancake (gukhwajeon, 국화전, 菊花煎), fish roe (eo-ran, 어란, Hanja: 魚卵), honey citron tea ( yuja-cheong , 유자청, Hanja: 柚子淸)
Dongji

(동지, Hanja: 冬至)

Winter Solstice Rites to dispel bad spirits.Around December 22 in the solar calendar red bean porridge with rice dumplings ( patjuk , 팥죽)
Seot-dal Geum-eum

(섣달그믐)

New Year's Eve Staying up all night long with all doors open to receive ancestral spiritsLast day of Month 12mixed rice with vegetables ( bibimbap , 비빔밥), bean powder rice cakes ( injeolmi , 인절미), traditional biscuits ( han-gwa , 한과, Hanja: 韓菓)

There are also many regional festivals celebrated according to the lunar calendar.

See also

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References

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  3. Reingold, Edward (2008). Calendrical Calculations. Cambridge University Press. 269. ISBN   9780521885409. ... Korea used the Chinese calendar for ...
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