Chinese era name

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Chinese calendar Lunisolar calendar from China

The traditional Chinese calendar (also known as the Agricultural Calendar [農曆; 农历; Nónglì; 'farming calendar'], Former Calendar [舊曆; 旧历; Jiùlì], Traditional Calendar [老曆; 老历; Lǎolì], is a lunisolar calendar which identifies years, months, and days according to astronomical phenomena. In China, it is defined by the Chinese national standard GB/T 33661–2017, "Calculation and Promulgation of the Chinese Calendar", issued by the Standardization Administration of China on May 12, 2017.

The Chinese sovereign was the ruler of a particular regime in ancient China and imperial China. Sovereigns ruling the same regime, and descended from the same paternal line, constituted a dynasty. Several titles and naming schemes have been used throughout Chinese history.

Emperor of China Sovereign of Imperial China

The emperor of China, or Huángdì, was the monarch of China during the imperial period of Chinese history. In traditional Chinese political theory, the emperor was considered the Son of Heaven and the autocrat of All under Heaven. Under the Han dynasty, Confucianism replaced Legalism as the official political theory and succession theoretically followed agnatic primogeniture. The succession of emperors in a paternal family line constituted a dynasty.

A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles which had been used during the person's life. The posthumous name is commonly used when naming royalty of China, Korea, Vietnam, Japan, and Thailand.

Hongwu was a Chinese era name (nianhao) of the Ming dynasty. This period spanned the years from 23 January 1368 to 5 February 1399. The reigning emperor was the Hongwu Emperor (洪武帝), the first Ming emperor. Hongwu was also the first Ming dynasty's era name.

Korean era names were titles adopted in historical Korea for the purpose of year identification and numbering. Era names were used during the period of Silla, Goguryeo, Balhae, Taebong, Goryeo, Joseon, and the Korean Empire. Various Korean regimes officially adopted the era names of Chinese dynasties.

Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From the inauguration of dynastic rule by Yu the Great in circa 2070 BC to the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor on 12 February 1912 in the wake of the Xinhai Revolution, China was ruled by a series of successive dynasties. Dynasties of China were not limited to those established by ethnic Han—the dominant Chinese ethnic group—and its predecessor, the Huaxia tribal confederation, but also included those founded by non-Han peoples.

A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule. Regnal years considered the date as an ordinal, not a cardinal number. For example, a monarch could have a first year of rule, a second year of rule, a third year of rule, and so on, but not a zeroth year of rule.

Heirloom Seal of the Realm Chinese seal carved from jade

The Heirloom Seal of the Realm, also known in English as the Imperial Seal of China, is a Chinese jade seal carved out of Heshibi, a sacred piece of jade.

Korean yang

The yang (양/兩) was the currency of Korea between 1892 and 1902. It was subdivided into 10 jeon (전/錢) or 100 bun (분/分); and 5 yang = 1 hwan (환/圜).

Empire of China (1915–1916) Attempt at restoration of monarchy in China

The Empire of China was a short-lived attempt by statesman, general and president Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916 to reinstate monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor. The attempt was unsuccessful; it set back the Chinese republican cause by many years and fractured China into a period of conflict between various local warlords.

Ancient Chinese coinage Coin production and deployment of ancient China

Ancient Chinese coinage includes some of the earliest known coins. These coins, used as early as the Spring and Autumn period (770–476 BCE), took the form of imitations of the cowrie shells that were used in ceremonial exchanges. The same period also saw the introduction of the first metal coins; however, they were not initially round, instead being either knife shaped or spade shaped. Round metal coins with a round, and then later square hole in the center were first introduced around 350 BCE. The beginning of the Qin Dynasty (221–206 BCE), the first dynasty to unify China, saw the introduction of a standardised coinage for the whole Empire. Subsequent dynasties produced variations on these round coins throughout the imperial period. At first the distribution of the coinage was limited to use around the capital city district, but by the beginning of the Han Dynasty, coins were widely used for such things as paying taxes, salaries and fines.

Republic of China calendar Calender used in Taiwan

The Republic of China calendar or Minguo calendar is one of the calendars used in Taiwan. The calendar uses 1912, the year of the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC), as the first year. The term "minguo" simply means "republic". The ROC calendar follows the tradition of using the sovereign's era name and year of reign, as did previous Chinese dynasties. Months and days are numbered according to the Gregorian calendar. The ROC calendar has been in wide use in the ROC since 1912, including in early official documents.

This is a family tree of Chinese emperors from the Yuan dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty.

Emperor at home, king abroad was a system of conducting relations between states within the East Asian cultural sphere. Rulers of non-Chinese regimes would use the title of emperor domestically and adopt the title of king (王) when dealing with China. Instead of using the styles Imperial Majesty and Majesty (陛下), rulers of non-Chinese realms were to be known as Highness (殿下). This system was applicable to Japan, Korea and Vietnam, among others.

Monarchy of China Form of government in historical China

China was a monarchy from prehistoric times up to 1912 CE, when the Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty in favor of the Republic of China. The succession of mythological monarchs of China were non-hereditary. Dynastic rule began in circa 2070 BCE when Yu the Great established the Xia dynasty, and lasted until 1912 CE when dynastic rule collapsed together with the monarchical system.

References

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Chinese era name
Traditional Chinese 年號
Simplified Chinese 年号
Hanyu Pinyin niánhào
Literal meaningyear name